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Download Link Archives - opinion

Archiving URLs

Links on the Internet last forever or a year, whichever comes first. This is a major problem for anyone serious about writing with good references, as link rot will cripple several% of all links each year, and compounding.

To deal with link rot, I present my multi-pronged archival strategy using a combination of scripts, daemons, and Internet archival services: URLs are regularly dumped from both my web browser’s daily browsing and my website pages into an archival daemon I wrote, which pre-emptively downloads copies locally and attempts to archive them in the Internet Archive. This ensures a copy will be available indefinitely from one of several sources. Link rot is then detected by regular runs of, and any newly dead links can be immediately checked for alternative locations, or restored from one of the archive sources.

As an additional flourish, my local archives are efficiently cryptographically timestamped using Bitcoin in case forgery is a concern, and I demonstrate a simple compression trick for substantially reducing sizes of large web archives such as crawls (particularly useful for repeated crawls such as my DNM archives).

Given my interest in long term content and extensive linking, link rot is an issue of deep concern to me. I need backups not just for my files1⁠, but for the web pages I read and use—they’re all part of my exomind⁠. It’s not much good to have an extensive essay on some topic where half the links are dead and the reader can neither verify my claims nor get context for my claims.

“Decay is inherent in all compound things. Work out your own salvation with diligence.”

Last words of the Buddha

The dimension of digital decay is dismal and distressing. Wikipedia:

In a 2003 experiment, Fetterly et al. discovered that about one link out of every 200 disappeared each week from the Internet. McCown et al 2005discovered that half of the URLs cited inD-Lib Magazine articles were no longer accessible 10 years after publication [the irony!], and other studies have shown link rot in academic literature to be even worse (Spinellis, 2003⁠, Lawrence et al., 2001). Nelson and Allen (2002) examined link rot in digital libraries and found that about 3% of the objects were no longer accessible after one year.

Bruce Schneier remarks that one friend experienced 50% linkrot in one of his pages over less than 9 years (not that the situation was any better in 1998), and that his own blog posts link to news articles that go dead in days2⁠; Vitorio checks bookmarks from 1997⁠, finding that hand-checking indicates a total link rot of 91% with only half of the dead available in sources like the Internet Archive; Ernie Smith found 1 semi-working link in a 1994 book about the Internet; the Internet Archive itself has estimated the average lifespan of a Web page at 100 days⁠. A Science study looked at articles in prestigious journals; they didn’t use many Internet links, but when they did, 2 years later ~13% were dead3⁠. The French company Linterweb studied external links on the French Wikipedia before setting up their cache of French external links, and found—back in 2008—already 5% were dead⁠. (The English Wikipedia has seen a 2010–January 2011 spike from a few thousand dead links to ~110,000 out of ~17.5m live links⁠.) A followup check of the viral The Million Dollar Homepage⁠, where it cost up to $53$382006k to insert a link by the last insertion on January 2006, found that a decade later in 2017, at least half the links were dead or squatted.4 Bookmarking website Pinboard⁠, which provides some archiving services, noted in August 2014 that 17% of 3-year-old links & 25% of 5-year-old links were dead. The dismal studiesjustgoon and on and on (and on). Even in a highly stable, funded, curated environment, link rot happens anyway. For example, about 11% of Arab Spring-related tweets were gone within a year (even though Twitter is—currently—still around). And sometimes they just get quietly lost, like when MySpace admitted it lost all music worldwide uploaded 2003–2015⁠, euphemistically describing the mass deletion as “We completely rebuilt MySpace and decided to move over some of your content from the old MySpace” (only some of the 2008–2010 MySpace music could be rescued & put on the IA by “an anonymous academic study”).

My specific target date is 2070, 60 years from now. As of 2011-03-10, Gwern.net has around 6800 external links (with around 2200 to non-Wikipedia websites)5⁠. Even at the lowest estimate of 3% annual linkrot, few will survive to 2070. If each link has a 97% chance of surviving each year, then the chance a link will be alive in 2070 is 0.972070−2011 ≈ 0.16 (or to put it another way, an 84% chance any given link will die). The 95% confidence interval for such a binomial distribution says that of the 2200 non-Wikipedia links, ~336–394 will survive to 20706⁠. If we try to predict using a more reasonable estimate of 50% linkrot, then an average of 0 links will survive (0.502070-2011 × 2200 = 1.735 × 10-16 × 2200 a ≅ 0). It would be a good idea to simply assume that no link will survive.

With that in mind, one can consider remedies. (If we lie to ourselves and say it won’t be a problem in the future, then we guarantee that it will be a problem. “People can stand what is true, for they are already enduring it.”)

If you want to pre-emptivelyarchive a specific page, that is easy: go to the IA and archive it, or in your web browser, print a PDF of it, or for more complex pages, use a browser plugin (egScrapBook). But I find I visit and link so many web pages that I rarely think in advance of link rot to save a copy; what I need is a more systematic approach to detect and create links for all web pages I might need.

“With every new spring
the blossoms speak not a word
yet expound the Law—
knowing what is at its heart
by the scattering storm winds.”

Shōtetsu7

The first remedy is to learn about broken links as soon as they happen, which allows one to react quickly and scrape archives or search engine caches (‘lazy preservation’). I currently use to spider Gwern.net looking for broken links. is run in a cron job like so:

Just this command would turn up many false positives. For example, there would be several hundred warnings on Wikipedia links because I link to redirects; and respects robots.txts which forbid it to check liveness, but emits a warning about this. These can be suppressed by editing to say (the available warning classes are listed in ).

The quicker you know about a dead link, the sooner you can look for replacements or its new home.

Remote caching

“Anything you post on the internet will be there as long as it’s embarrassing and gone as soon as it would be useful.”

taejo

We can ask a third party to keep a cache for us. There are several archive site possibilities:

  1. the Internet Archive
  2. WebCite
  3. Perma.cc (highly limited⁠; has lost some archives)
  4. Linterweb’s WikiWix8⁠.
  5. Peeep.us (defunct as of 2018)
  6. Archive.is
  7. Pinboard (with the $22/​​year archiving option9)

There are other options but they are not available like Google10 or various commercial/​government archives11

(An example would be being archived at ⁠.)

These archives are also good for archiving your own website:

  1. you may be keeping backups of it, but your own website/​​server backups can be lost (I can speak from personal experience here), so it’s good to have external copies
  2. Another benefit is the reduction in ‘bus-factor’: if you were hit by a bus tomorrow, who would get your archives and be able to maintain the websites and understand the backups etc? While if archived in IA, people already know how to get copies and there are tools to download entire domains.
  3. A focus on backing up only one’s website can blind one to the need for archiving the external links as well. Many pages are meaningless or less valuable with broken links. A linkchecker script/​​daemon can also archive all the external links.

So there are several benefits to doing web archiving beyond simple server backups.

My first program in this vein of thought was a bot which fired off WebCite, Internet Archive/​Alexa, & Archive.is requests: Wikipedia Archiving Bot⁠, quickly followed up by a RSS version⁠. (Or you could install the Alexa Toolbar to get automatic submission to the Internet Archive, if you have ceased to care about privacy.)

The core code was quickly adapted into a gitit wiki plugin which hooked into the save-page functionality and tried to archive every link in the newly-modified page, Interwiki.hs

Finally, I wrote archiver⁠, a daemon which watches12⁠/​reads a text file. Source is available via . (A similar tool is Archiveror⁠; the Python package does something similar & as of January 2021 is probably better.)

The library half of is a simple wrapper around the appropriate HTTP requests; the executable half reads a specified text file and loops as it (slowly) fires off requests and deletes the appropriate URL.

That is, is a daemon which will process a specified text file, each line of which is a URL, and will one by one request that the URLs be archived or spidered

Usage of might look like . In the past, would sometimes crash for unknown reasons, so I usually wrap it in a loop like so: . If I wanted to put it in a detached GNU screen session: . Finally, rather than start it manually, I use a cron job to start it at boot, for a final invocation of

Local caching

Remote archiving, while convenient, has a major flaw: the archive services cannot keep up with the growth of the Internet and are woefully incomplete. I experience this regularly, where a link on Gwern.net goes dead and I cannot find it in the Internet Archive or WebCite, and it is a general phenomenon: Ainsworth et al 2012 find <35% of common Web pages ever copied into an archive service, and typically only one copy exists.

Caching Proxy

The most ambitious & total approach to local caching is to set up a proxy to do your browsing through, and record literally all your web traffic; for example, using Live Archiving Proxy (LAP) or WarcProxy which will save as WARC files every page you visit through it. (Zachary Vanceexplains how to set up a local HTTPS certificate to MITM your HTTPS browsing as well.)

One may be reluctant to go this far, and prefer something lighter-weight, such as periodically extracting a list of visited URLs from one’s web browser and then attempting to archive them.

