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Endodontic-Periodontal Lesions

Dr. Igor Tsesis received his DMD from Moscow Medical Stomatological Institute, Russia, in and in graduated cum laude from the Post-Graduate Endodontic Program at the Dental School of Tel Aviv University, Israel. He currently serves as Director of Graduate Endodontics in Tel Aviv University. Dr. Tsesis is Past-President of the Israeli Endodontic Society and a member of the Scientific Council of the Israeli Dental Association. He is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Journal of Endodontics and the International Editorial Board of the journal Italian Oral Surgery. His research concerns the diagnosis and treatment of complications following root canal therapy and endodontic surgery. Most of his research has been published in the leading endodontic journals. Dr. Tsesis is editor of the Springer book Complications in Endodontic Surgery () and co-editor of the Springer books Vertical Root Fractures in Dentistry () and Evidence-Based Decision Making in Dentistry ().

Dr. Carlos E. Nemcovsky graduated from the Dental School in Montevideo, Uruguay in and then undertook postgraduate studies in Periodontology at Tel Aviv University, Israel. He has been a Specialist in Periodontology since and is currently Full Professor in the Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University. He is former President of the Israel Periodontal and Osseointegration Society. Dr. Nemcovsky is involved in basic and clinical research, his main interest being tissue regeneration. He is author or co-author of more than largely quoted publications in the leading international academic journals in the field, as well as a co-editor of the book Evidence-Based Decision Making in Dentistry (Springer, ). He is member of the editorial board and reviewer for several academic journals. He is also a renowned international speaker, having delivered more than invited lectures in the fields of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry.

Dr. Joseph Nissan received his DMD () and Prosthodontics degrees () from Tel Aviv University School of Dental Medicine. He is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Prosthodontics at the university and is a former Director of the Implantology Unit and the Prosthodontics postgraduate program. He is also Head of Oral Rehabilitation and Implant Prosthodontics at Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva. Dr. Nissan is current President of the Israel Society of Implant Dentistry and is a former President of the Israel Prosthodontic Society. He also acts as Chairman of the National Board of Prosthodontics Professional Committee and as a reviewer for several international dental journals. He is the author of more than 80 international publications on fixed prosthodontics and implant dentistry.

Dr. Eyal Rosen received his DMD, and completed an advanced specialty graduate program in endodontics, at Tel Aviv University School of Dental Medicine. He is an Israeli board-certified endodontic specialist and maintains a private practice limited to endodontics. Dr. Rosen is a senior lecturer at Tel Aviv University School of Dental Medicine and was a faculty member at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in Boston, USA. Dr. Rosen completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, USA (–7). His research interests include endodontic complications, microbial biofilms that are involved in endodontic diseases, and evidence-based decision making in endodontics. Dr. Rosen has presented his research findings in numerous peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and international scientific congresses. He is a co-editor of the previous Springer books Vertical Root Fractures in Dentistry () and Evidence-Based Decision Making in Dentistry ().

Источник: [applemacs.us]

Maintenance Manual for Diesel applemacs.us

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





GOVERNMENT OF INDIA





MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS

 (RAILWAY BOARD)

INDIAN RAILWAYS MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES Revised – December Printed: /03/08 Revised