Batch job downloads

For a while, I used a shell script named, imaginatively enough, :

The code is not the prettiest, but it’s fairly straightforward:

  1. the script grabs my Firefox browsing history by extracting it from the history SQL database file13, and feeds the URLs intowget⁠.

    is not the best tool for archiving as it will not run JavaScript or Flash or download videos etc. It will download included JS files but the JS will be obsolete when run in the future and any dynamic content will be long gone. To do better would require a headless browser like PhantomJSwhich saves to MHT/​​MHTML, but PhantomJSrefuses to support it and I’m not aware of an existing package to do this. In practice, static content is what is most important to archive, most JS is of highly questionable value in the first place, and any important YouTube videos can be archived manually with , so ’s limitations haven’t been so bad.

  2. The script s the long list of URLs into a bunch of files and runs that manys in parallel because apparently has no way of simultaneously downloading from multiple domains. There’s also the chance of hanging indefinitely, so parallel downloads continues to make progress.

  3. The command is another shell script, which removes URLs I don’t want archived. This script is a hack which looks like this:

  4. delete any particularly large (>4MB) files which might be media files like videos or audios (podcasts are particular offenders)

A local copy is not the best resource—what if a link goes dead in a way your tool cannot detect so you don’t know to put up your copy somewhere? But it solves the problem decisively.

The downside of this script’s batch approach soon became apparent to me:

  1. not automatic: you have to remember to invoke it and it only provides a single local archive, or if you invoke it regularly as a cron job, you may create lots of duplicates.
  2. unreliable: may hang, URLs may be archived too late, it may not be invoked frequently enough, >4MB non-video/​​audio files are increasingly common…
  3. I wanted copies in the Internet Archive & elsewhere as well to let other people benefit and provide redundancy to my local archive

It was to fix these problems that I began working on —which would run constantly archiving URLs in the background, archive them into the IA as well, and be smarter about media file downloads. It has been much more satisfactory.

Daemon

has an extra feature where any third argument is treated as an arbitrary command to run after each URL is archived, to which is appended said URL.You might use this feature if you wanted to load each URL into Firefox, or append them to a log file, or simply download or archive the URL in some other way.

For example, instead of a big run, I have run on each individual URL:. (For private URLs which require logins, such asdarknet markets⁠, can still grab them with some help: installing the Firefox extension Export Cookies⁠, logging into the site in Firefox like usual, exporting one’s , and adding the option to give it access to the cookies.)

Alternately, you might use or a specialized archive downloader like the Internet Archive’s crawler Heritrix⁠.

Cryptographic timestamping local archives

We may want cryptographic timestamping to prove that we created a file or archive at a particular date and have not since altered it. Using a timestamping service’s API, I’ve written 2 shell scripts which implement downloading () and timestamping strings or files (). With these scripts, extending the archive bot is as simple as changing the shell command:

Now every URL we download is automatically cryptographically timestamped with ~1-day resolution for free.

Resource consumption

The space consumed by such a backup is not that bad; only 30–50 gigabytes for a year of browsing, and less depending on how hard you prune the downloads. (More, of course, if you use to archive entire sites and not just the pages you visit.) Storing this is quite viable in the long term; while page sizes have increased 7× between 2003 and 2011 and pages average around 400kb14⁠, Kryder’s law has also been operating and has increased disk capacity by ~128×—in 2011, $106$802011 will buy you at least 2 terabytes⁠, that works out to 4 cents a gigabyte or 80 cents for the low estimate for downloads; that is much better than the annual fee that somewhere like Pinboard charges. Of course, you need to back this up yourself. We’re relatively fortunate here—most Internet documents are ‘born digital’ and easy to migrate to new formats or inspect in the future. We can download them and worry about how to view them only when we need a particular document, and Web browser backwards-compatibility already stretches back to files written in the early 1990s. (Of course, we’re probably screwed if we discover the content we wanted was dynamically presented only in Adobe Flash or as an inaccessible ‘cloud’ service.) In contrast, if we were trying to preserve programs or software libraries instead, we would face a much more formidable task in keeping a working ladder of binary-compatible virtual machines or interpreters15⁠. The situation with digital movie preservation hardly bears thinking on.

There are ways to cut down on the size; if you tar it all up and run 7-Zip with maximum compression options, you could probably compact it to 1⁄5th the size. I found that the uncompressed files could be reduced by around 10% by using fdupes to look for duplicate files and turning the duplicates into a space-saving hard link to the original with a command like . (Apparently there are a lot of bit-identical JavaScript (eg. JQuery) and images out there.)

Good filtering of URL sources can help reduce URL archiving count by a large amount.Examining my manual backups of Firefox browsing history, over the 1153 days from 2014-02-25 to 2017-04-22, I visited 2,370,111 URLs or 2055 URLs per day; after passing through my filtering script, that leaves 171,446 URLs, which after de-duplication yields 39,523 URLs or ~34 unique URLs per day or 12,520 unique URLs per year to archive.

This shrunk my archive by 9GB from 65GB to 56GB, although at the cost of some archiving fidelity by removing many filetypes like CSS or JavaScript or GIF images. As of 2017-04-22, after ~6 years of archiving, between compression (at the cost of easy searchability), aggressive filtering, occasional manual deletion of overly bulky domains I feel are probably adequately covered in the IA etc, my full WWW archives weigh 55GB.

URL sources

Browser history

There are a number of ways to populate the source text file. For example, I have a script :

( is the same script as in . If I don’t want a domain locally, I’m not going to bother with remote backups either. In fact, because of WebCite’s rate-limiting, is almost perpetually back-logged, and I especially don’t want it wasting time on worthless links like 4chan⁠.)

This is called every hour by :

This gets all visited URLs in the last time period and prints them out to the file for archiver to process. Hence, everything I browse is backed-up through.

Non-Firefox browsers can be supported with similar strategies; for example, Zachary Vance’s Chromium scripts likewise extracts URLs from Chromium’sSQL history & bookmarks⁠.

Document links

More useful perhaps is a script to extract external links from Markdown files and print them to standard out: link-extractor.hs

So now I can take , pass the 100 or so Markdown files in my wiki as arguments, and add the thousand or so external links to the archiver queue (eg. ); they will eventually be archived/​backed up.

Website spidering

Sometimes a particular website is of long-term interest to one even if one has not visited everypage on it; one could manually visit them and rely on the previous Firefox script to dump the URLs into but this isn’t always practical or time-efficient. inherently spiders the websites it is turned upon, so it’s not a surprise that it can build a site mapor simply spit out all URLs on a domain; unfortunately, whilehas the ability to output in a remarkable variety of formats, it cannot simply output a newline-delimited list of URLs, so we need to post-process the output considerably. The following is the shell one-liner I use when I want to archive an entire site (note that this is a bad command to run on a large or heavily hyper-linked site like the English Wikipedia orLessWrong!); edit the target domain as necessary:

When does not work, one alternative is to do a and extract the URLs from the filenames—list all the files and prefix with a “http:/​/​” etc.

combined with a tool like means that there will rarely be any broken links on Gwern.net since one can either find a live link or use the archived version. In theory, one has multiple options now:

  1. Search for a copy on the live Web

  2. link the Internet Archive copy

  3. link the WebCite copy

  4. link the WikiWix copy

  5. use the dump

    If it’s been turned into a full local file-based version with , one can easily convert the dump into something like a standalone PDF suitable for public distribution. (A PDF is easier to store and link than the original directory of bits and pieces or other HTML formats like a ZIP archive of said directory.)

    I use which does a good job; an example of a dead webpage with no Internet mirrors is which can be found at ⁠, or Sternberg et al’s 2001 review “The Predictive Value of IQ”⁠.

  • (library for submission to , , , Megalodon, WebCite, & IA)

  • Memento meta-archive search engine (for checking IA & other archives)

  • Archive-It -(by the Internet Archive); donate to the IA

  • Pinboard

  • “Testing 3 million hyperlinks, lessons learned”⁠, Stack Exchange

  • “Backup All The Things”⁠, muflax

  • Tesoro (archive service; discussion)

  • “Digital Resource Lifespan”⁠, XKCD

  • “Archiving web sites”, LWN

  • software:

  • Hacker News discussion

  • “Indeed, it seems that Google is forgetting the old Web” (HN)

  • “The Lost Picture Show: Hollywood Archivists Can’t Outpace Obsolescence—Studios invested heavily in magnetic-tape storage for film archiving but now struggle to keep up with the technology”

  • “Use the internet, not just companies”⁠, Derek Sivers

Cryptographic timestamping

Due to length, this section has been moved to a separate page⁠.

A raw dump of URLs, while certainly archivable, will typically result in a very large mirror of questionable value (is it really necessary to archive Google search queries or Wikipedia articles? usually, no) and worse, given the rate-limiting necessary to store URLs in the Internet Archive or other services, may wind up delaying the archiving of the important links & risking their total loss. Disabling the remote archiving is unacceptable, so the best solution is to simply take a little time to manually blacklist various domains or URL patterns.

This blacklisting can be as simple as a command like , but can be much more elaborate. The following shell script is the skeleton of my own custom blacklist, derived from manually filtering through several years of daily browsing as well as spiders of dozens of websites for various people & purposes, demonstrating a variety of possible techniques: regexps for domains & file-types & query-strings, -based rewrites, fixed-string matches (both blacklists and whitelists), etc:

can be used on one’s local archive to save space by deleting files which may be downloaded by as dependencies. For example:

key compression trick

Programming folklore notes that one way to get better lossless compression efficiency is by the precompression trick of rearranging files inside the archive to group ‘similar’ files together and expose redundancy to the compressor, in accordance with information-theoretical principles. A particularly easy and broadly-applicable way of doing this, which does not require using any unusual formats or tools and is fully compatible with the default archive methods, is to sort the files by filename and especially file extension. I show how to do this with the standard Unix command-line tool, using the so-called “ trick”, and give examples of the large space-savings possible from my archiving work for personal website mirrors and for making darknet market mirror datasets where the redundancy at the file level is particularly extreme and the trick shines compared to the naive approach.

Moved to “The Sort Key Trick”⁠.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Unity download archive

Unity ID

A Unity ID allows you to buy and/or subscribe to Unity products and services, shop in the Asset Store and participate in the Unity community.

Log inCreate a Unity ID

From this page you can download the previous versions of Unity for both Unity Personal and Pro (if you have a Pro license, enter in your key when prompted after installation). Please note that we don’t support downgrading a project to an older editor version. However, you can import projects into a new editor version. We advise you to back up your project before converting and check the console log for any errors or warnings after importing.

Long Term Support releases

The LTS stream is for users who wish to continue to develop and ship their games/content and stay on a stable version for an extended period.

Download LTS releases

21 Jan, 2021

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Free access to digital records

We are making digital records available on our website free of charge for the time being, while our reading room services are limited.

Registered users will be able to order and download up to ten items at a time, to a maximum of 100 items over 30 days. The limits are there to try to help manage the demand for content and ensure the availability of our digital services for everyone.

To access the service and download for free, users will be required to:

  • Register/sign in to their Discovery account before adding items to their basket (maximum ten items per basket)
  • Abide by the terms of our fair use policy
  • Complete the order process to receive a download link, which will remain active for 30 days. (The link will also be saved in ‘Your orders’ in your account for 30 days)

Our usual terms of use still apply – digital copies can be downloaded for non-commercial private use and educational purposes only, and bulk downloads and web crawlers are not permitted.

How can I download documents for free?

You will be required to register for a free account on our website and be logged in to be able to download documents.

To find records that are available to download for free, filter your search results in Discovery to include records that are ‘available for download only’.

What sort of documents can I download?

You will be able to download records digitised by The National Archives and published through Discovery, our online catalogue. These include:

  • First and Second World War records, including medal index cards
  • Military records, including unit war diaries
  • Royal and Merchant Navy records, including Royal Marine service records
  • Wills from the jurisdiction of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury
  • Migration records, including aliens’ registration cards and naturalisation case papers
  • 20th century Cabinet Papers and Security Service files
  • Domesday Book

A full list of digitised collections can be seen here, although please note that it includes collections available on other sites that may charge for access, and are not included in this offer.

Does this apply to all digital records that are searchable in Discovery?

No, as not all digital records searchable in Discovery are available on our website.

The free access will apply to the digitised collections on our website, but it will not extend to our collections on other sites run by our commercial partners, such as Ancestry, Findmypast and The Genealogist. These sites are usually free to search with a subscription charge to view and download records, although most offer a 14-day free trial and some are currently offering selected free access to their collections.

How many documents can I download at one time?

We’ll be limiting the number of items that users can download at one time to ensure that our systems remain accessible to as many people as possible.

Our fair and reasonable use policy applies, and states the following:

  • The National Archives permits registered users to order and download a reasonable number of documents for free and has set a maximum order limit of 100 documents in a 30-day period.
  • In order to maintain the integrity of the service for everyone, and ensure that as many people as possible can benefit from it, we reserve the right to disable users’ accounts where there is a breach of this fair use policy.
  • We reserve the right to change the maximum number of items ordered in a 30-day period and revise these terms of use from time to time.

Are there restrictions as to how I can use a downloaded document/image?

Yes, our usual terms of use will still apply – digital copies can be downloaded for non-commercial private use and educational purposes only, and bulk downloads and web crawlers are not permitted.

Can I get help in finding and downloading documents?

We have a wide range of research guides to help you navigate your way through our online catalogue.

You can also find podcasts and videos on our Archives Media Player, along with a number of different blogs on our website.

Our live chat service, which provides one-to-one expert research advice, is available between 09:00 and 17:00, from Tuesday to Saturday.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Archives for offline viewing


For convenience, several versions of the wiki suitable for offline viewing are available.

[edit]Html book

This html book is an offline copy of the website with unnecessary UI elements stripped out. Choose this if you just want to access cppreference.com via a browser while without internet connection.

[edit]Raw archive

This archive is a raw copy created using Wget. Note that this archive is not useful for viewing as-is, please use the HTML book instead. Note: the utility scripts and a makefile are contained in this package, so it can be used as full upstream source.

[edit]Unofficial Release

An unofficial fork that is updated more frequently can be found in this git repository.

[edit]Devhelp book

Devhelp is a documentation browser for GTK/Gnome.

The book is available as package in the official Debian and Ubuntu repositories.

For arch users, the package could be found here, which can be installed from AUR by tools like yaourt.

[edit]Qt help book

is a documentation format for use in the Qt tools such as QtCreator or Qt Assistant.

The book below contains a version of the html book, adapted for use with the Qt tools. Search also works.

Note: Old versions of QtCreator or QtAssistant display the documentation improperly. If you see bad formatting, please update these programs. The oldest versions that display the contents correctly are QtCreator v3.0 and QtAssistant v4.8.6.

The book is available as package in the official Debian and Ubuntu repositories.

The book is also provided by AUR package cppreference-qt for Arch Linux users.

[edit]Doxygen tag file

Doxygen is a tool to automatically generate documentation from source code comments. It supports automatic linking of C++ names to external documentation via tag file functionality. Two tag files are provided in the "html book" archive mentioned above:

  • local: use the file to link to the local "html book" archive at the default install location.
  • web: to link directly to the cppreference.com website.


In order to support external cppreference documentation, Doxyfile needs to be modified as follows:

  • If the link target is local archive, add the following line:
  • If the link target is cppreference.com, add the following line:

[edit]Manpages

Automatically generated man pages are maintained here. Installation notes are included in the README and updates follow the offline archive releases.

[edit]Bugs

All bugs in the offline archives should be reported either to the talk page or to the issues page of the cppreference-doc github project.

[edit]See also

The utility scripts are maintained in this git repository.

The debian packaging information is maintained in this git repository.

An independently-maintained CHM (Windows help) archive can be found in this git repository.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Accessing Electronic Records Online via the National Archives Catalog

These frequently asked questions only pertain to the selection of permanent Federal electronic records in the custody of the Electronic Records Division and accessible via the National Archives Catalog.

I. Basic questions about accessing and downloading electronic records from the Catalog

I.1. What electronic records are accessible from the Catalog?

Here is a list of electronic records series described in the Catalog.  About 37% of the series have records accessible in the Catalog.  If the records for that series are accessible in the Catalog, there will be a note at the top of the description along the lines of "The unrestricted records in this series are available online.  Hyperlinks to the records are available in the Details section below."

I.2. What components of electronic records are available for access and download from the Catalog?

There are the files containing the electronic records. This includes both data files and unstructured records (i.e. narrative text in a PDF).

Data files and other structured electronic records usually also include:

  • Technical Specifications Summary - This lists the files available for download for a specific series or file unit description, along with the formats and sizes (metadata) of the files.
     
  • Technical documentation - This includes record layouts, field descriptions, code lists, user notes, and other agency materials needed to interpret the data and/or use the files.

I.3. How do I find electronic records and technical documentation files that are available for access from the Catalog?