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PREFACE Indian Railways Maintenance Manual for Diesel Loco, popularly known as “White Manual”, was published in the year However, since then a number of technological advancements such as: MBCS, MCBG, PTLOC, Moatti filters, Centrifuges, Air dryers, RSB, Mechanically bonded radiator cores, AC motors, Bag type air intake filters, upgraded compressors, Stiffer Unit Camshafts, + cylinder heads, Steel cap single bolt CR pistons, high efficiency Turbochargers, etc, have been incorporated in the diesel loco design. New variants on WDM2 platform viz: WDM3A, WDG3A, WDM3D, WDM3F have been introduced in the last 15 years. High horse power locos viz: WDG4/4D WDP4/4B/4D, etc., based on advanced technology (AC-AC traction, Computer Controller Brakes, Microprocessor Control System) have been inducted in large numbers. One prototype WDG5 loco, upgraded version of WDG4, has also been manufactured. These HHP locos are going to be the main workhorse of Indian Railways. Maintenance requirement of these technologically advanced locos is different from old traditional ones. At the same time number of diesel locos homed in diesel sheds has gone up manifold which requires different organization set up. Introduction of such advanced technology diesel locos on Indian Railways over a period of time has necessitated a paradigm shift in maintenance philosophy, retaining the essence of matured knowledge gained over years. This new look ‘White Manual’ shall supplement the long felt need of Transport Engineers of not only having a documented set of guidelines and instructions in consonance with the present scenario, but would also act as a harbinger in their pursuit of knowledge. Railway Board had nominated a committee of six officers for review of “White Manual” and laid down broad objectives. The revision and updation of this manual has been done accordingly. Though a large number of officers and staff have contributed in revision of this Manual, we would like to express our special thanks to: Shri R. Vishnoi, applemacs.us, Shri P.C. Gajbhiye, CME/SCR, Shri Anil Sharma, CME/NER, Shri S.K. Luthra, CME/NFR, Shri A.K. Tewari, DRM/ADI/WR, Shri Shubranshu, CME/IROAF, Shri Vivek Kumar, EDME/Tr. & Shri Anirudh Gautam, ED/ED(CNG) for their guidance and support in the revision of this manual. We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Shri Sachin Sharma, ex. DME/Tr., Shri Alok Mishra, DME/Tr. Shri S. Srinivas, Sr. DME(D)/GY/SCR, Shri G.V. Durgaprasad, applemacs.us, Shri T.S.N. Murthy, applemacs.us(R&L)/SCR, Shri T. Dilip, DME/D/BZA/SCR, Shri Adarsh Khare, applemacs.us, Shri applemacs.usa, applemacs.us, Shri K. P. Yadav, applemacs.usor/Mech/CAMTECH & Shri Sanjeev Kumar, Sr. CTA/Mech/CAMTECH in revision of this Manual.

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NOTE 1. The various stipulations, yardsticks, criteria, etc. given in this Manual are of General Nature. Changes in these may be required depending on the local conditions. 2. Various references of Railway Board’s and RDSO’s letters given in this manual will stand modified, as and when srcinal issuing authorities of such letters revise them. 3. Introduction of new types of locos, modifications/upgradation in existing locos in future may require addition/deletion in this Manual. This may be done through periodic amendments/revisions, as need be. 4. In case of any contradiction in the instructions contained in this manual and those issued by Board, RDSO, contained in Code, etc, the later will prevail, till such time necessary amendment in these instructions is done. 5. This Manual should necessarily be revised after 10 years from the year of issue. 6. A separate compendium of instructions, issued till date on various subjects related to diesel loco maintenance, operation, fuelling, ARTs, etc. is being separately issued by CAMTECH. This compendium will need to be revised every six months by CAMTECH. For ensuring that CAMTECH receive the latest instructions, RDSO, Railway Board and PUs will mark copies of letters related to diesel loco maintenance, operation and related subjects to CAMTECH on regular basis.

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CONTENTS

Chapter No.

Description

Page No.

Chapter - 1

Organization

1

Chapter - 2

Operations Management

20

Chapter - 3

Infrastructural Loco shed

49

Chapter - 4

System of Maintenance

88

Chapter - 5

Management Information System



Chapter - 6

Human Resource Development



Chapter - 7

Stores Management



Chapter - 8

Fuel & Lubricants



Chapter - 9

Safety and Environment



Chapter - 10 Outsourcing Management

Facilities for Diesel

and

Contract



Chapter - 11 Cost & Expenditure Control



Chapter - 12 Reliability Centered Maintenance



Chapter - 13 Technological Advancements



Chapter - 14 Loco Details and Data



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CORRECTION SLIPS The correction slips to be issued in future for this Maintenance Manual for Diesel Locos will be numbered as follows: Maintenance Manual for Diesel Locos (Revised ). # XX date Where “XX” is the serial number of the concerned correction slip (starting from 01 onwards). CORRECTION SLIPS ISSUED Sr. No. of Correction Slip

Date of issue

Page No. and Item no. modified

Remarks

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INDEX Chapter 1 Organization Para No.

Description

Page No.

1

Organization

2



Role of CME

2



Principal functions of the CME

2



Modus Operandi

3



Inspection

5



Diesel Officers Organization at HQ

7



Functions of CMPE/D/applemacs.us(Diesel)

7



Functions of CME(O)/applemacs.us(O)

9



Diesel maintenance organization in the CME’s office The Field Organization

10 13

Daily Position to be put up to CMPE/D regarding Performance and Availability of Diesel Units

18

Annexure

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1. 1.

ORGANIZATION

Organization

The Traction Organization of the Mechanical Directorate in the Railway Board shall be as under:

It will deal with following matters

In consultation with the Transportation Directorate draws up an integrated Motive Power programme and indicates to the Zonal Railways the schedule of acquisition of Diesel units furnishing projected holdings with accuracy over a five year time span and broadly over a corporate plan period of 15 years.



Allocates resources for development of maintenance facilities.