  1. Go to the Catalog main page at: www.archives.gov/research/catalog/.
  2. Conduct a search for the records of interest to you. You can search by keyword, National Archives Identifier (NAID), or type of archival material.
    • ► For descriptions of records in the custody of the Electronic Records Division, you can create an advance search to limit the results to the location of archival materials at "National Archives at College Park - Electronic Records."
  3. If you locate a description of records of interest to you, select to view the full description.
    • ► Series descriptions may have a "not available online" icon next to the title, even though some of the records may be available online. If you select to view a series description, go to step 4.
    • ► Descriptions with electronic records attached may have a paper icon or thumbnail of the image next to the title. If you select to view one of these descriptions, go to step 7.
  4. If you selected a series description, then it may have the message: "This series contains records, some of which may not be available online." If files are available from the catalog for download, then they are attached to the file unit description for that series or to the item descriptions for those file units.
  5. Under the "Includes:" field, click on the link "n file unit(s) described in the catalog" for a list of the file unit descriptions within that series.
  6. From the results, select the file unit description of interest to you.  
    •  File unit descriptions with electronic records attached may have a paper icon or thumbnail of the image next to the title. If you select to view one of these descriptions, go to step 7.
    • ► Other file unit descriptions may have the message "This File Unit contains records, some of which may not be available online." If files are available from the catalog, then they may be attached to item descriptions. Under the "Includes:" field, click on the link "n item(s) described in the catalog" for a list of the items within that file unit.  Select the item description of interest to you.
  7. The files available for viewing/downloading are listed or displayed at the beginning of the file unit or item description. 
  8. For data files and documentation, click on the "view/download" link to view and download the file (usually only available for files in PDF) or click "download" link to save/download the file.  PDF records will display in the viewer with the option to download the file.

Alternatively, after running a search, you can click on the "Available Online" refinement above the search results to view only those descriptions with digital or digitized records attached.

Files that are available online for searching via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource will have a link in the "Online Resource(s)" field of the description.

I.4. How do I download or save the files?

Some of the electronic records files currently available for download consist of raw data. The data are in a software-independent format so you can use the records with your own software. Most of these files do not contain a contemporary standard file extension that indicates the format or type of file. These files are usually not appropriate for viewing within the browser.

The Technical Specifications Summary and technical documentation (see above) provide information about the format of the files. We suggest reviewing the Technical Specifications Summary and technical documentation before downloading the electronic records files. Depending on your browser, the option to save files identified as download only may appear as "Do you want to open or save this file?", "You have chosen to open:" or "Save As". We recommend you save the file to your computer and then open the file using the appropriate software available to you. If given the option, we suggest saving files that do not have a contemporary standard file extension as "All Files."

Some files are available as a compressed WinZip (.zip) file. While the compressed file contains the standard .zip extension, the file(s) within the WinZip file may or may not contain contemporary standard file extensions.

For series containing unstructured records (i.e. PDF), you can download the file using the download icon in the lower left of the viewer. 

I.5. Can I download or save all the files in a series at the same time?

No. The catalog currently does not allow for downloading all the files or digital objects within a file unit or series at the same time. You have to go to each file unit description to download each file separately.

I.6. What software programs or applications do I use with the structured data files?

Please refer to the Technical Specifications Summary and the technical documentation for details on the formats of the data files.

In general, the data files are in a software-independent format so you may use the files with whatever appropriate software is available to you. For example, files containing raw structured data may be used in various spreadsheet and database programs. Files containing ASCII text may be used with various word-processing, spreadsheet, and database programs. Files in HTML or XML may be used in various word-processing or database programs, or may be best used in a program that reads HTML or XML coding.

For files that do not have a contemporary standard file extension, you may need to first open the appropriate program you wish to use and then open the file within that program or import the data into that program. The specific steps for opening the files depends on your operating system, the specific program, and the file itself.

Some files may be in a non-contemporary format or in a software-dependent format, but the software may no longer be available. You may need to reformat these files before you can use them with current programs or applications.

See Introduction to Raw Data for more details about using files containing raw structured data.

Other files may be in a format that requires specific software applications in order to use them. For example, files containing digital cartographic data or geospatial data (e.g. shape files) are most suitable for use in geographic information systems.

II. Additional questions about technical documentation available from the Catalog

II.1. What is the Technical Specifications Summary?

The Technical Specifications Summary (TSS) is a list or manifest of all the structured electronic records files available online for a series or file unit description. This list includes the technical metadata for each file, such as the byte count, file format, record length (for fixed-length records), number of records, and file identifiers and names. This technical metadata is usually needed for using the files after they have been downloaded. For example, technical metadata can help users determine the appropriate software to use with the file.

II.2. What is technical documentation?

Technical documentation consists of the materials needed to interpret raw data or otherwise use the electronic records. These materials may include agency-prepared record layouts, field descriptions, code lists or meanings, user notes, and the sample questionnaires or forms the agency used to collect the data. The technical documentation also usually includes NARA- prepared materials such as user notes, list of documentation, and sample printouts of the data files. Sometimes the technical documentation is in the form of a code book, user manual, or data dictionary. In some cases, the agency transferred and NARA preserved some or all of the documentation in electronic format.

For some series of electronic records there may be supplemental documentation. Supplemental documentation consists of materials related to the electronic records, but usually not necessary for using or interpreting them. Examples of supplemental documentation include frequency counts, tabulations or other statistical reports, printouts of software programming, and printed narrative reports about or related to the records.

NARA selected from the technical and/or supplemental documentation the materials most necessary and helpful for using and understanding the electronic records. Where NARA originally received this material in paper format, NARA has scanned it to make it available online. While every effort was made to produce the best quality scans of the paper technical documentation, the readability and visual quality of the original documentation varies and that is reflected in the digitized copies. In general, NARA did not scan most supplemental documentation and processing materials. Those materials are not online, but are available upon request.

II.3. Is all the documentation the same for all files in a series?

It depends. For some series, the same documentation applies to all the files. Therefore the same technical documentation files may be attached to multiple file unit descriptions.

For other series, the documentation is specific to one or a few of the files. In this case, the documentation will only be attached to the relevant file unit description(s).

The Technical Specifications Summary lists the unique documentation files for a series or file unit. Users may wish to check the Technical Specifications Summary to ensure they have obtained all the necessary documentation.

II.4. Are any of the code lists or other documentation available in a database or other format that may be manipulated?

For series or files where the agency transferred code lists or other documentation in a database or other manipulable format, those files are available for downloading along with the other technical documentation files. In some cases, there are data files that also serve as code lists. These files may be listed as electronic records files instead of technical documentation files.

For the electronic records series also available for online search and record-level retrieval via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource at www.archives.gov/aad, you can download the code lists from AAD in a comma-separated value (CSV) format.

II.5. May I obtain the technical documentation by means other than downloading the files?

Yes. You may order photocopies of the paper documentation and copies of electronic documentation files as transferred by the agency for a cost-recovery fee. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records and/or contact us.

III. Additional questions about electronic records available from the Catalog

III.1. Are all accessioned electronic records files within a series available from the catalog?

No, not all files in a series may be available from the catalog. Only the electronic records files and technical documentation in a series that are unrestricted or public use versions are available for online access. Please see the access and/or use restrictions fields in the series and/or file unit descriptions.

In addition, when NARA has accessioned multiple versions of a file, typically only the most recent version will be made available online. If NARA has custody of a file in both a contemporary or software-independent format and a non-contemporary or software-dependent format, then usually only the contemporary or software-independent format is available online.

III.2. What are the formats of the data files that are available online?

The electronic records files available online were created and preserved in a variety of formats. Whenever possible, NARA has preserved the electronic records files in a software-independent format.

For files in most formats, NARA provides exact copies of the files. However, for some of the structured data files preserved in standard EBCDIC encoding with fixed-length records, NARA auto-converted them into ASCII encoding when possible and added record delimiters as part of preparing the files for online access. Similarly, NARA added record delimiters to structured data files preserved in ASCII with fixed-length records.

III.3. May I access accessioned electronic records by means other than downloading?

Yes. You may order reproductions of unrestricted electronic records files on removable media (such as CD or DVD) for a cost-recovery fee. You can also order copies of the technical documentation. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records and/or contact us.

You can search and retrieve individual electronic records from a selection of archival structured databases online via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource at www.archives.gov/aad.

VI. Contact Information

Reference Services
Electronic Records
National Archives at College Park
8601 Adelphi Road
College Park, MD 20740-6001
(301) 837-0470
email: cer@nara.gov

October 2021

Electronic Records Main Page

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Archiving URLs

Links on the Internet last forever or a year, whichever comes first. This is a major problem for anyone serious about writing with good references, as link rot will cripple several% of all links each year, and Download Link Archives deal with link rot, I present my multi-pronged archival strategy using a combination of scripts, daemons, and Internet archival services: URLs are regularly dumped from both my web browser’s daily browsing and my website pages into an archival daemon I wrote, which pre-emptively downloads copies locally and attempts to archive them in the Internet Archive. This ensures a copy will be available indefinitely from one of several sources. Link rot is then detected by regular runs of, and any newly dead links can be immediately checked for alternative locations, or restored from one of the archive sources.

As an additional flourish, Download Link Archives, my local archives are efficiently cryptographically timestamped using Bitcoin in case forgery is a concern, and I demonstrate a simple compression trick for substantially reducing sizes of large web archives such as crawls (particularly useful for repeated crawls such as my DNM archives).

Given my interest in long term content and extensive linking, Download Link Archives, link rot is an issue of deep concern to me. I need backups not just for my files1⁠, but for the web pages I read and Download Link Archives all part of my exomind⁠. It’s not much good to have an extensive essay on some topic where half the links are dead and the reader can neither verify my claims nor get context for my claims.

“Decay is inherent in all compound things. Work out your own salvation with diligence.”

Last words of the Buddha

The dimension of digital decay is dismal and distressing. Wikipedia:

In a 2003 experiment, Fetterly et al. discovered that about one link out of every 200 disappeared each week from the Internet. McCown et al 2005discovered that half of the URLs cited inD-Lib Magazine articles were no longer accessible 10 years after publication [the irony!], and other studies Download Link Archives shown link rot in academic literature to be even worse (Spinellis, Download Link Archives, 2003⁠, Lawrence et al., 2001). Nelson and Allen (2002) examined link rot in digital libraries and found that about 3% of the objects were no longer accessible after Download Link Archives year.

Bruce Arquivos Combo de 5 Hits remarks that one friend experienced 50% linkrot in one of his pages over less than 9 years (not that the situation was any better in 1998), and that his own blog posts link to news articles that go dead in days2⁠; Vitorio checks bookmarks from 1997⁠, Download Link Archives, finding that hand-checking indicates a total link rot of 91% with only half of the dead available in sources like the Internet Archive; Ernie Smith found 1 semi-working link in a 1994 book about the Internet; the Internet Archive itself has estimated the average lifespan of a Web page at 100 days⁠. A Download Link Archives study looked at articles in prestigious journals; they didn’t use many Internet links, but when they did, 2 years later ~13% were dead3⁠. The French company Linterweb studied external links on the French Wikipedia before setting up their cache of French external links, and found—back in 2008—already 5% were dead⁠. (The English Wikipedia has seen a 2010–January 2011 spike from a few thousand dead links to ~110,000 out of ~17.5m live links⁠.) A followup check of the viral The Million Dollar Homepage⁠, where it cost up to $53$382006k to insert a link by the last insertion on January 2006, found that a decade later in 2017, at least half the links were dead or squatted.4 Bookmarking website Pinboard⁠, which provides some archiving services, noted in August 2014 that 17% of 3-year-old links & 25% of 5-year-old links were dead. The dismal studiesjustgoon and on and on (and on). Even in a highly stable, funded, curated environment, link rot happens anyway, Download Link Archives. For example, about 11% of Arab Spring-related tweets were gone within a year (even though Twitter is—currently—still around). And sometimes they just get quietly lost, like Eassos Recovery 4.4.0.435 + License Code Final (Crack) 2021 MySpace admitted it lost all music worldwide uploaded 2003–2015⁠, euphemistically describing the mass deletion as “We completely rebuilt MySpace and decided to move over some of your content from the old MySpace” (only some of the 2008–2010 MySpace music could be rescued & put on the IA by “an anonymous academic study”).

My specific target date is 2070, 60 years from now. As of 2011-03-10, Gwern.net has around 6800 external links (with Download Link Archives 2200 to non-Wikipedia websites)5⁠. Even at the lowest estimate of 3% annual linkrot, few will survive to 2070, Download Link Archives. If each link has a 97% chance of surviving each year, then the chance a link will be alive in 2070 is 0.972070−2011 ≈ 0.16 (or to put it another way, an 84% chance any given link will die). The 95% confidence interval for such a binomial distribution says that of the 2200 non-Wikipedia links, Download Link Archives, ~336–394 will survive to 20706⁠. If we try to predict using a more reasonable estimate of 50% linkrot, then an average of 0 links will survive (0.502070-2011 × 2200 = 1.735 × 10-16 × 2200 a ≅ 0). It would be a good idea to simply assume that no link will survive.

With that in mind, Download Link Archives, one can consider remedies. (If we lie to ourselves and say it won’t be a problem in the future, then we guarantee that Download Link Archives will be a problem, Download Link Archives. “People can stand what is true, for they are already enduring it.”)

If you want to pre-emptivelyarchive a specific page, that is easy: go to the IA and archive it, or in your web browser, print a PDF of it, or for more complex pages, use a browser plugin (egScrapBook). But I find I visit and link so many web pages that I rarely think in advance of link rot to save a copy; what I need is a more systematic approach to detect and create links for all web pages I might need.

“With every new spring
the blossoms speak not Download Link Archives word
yet expound the Law—
knowing what is at its heart
by the scattering storm winds.”

Shōtetsu7

The first remedy is to learn about broken links as soon as they happen, which allows one to react quickly and scrape archives or search engine caches (‘lazy preservation’). I currently use to spider Gwern.net looking for broken links. is run in a cron job like so:

Just this command would turn up many false positives. For example, there would be several hundred warnings on Wikipedia links because I link to redirects; and respects robots.txts which forbid it to check liveness, but emits a warning about this. These can be suppressed by editing to say (the available warning classes are listed in ).

The quicker you know about a dead link, the sooner you can look for replacements or its new home.

Remote caching

“Anything you post on the internet will be there as long as it’s embarrassing and gone as soon as it would be useful.”

taejo

We can ask a third party to keep a cache for us. There are several archive site possibilities:

  1. the Internet Archive
  2. WebCite
  3. Perma.cc (highly limited⁠; has lost some archives)
  4. Linterweb’s WikiWix8⁠.
  5. Peeep.us (defunct as of 2018)
  6. Archive.is
  7. Pinboard (with the $22/​​year archiving option9)

There are other options but they are not available like Google10 or various commercial/​government archives11

(An example would be being archived at ⁠.)

These archives are also good for archiving your own website:

  1. you may be keeping backups of it, but your own website/​​server backups can be lost (I can speak from personal experience here), so it’s good to have external copies
  2. Another benefit is the reduction in ‘bus-factor’: if you were hit by a bus tomorrow, Download Link Archives, who would get your archives and be able to maintain the websites and understand the Download Link Archives etc? While if archived in IA, people already know how to get copies and there are tools to download entire domains.
  3. A focus on backing up only one’s website can blind one to the need for archiving the external links as well, Download Link Archives. Many pages are meaningless or less valuable with broken links. A linkchecker script/​​daemon can also archive all the external links.

So there are several benefits to doing web archiving beyond simple server backups.

My first program in this vein of thought was a bot which fired off WebCite, Download Link Archives, Internet Archive/​Alexa, & Archive.is requests: Wikipedia Archiving Download Link Archives, quickly followed up by a RSS version⁠. (Or you could install the Alexa Toolbar to get automatic submission to the Internet Archive, if you have ceased to care about privacy.)

The core code was quickly adapted into a gitit wiki plugin which hooked into the save-page functionality and tried to archive every link in the newly-modified page, Interwiki.hs

Finally, I wrote archiver⁠, a daemon which watches12⁠/​reads a text file. Source is available via. (A similar tool is Archiveror⁠; the Python package does something similar & as of January 2021 is probably better.)

The library Download Link Archives of is a simple wrapper around the appropriate HTTP requests; the executable half reads a specified text file and loops as it (slowly) fires off requests and deletes the appropriate URL.

That is, is a daemon which will process a specified text file, each line of which is a URL, Download Link Archives, and will one by one request that the URLs be archived or spidered

Usage of might look like. In the past, would sometimes crash for unknown reasons, so I usually wrap it in a loop like so:. If I wanted to put it in a detached GNU screen session:. Finally, rather than start it manually, I use a cron job to start it at boot, for a final invocation of

Local caching

Remote archiving, while convenient, has a major flaw: the archive services cannot keep up with the growth of the Internet and are woefully incomplete. I experience this regularly, where a link on Gwern.net goes dead and I cannot find it in the Internet Archive or WebCite, and it is a general phenomenon: Ainsworth et al 2012 find <35% of common Web pages ever copied into an archive service, and typically only one copy exists.

Caching Proxy

The most ambitious & total approach to local caching is to set up a proxy to do your browsing through, and record literally all your web traffic; for example, using Live Archiving Proxy (LAP) or WarcProxy which will save as WARC files every page you visit through it. (Zachary Vanceexplains how to set up a local HTTPS certificate to MITM your HTTPS browsing as well.)

One may be reluctant to go this far, and prefer something lighter-weight, such as periodically extracting a list of visited URLs from one’s web browser and then attempting to archive them.

Batch job downloads

For a while, I used a shell script named, imaginatively enough, :

The code is not the prettiest, but Download Link Archives fairly straightforward:

  1. the script grabs my Firefox browsing history by extracting it from the history SQL database file13, and feeds the URLs intowget⁠.

    is not the best tool for archiving as it will not run JavaScript or Flash or download videos etc. It will download included JS files but the JS will be obsolete when run in the future and any dynamic content will be long gone. To do better would require a headless browser like PhantomJSwhich saves to MHT/​​MHTML, Download Link Archives, but PhantomJSrefuses to support it and I’m not aware of an Download Link Archives package to do this. In practice, static content is what is most important to archive, most JS is of highly questionable value in the first place, and any important YouTube videos can be archived manually withso ’s limitations haven’t been so bad.

  2. The script s the long list of URLs into a bunch of files and runs that manys in parallel because apparently has no way of simultaneously downloading from multiple domains. There’s also the chance of hanging indefinitely, Download Link Archives, so parallel downloads continues to make progress.

  3. The command is another shell script, which removes URLs I don’t want archived. This script is a hack which looks like this:

  4. delete any particularly large (>4MB) files which might be media files like videos or audios (podcasts are particular offenders)

A Download Link Archives copy is not the best resource—what if a link goes dead in a way your tool cannot detect so you don’t know to put up your copy somewhere? But it solves the problem decisively.

The downside of this script’s batch approach soon became apparent to me:

  1. not automatic: you have to remember to invoke it and it only provides a single local archive, or if you invoke it regularly as a cron job, you may create lots of duplicates.
  2. unreliable: may hang, URLs may be archived too late, Download Link Archives, it may not be invoked Download Link Archives enough, >4MB non-video/​​audio files are increasingly common…
  3. I wanted Download Link Archives in the Internet Archive & elsewhere as well to let other people benefit and provide redundancy to my local archive

It was to fix these problems that I began working on —which would run constantly archiving URLs in the background, archive them into the IA as well, and be smarter about media file downloads. It has been much more satisfactory.

Daemon

has an extra feature where any third argument is treated as an arbitrary command to run after each URL is archived, to which is appended said URL.You might use this feature if you wanted to load each URL into Firefox, or append them to a log file, or simply download or archive the URL in some other way.

For example, instead of a big run, Download Link Archives have run on each individual URL:. (For private URLs which require logins, such asdarknet markets⁠, can still grab them with some help: installing the Firefox extension Export Cookies⁠, Download Link Archives, logging into the site in Firefox like usual, exporting one’sand adding the option to give it access to the cookies.)

Alternately, you might use or a specialized archive downloader like the Internet Archive’s crawler Heritrix⁠.

Cryptographic timestamping local archives

We may want cryptographic timestamping to prove that we created a file or archive at a particular date and have not since altered it. Using a timestamping service’s API, I’ve written 2 shell scripts which implement downloading () and timestamping strings or files (). With these scripts, extending the archive bot is as simple as changing the shell command:

Now every URL we download is automatically cryptographically timestamped with ~1-day resolution for free.

Resource consumption

The space consumed by such a backup is not that bad; only 30–50 gigabytes for a year of browsing, and less depending on how hard you prune the downloads. (More, of course, if you use to archive entire sites and not just the pages you visit.) Storing this is quite viable in the long term; while page sizes have increased 7× between 2003 and 2011 and pages average around 400kb14⁠, Kryder’s law has Cyberlink Power Director Ultra 8 crack serial keygen been operating and has increased disk capacity by ~128×—in 2011, $106$802011 will buy you at least 2 terabytes⁠, that works out to 4 cents a gigabyte or 80 cents for the low estimate for downloads; that is much better than the annual fee that somewhere like Pinboard charges. Of course, you need to back this up yourself. We’re relatively fortunate here—most Internet documents are ‘born digital’ and easy to migrate to new formats or inspect in the future. We can download them and worry about how to view them only when we need a particular document, and Web browser backwards-compatibility already stretches back to files written in the early 1990s. (Of course, we’re probably screwed if we discover the content we wanted was dynamically presented only in Adobe Flash or as an inaccessible ‘cloud’ service.) In contrast, if we were trying to preserve programs or software libraries instead, we would face a much more formidable task in keeping a working ladder of binary-compatible virtual machines or interpreters15⁠. The situation with digital movie preservation hardly bears thinking on.

There are ways to cut down on the size; if you tar it all up and run 7-Zip with maximum compression options, Download Link Archives could probably compact it to 1⁄5th the size. I found that the uncompressed files could be reduced by around 10% by using fdupes to look for duplicate files and turning the duplicates into a space-saving hard link to the original with a command likeDownload Link Archives. (Apparently there are a lot of bit-identical JavaScript (eg, Download Link Archives. JQuery) Download Link Archives images out there.)

Good filtering of URL sources can help reduce URL archiving count by a large amount.Examining my manual backups of Firefox browsing history, over the 1153 days from 2014-02-25 to 2017-04-22, I visited 2,370,111 URLs or 2055 URLs per day; after passing through my filtering script, that leaves 171,446 URLs, which after de-duplication yields 39,523 URLs or ~34 unique URLs per day or 12,520 unique URLs per year to archive.

This shrunk my archive by 9GB from 65GB to 56GB, although at the cost of some archiving fidelity by removing many filetypes like CSS or JavaScript or GIF images. As of 2017-04-22, after ~6 years of archiving, between compression (at the cost of easy searchability), Download Link Archives filtering, occasional manual deletion of overly bulky domains I feel are probably adequately covered in the IA etc, my full WWW archives weigh 55GB.

URL sources

Browser history

There are a number of ways to populate the source text file. For example, I have a script :

( is the same script as in. If I don’t want a domain locally, I’m not going to bother with remote backups either. In fact, because of WebCite’s rate-limiting, is almost perpetually back-logged, and I especially don’t want it wasting time on worthless links like 4chan⁠.)

This is called every hour by :

This gets all visited URLs in the last time period and prints them out to the file for archiver to process. Hence, everything I browse is backed-up through.

Non-Firefox browsers can be supported with similar strategies; for example, Zachary Vance’s Chromium scripts likewise extracts URLs from Chromium’sSQL history & bookmarks⁠.

Document links

More useful perhaps is a script to extract external links from Markdown files and print them to standard out: link-extractor.hs

So now I can takepass the 100 or so Markdown files in my wiki as arguments, and add the thousand or so external links to the archiver queue (eg, Download Link Archives. ); they will eventually be archived/​backed up.

Website spidering

Sometimes a particular website is of long-term interest to one even if one has not visited everypage on it; one could manually visit them and rely on the Download Link Archives Firefox script to dump the URLs into but this isn’t always practical or time-efficient. inherently spiders the websites it is turned upon, so it’s not a surprise that it can build a site mapor simply spit out all URLs on a domain; unfortunately, whilehas the ability to output in a remarkable variety of formats, it cannot simply output a newline-delimited list of URLs, so we need to post-process the output considerably. The following is the shell one-liner I use when I want to archive an entire site (note that this is a bad command to run on a large or heavily hyper-linked site like the English Wikipedia orLessWrong!); edit the Download Link Archives domain as necessary:

When does not work, one alternative is to do a and extract the URLs from the filenames—list all the files and prefix with a “http:/​/​” etc.

combined with a tool like means that there will rarely be any broken links on Gwern.net since one can either find a live link or use the archived version. In theory, one has multiple options now:

  1. Search for a copy on the live Web

  2. link the Internet Archive copy

  3. link the WebCite copy

  4. link the WikiWix copy

  5. use the dump

    If it’s been turned into a full local file-based version withone can easily convert the dump into something like a standalone PDF suitable for public distribution. (A PDF is easier to store and link than the original directory of bits and pieces or other HTML formats like a ZIP archive of said directory.)

    I use which does a good job; an example of a dead webpage with no Internet mirrors is which can be found at ⁠, or Sternberg et al’s 2001 review “The Predictive Value of IQ”⁠.

  • (library for submission to,Megalodon, WebCite, & IA)

  • Memento meta-archive search engine (for checking IA & other archives)

  • Archive-It -(by the Internet Archive); donate to the IA

  • Pinboard

  • “Testing 3 million hyperlinks, lessons learned”⁠, Stack Exchange

  • “Backup All The Things”⁠, muflax

  • Tesoro (archive service; discussion)

  • “Digital Resource Lifespan”⁠, XKCD

  • “Archiving web sites”, LWN

  • software:

  • Hacker News discussion

  • “Indeed, it seems that Google is forgetting the old Web” (HN)

  • “The Lost Picture Show: Hollywood Archivists Can’t Outpace Obsolescence—Studios invested heavily in magnetic-tape storage for film archiving but now struggle to keep up with the technology”

  • “Use the internet, not just companies”⁠, Derek Sivers

Cryptographic timestamping

Due to length, this section has been moved to a separate page⁠.

A raw dump of URLs, while certainly archivable, will typically result in a very large mirror of questionable value (is it really necessary to archive Google search queries or Wikipedia articles? usually, no) and worse, given the rate-limiting necessary to store URLs in the Internet Archive or other services, may wind up delaying the archiving of the important links & risking their total loss. Disabling the remote archiving is unacceptable, so the best solution is to simply take a little time to manually blacklist various domains or URL Download Link Archives blacklisting can be as simple as a command likebut can be much more elaborate. The following shell script is the skeleton of my own custom blacklist, Download Link Archives, derived from manually filtering through several years of daily browsing as well as spiders of dozens of websites for various people & purposes, demonstrating a variety of possible techniques: regexps for domains & file-types & query-strings, -based rewrites, fixed-string matches (both blacklists and whitelists), etc:

can be used on one’s local archive to save space by deleting files which may be downloaded by as dependencies. For example:

key compression trick

Programming folklore notes that one way to get better lossless compression efficiency is by the precompression trick of rearranging files inside the archive to group ‘similar’ files together and expose redundancy to the compressor, in accordance with information-theoretical principles. A particularly easy and broadly-applicable way of doing this, which does not require using any unusual formats or tools and is fully compatible with the default archive methods, is to sort the files by filename and especially file extension. I show how to do this with the standard Unix command-line tool, using the so-called “ trick”, and give examples of the large space-savings possible from my archiving work for personal website mirrors and for making darknet market mirror datasets where the redundancy at the file level is particularly extreme and the trick shines compared to the naive approach.

Moved to “The Sort Key Trick”⁠.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Unity download archive

Download Link Archives ID

A Unity ID allows you to buy and/or subscribe to Unity What’s New in NTLite 1.9.0.7304 Crack? Archives and services, shop in the Asset Store and participate in the Unity community.

Log inCreate a Unity ID

From this page you can download the previous versions of Unity for both Unity Personal and Pro (if you have a Pro license, enter in your key when prompted after installation). Please note that we don’t support downgrading a project to an older editor version. However, Download Link Archives, you can import projects into a new editor version. We advise you to back up your project before converting and check the console log for any errors or warnings after importing.

Long Term Support releases

The LTS stream is for users who wish to continue to develop and ship their games/content and stay on a stable version for an extended period.

Download LTS releases

21 Jan, 2021

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Free access to digital records

We are making digital records available on our website free of charge for the time being, while our reading room services are limited.

Registered users will be able to order and download up to ten items at a time, to a maximum of 100 items over 30 days. The limits are there to try to help manage the demand for content and ensure the availability of our digital services for everyone.

To access the service and download for free, Download Link Archives, users will be required to:

  • Register/sign in to their Discovery account before adding items to their basket (maximum ten items per basket)
  • Abide by the terms of our fair use policy
  • Complete the order process to receive a download link, which will remain active for 30 days. (The link will also be saved in ‘Your orders’ in your account for 30 days)

Our usual terms of use still apply – digital copies can be downloaded for non-commercial private use and educational purposes only, and bulk downloads and web crawlers are not permitted.

How can I download documents for free?

You will be required to register for a free account on our website and be logged in to be able to download documents.

To find records that are available to download for free, filter your search results in Discovery to include records that are ‘available for download only’.

What sort of documents can I download?

You will be able to download records digitised by The National Archives and published through Discovery, our online catalogue. These include:

  • First and Second World War records, including medal index cards
  • Military records, including unit war diaries
  • Royal and Merchant Navy records, including Royal Marine service records
  • Wills from the jurisdiction of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury
  • Migration records, including aliens’ registration cards and naturalisation case papers
  • 20th century Cabinet Papers and Security Service files
  • Domesday Book

A full list of digitised collections can be seen here, although please note that it includes collections available on other sites that may charge for access, and are not included in this offer.

Does this apply to all digital records that are searchable in Discovery?

No, as not all digital records searchable in Discovery are available on our website.

The free access will apply to the digitised collections on our website, but it will not extend to our collections on other sites run by our commercial partners, Download Link Archives, such as Ancestry, Findmypast and The Genealogist. These sites are usually free to search with a subscription charge to view and download records, although most offer a 14-day free trial and some are currently offering selected free access to their collections.

How many documents can I download at one time?

We’ll be limiting the Flvto Youtube Downloader 3.2.24.0 Crack Archives of items that users can download at one time to ensure that our systems remain accessible to as many people as possible.

Our fair and reasonable use policy applies, and states the following:

  • The National Archives permits registered users to order and download a reasonable number of documents for free and has set a maximum order limit Download Link Archives 100 documents in Download Link Archives 30-day period.
  • In order to maintain the integrity of the service Download Link Archives everyone, and ensure that as many people as possible can benefit from it, we reserve the right to disable users’ accounts where there is a breach of this fair use policy.
  • We reserve the right to change the maximum number of items ordered in a 30-day period and revise these terms of use from time to time.

Are there restrictions as to how I can use a downloaded document/image?

Yes, our usual terms of use will still apply – digital copies can be downloaded for non-commercial Download Link Archives use and educational purposes only, and bulk downloads and web crawlers are not permitted.

Can I get help in finding and downloading documents?

We have a wide range of research guides to help you navigate your way through our online catalogue.

You can also find podcasts and videos on our Archives Media Player, along with a number of different blogs on our website.

Our live chat service, which provides one-to-one expert research advice, is available between 09:00 and 17:00, Download Link Archives, from Tuesday to Saturday.

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Archives for offline viewing


For convenience, several versions of the wiki suitable for offline viewing are available.

[edit]Html book

This html book is an offline copy of the website with unnecessary UI elements stripped out. Choose this if you just want to access cppreference.com via a browser while without internet connection.

[edit]Raw archive

This archive is a raw copy created using Wget, Download Link Archives. Note that this archive is not useful for viewing as-is, please use the HTML book instead. Note: the utility scripts and a makefile are contained in this package, so it can be used as full upstream source, Download Link Archives.

[edit]Unofficial Download Link Archives unofficial fork that is updated more frequently can be found in this git repository, Download Link Archives.

[edit]Devhelp book

Devhelp is a documentation browser for GTK/Gnome.

The book is available as package in the official Debian and Ubuntu repositories.

For arch users, the package could be found here, which can be installed from AUR by tools like yaourt.

[edit]Qt help book

is a documentation format for use in the Qt tools such as QtCreator or Qt Assistant.

The book below contains a version of the html book, adapted for use with the Qt tools. Search also works.

Note: Old versions of QtCreator or QtAssistant display the documentation improperly. If you see bad formatting, please update these programs. The oldest versions that display the contents correctly are QtCreator v3.0 and QtAssistant v4.8.6.

The book is available as package in the official Debian and Ubuntu repositories.

The book is also provided by AUR package cppreference-qt for Arch Linux users.

[edit]Doxygen Download Link Archives file

Doxygen is a tool to automatically generate documentation from source code comments. It supports automatic linking of C++ names to external documentation via tag file functionality. Two tag files are provided in the "html book" archive mentioned above:

  • local: use the file to link to the local "html book" archive at the default install location.
  • web: to link directly to the cppreference.com website.


In order to support external cppreference documentation, Doxyfile needs to be modified as follows:

  • If the link target is local archive, Download Link Archives, add the following line:
  • If the link target is cppreference.com, add the following line:

[edit]Manpages

Automatically generated man pages are maintained here. Installation notes are included in the README and updates follow the offline archive releases.

[edit]Bugs

All bugs in the offline archives should be reported either to the talk page or to the issues page of the cppreference-doc github project.

[edit]See also

The utility scripts are maintained in this git repository.

The debian packaging information is maintained in this git repository.

An independently-maintained CHM (Windows help) archive can be found in this git repository.

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Accessing Electronic Records Online via the National Archives Catalog

These frequently asked questions only pertain to the selection of permanent Federal electronic records in the custody of the Download Link Archives Records Division and accessible via the National Archives Download Link Archives. Basic questions about accessing and downloading electronic records from the Catalog

I.1. What electronic records are accessible from the Catalog?

Here is a list of electronic records series described in the Catalog.  About 37% of the series have records accessible in the Catalog.  If the records for that series are accessible in the Catalog, Download Link Archives, there will be a note at the top of the description along the lines of "The unrestricted records in this series are available online.  Hyperlinks to the records are available in the Details section below."

I.2, Download Link Archives. What components of electronic records are available for access and download from the Catalog?

There are the files containing the electronic records. This includes both data files and unstructured records (i.e. narrative text in a PDF).

Data files and other structured electronic records usually also include:

  • Technical Download Link Archives Summary - This lists the files available for download for a specific series or file unit description, along with the formats and sizes (metadata) of the files.
     
  • Technical documentation - This includes record layouts, field descriptions, code lists, user notes, and other agency materials needed to interpret the data and/or use the files.

I.3. How do I find electronic records and technical documentation files that are available for access from the Catalog?

  1. Go to the Catalog main page at: www.archives.gov/research/catalog/.
  2. Conduct a search for the records of interest to you. You can search by keyword, National Archives Identifier (NAID), or type of archival material.
    • ► For descriptions of records in the custody of the Electronic Records Division, you can create an advance search to limit the results to the location of archival materials at "National Archives at College Park - Electronic Records."
  3. If you locate a description of records of interest to you, select to view the full description.
    • ► Series descriptions may have a "not available online" icon next to the title, even though some of the records may be available online. If you Download Link Archives to view a series description, go to step 4.
    • ► Descriptions with electronic records attached may have a paper icon or thumbnail of the image next to the title. If you select to view one of these descriptions, go to step 7.
  4. If you selected a series description, then it may have the message: "This series contains records, some of which may not be available online." If files are available from the catalog for download, then they are attached to the file unit description for that series or to the item descriptions for those file units.
  5. Under the "Includes:" field, click on the link "n file unit(s) described in the catalog" for a list of the file unit descriptions within that series.
  6. From the results, select the file unit description of interest to you.  
    •  File unit descriptions with electronic records attached may have a paper icon or thumbnail of the image next to the title. If you select to view one of these descriptions, go to step 7.
    • ► Other file unit descriptions may have the message "This File Unit contains records, some of which may not be available online." If files are available from the catalog, then they may be attached to item descriptions. Under the "Includes:" field, Download Link Archives, click on the link "n item(s) described in the catalog" for a list of the items within that file unit.  Select the item description of interest to you.
  7. The files available for viewing/downloading are listed or displayed at the beginning of the file unit or item description. 
  8. For data files and documentation, click on the "view/download" link to view and download the file (usually only available for files in PDF) or click "download" link to save/download the file.  PDF records will display in the viewer with the option to download the file.

Alternatively, after running a search, you can click on the "Available Online" refinement above the search results to view only those descriptions with digital or digitized records attached.

Files that are available online for searching via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource will have a link in the "Online Resource(s)" field of the description.

I.4. How do I download or save the files?

Some of the electronic records files currently available for download consist of raw data. The data are in a software-independent format so you can use the records with your own software. Most of these files do not contain a contemporary standard file extension that indicates the format or type of file. These files are usually not appropriate for viewing within the browser.

The Technical Specifications Summary and technical documentation (see above) provide information about the format of the files. We suggest reviewing the Technical Specifications Summary and technical documentation before downloading the electronic records files. Depending on your browser, the option to save files identified as download only may appear as "Do you want to open or save this file?", "You have chosen to open:" or "Save As", Download Link Archives. We recommend you save the file to your computer and then open the file using the appropriate software available to you. If given the option, we suggest Download Link Archives files that do not have a contemporary standard file extension as "All Files."

Some files are available as a compressed WinZip (.zip) file. While the compressed file contains the standard .zip extension, the file(s) within the WinZip file may or may not contain contemporary standard file Download Link Archives series containing unstructured records (i.e, Download Link Archives. PDF), you can download the file using the download icon in the lower left of the viewer. 

I.5. Can I download or save all the files in a series at the same time?

No. The catalog currently does not allow for downloading all the files or digital objects within a file unit or series at the same time. You have to go to each file unit description to download each file separately.

I.6, Download Link Archives. What software programs or applications do I use with the structured data files?

Please refer to the Technical Specifications Summary and the technical documentation for details on the formats of the data files.

In general, Download Link Archives, the data files are in a software-independent format so you may use the files with whatever appropriate software is available to you. For example, files containing raw structured data may be used in various spreadsheet and database programs. Files containing ASCII text may be used with various word-processing, spreadsheet, Download Link Archives, and database programs, Download Link Archives. Files in HTML or XML may be used in various word-processing or database programs, or may be best used in a program that reads HTML or XML coding.

For files that do not have a contemporary standard file extension, you may need to first open the appropriate program you wish to use and then open the file within that program or import the data into that program, Download Link Archives. The specific steps for opening the files depends on your operating system, Download Link Archives, the specific program, and the file itself.

Some files may be in a non-contemporary format or in a software-dependent format, but the software may no longer be available. You may need to reformat these files before you can use them with current programs or applications.

See Introduction to Raw Data for more details about using files containing raw structured data.

Other files may be in a format that requires specific software applications in order to use them. For example, files containing digital cartographic data or geospatial data (e.g. shape files) are most suitable for use in geographic information systems.

II. Additional questions about technical documentation available from the Catalog

II.1. What is the Technical Specifications Summary?

The Technical Specifications Summary (TSS) is a list or manifest of all the structured electronic records files available online for a series or file unit description. This list includes the technical metadata for each file, such as Antivirus Archives - keygenfile byte count, file format, record length (for fixed-length records), number of records, and file identifiers and names. This technical metadata is usually needed for using the files after they have been downloaded. For example, Download Link Archives, technical metadata can help users determine the appropriate software to use with the file.

II.2. What is technical documentation?

Technical documentation consists of the materials needed to interpret raw data or otherwise use the electronic records. These materials may include agency-prepared record layouts, field descriptions, code lists or meanings, user notes, and the sample questionnaires or Genymotion 3.0.4 license key Archives the agency used to collect the data. The technical documentation also usually includes NARA- prepared materials such as user notes, list of documentation, and sample printouts of the data files. Sometimes the technical documentation is in the form of a code book, user manual, Download Link Archives, or data dictionary. In some cases, the agency transferred and NARA preserved some or all of the documentation in electronic format.

For some series of electronic records there may be supplemental documentation. Supplemental documentation consists of materials related to the electronic records, but usually not necessary for using or interpreting them. Examples of supplemental documentation include frequency counts, tabulations or other statistical reports, printouts of software programming, and printed narrative reports about or related to the records.

NARA selected from the technical and/or supplemental documentation the materials most necessary and helpful for using and understanding the electronic records. Where NARA originally received this material in paper format, NARA has scanned it to make it available online, Download Link Archives. While every effort was made to produce the best quality scans of the paper technical documentation, the readability and visual quality of the original documentation varies and that is reflected in the digitized copies. In general, NARA did not scan most supplemental documentation and processing materials. Those materials are not online, but are available upon request.

II.3. Is all the documentation the same for all files in a series?

It depends. For some series, the same documentation applies to all the files. Therefore the same technical documentation files may be attached to multiple file unit descriptions.

For other series, the documentation is specific to one or a few of the files, Download Link Archives. In this case, the documentation will only be attached to the relevant file unit description(s).

The Technical Specifications Summary lists the unique documentation files for a series or file unit. Users may wish to check the Technical Specifications Summary to ensure they have obtained all the necessary documentation.

II.4. Are any of the code lists or other documentation available in a database or other format that may be manipulated?

For series or files where the agency transferred code lists or other documentation in a database or other manipulable format, those files are available for downloading along with the other technical documentation files. In some cases, there are data files that also serve as code lists. These files may be listed as electronic records files instead of technical documentation files.

For the electronic records series also available for online search and record-level retrieval via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource at www.archives.gov/aad, you can download the code lists from AAD in a comma-separated value (CSV) format.

II.5. May I obtain the technical documentation by means other than downloading the files?

Yes. You may order photocopies of the paper documentation and copies of electronic documentation files as transferred by the agency for a cost-recovery fee. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records and/or contact us.

III. Additional questions about electronic records available from the Catalog

III.1. Are all accessioned electronic records files within a series available from the catalog?

No, not all files in a series may be available from the catalog. Only the electronic records files and technical documentation in a series that are unrestricted or public use versions are available for online access. Please see the access and/or use restrictions fields in the series and/or file unit descriptions.

In addition, Download Link Archives, when NARA has accessioned multiple versions of a file, typically only the most recent version will be made available online. If NARA has custody of a file in both a contemporary or software-independent format and a non-contemporary or software-dependent format, then usually only the contemporary or software-independent format is available online.

III.2. What are the formats of the data files that are available online?

The electronic records files available online were created and preserved in a variety of formats. Whenever possible, NARA has preserved the electronic records files in a software-independent format.

For files in most formats, NARA provides exact copies of the files. However, for some of the structured data files preserved in standard EBCDIC encoding with fixed-length records, NARA auto-converted them into ASCII encoding when possible and added record delimiters as part of preparing the files for online access. Similarly, NARA added record delimiters to structured data files preserved in ASCII with fixed-length records.

III.3. May I access accessioned electronic records by means other than downloading?

Yes. You may order reproductions of unrestricted electronic records files on removable media (such as CD or DVD) for a cost-recovery fee. You can also order copies of the technical documentation. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records and/or contact us.

You can search and retrieve individual electronic records from a selection of archival structured databases online via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource at www.archives.gov/aad.

VI. Contact Information

Reference Services
Electronic Records
National Archives at College Park
8601 Adelphi Road
College Park, MD 20740-6001
(301) 837-0470
email: cer@nara.gov

October 2021

Electronic Records Main Page

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Download Link Archives

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