Defines maintenance objects in consultation with RDSO, Manufacturers and Zonal Railways. Allocates resources for development of maintenance facilities.



Monitors the performance of the Zonal Railways in meeting the maintenance objectives.



Co-ordinates such assistance as necessary between Railways, Production Units, RDSO & Manufacturers.

Role of CME: The General Manager of a Zonal Railway has the Chief Mechanical Engineer as the principal officer who is solely in-charge and responsible for the maintenance of Diesel Electric Locos, Multiple Units and Railcars. CME liaisons with other Heads of Department for assistance in procurement of material, operation of locos, safety, cost analysis, etc. He has an organization under him for suitably discharging the various functions related to the maintenance and operation of the diesel motive power units.

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Principal functions of the CME : The principal functions of CME, in this regard, are summarized below Liaison with Board for allocation of requisite resources by way of funds, facilities, machinery and plant, managerial inputs, and spares-particularly centrally controlled items such as power packs, motorized truck assemblies, etc.

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Liaison with other Heads of Department for obtaining necessary assistance from the various functional organization under the G M of the railway as given below

COS –Availability of diesel spares at the maintenance points of right quality and at the lowest possible cost inclusive of cost of service FA & CAO – Continuous and concurrent cost analysis for budgetary control. Expeditious disposal of various proposals received from field units CSC- Provision of Security of diesel maintenance sheds and diesel servicing installations stocking fuels and lubricants. However, gradually, security of such installations is being outsourced, which needs close monitoring by mechanical department, duly taking necessary inputs from CSC. COM – Planning of maintenance and servicing facilities to suit changes in traffic pattern and volume. Effective utilization of diesel loco with suitably planned deployment of locos in various traffic streams ensuring return of locos for attention to base sheds in time, while maximizing services. CWE-Effective support from of the“repair workshop for POH of locos with requisite quality of outturn and supply and return” materials to the maintenance sheds. CE/CE(Con) – Effectively progress construction of new facilities and maintenance of existing facilities.

The CME controls and effectively deploys the Headquarters organization consisting of CMPE/Diesel, CME/O & Dy. CMEs in charge of Operations, Maintenance, Fuel & Lubricants.

The Field Executives at the base sheds and servicing installations. The Field Executives in the operating division who are in-charge of the outstation servicing facilities, fuelling facilities, crews and utilization of locos.

Liaison with production units for supply of motive power units, spare parts and specialized repairs



Liaison with Public Sector Undertakings and Trade for repair contracts



Management of the engineering cadre so as to ensure that suitably trained and experienced engineers are placed in-charge of the maintenance installations. Suitable trained reserve to be built up at different levels and age groups within the cadre

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Modus Operandi- While no one plan will fulfill the requirement of every railway, the following system will provide a suitable frame work which can form the basis of a management procedure which will spell out the Corporate Objectives, Monitor progress, Evaluate developments and Reshape Policies, as required. The Management of diesel motive power maintenance and operation is best done through a system of periodical reviews ranging from daily position sheets to quarterly meetings between concerned officials of the railways.

General Manager of the Railway will conduct a quarterly review with the CME and COM which should discuss –

Changes of locos ownership type wise & shed wise, which has been planned for the intermediate and long term future. The programme of such changes should be indicated. A broad time bound schedule for development of facilities, location, training and deployment of men for maintenance and operation. Review of pending proposals of HQ and field units with finance, personnel and other departments. An evaluation of the progress in meeting such objectives over the past period.

The CME will conduct a quarterly review with principal HQrs engineers in-charge of maintenance covering the following areas.

Personnel

Availability of trained supervisors, recruitment programme, refresher courses, promotional courses.

and

conversion



Availability of trained maintainers, recruitment programme, refresher courses, promotional courses.

and

conversion

Maintenance-Maintenance costs, an ABC analysis thereof, cost control measures. Review of important items such as – ultrasonic examination of axles, testing of pressure vessels, progress of loco alterations, status of power units in regard to wheel profiling, wheel renewals, provision of fire extinguishers in motive power units etc. Progress in development of new facilities, acquisition / commissioning of plant and machinery

The CME will conduct a monthly review with the CWE comprising of:-

POH overdues, programme and quality control. Selected statistics of vital repair and return items from shops typically, electrical rotating equipments, trucks, wheels, etc. Such lists will be drawn by the railway to meet their own special requirements. Revised

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Special repairs of locos such as: re-power packing, rewiring, rebuilding of accident damaged units. Ch-1



The CME will conduct a monthly review with the principal HQ engineers in charge of maintenance covering:-

Availability of units Compliance of schedules covering time taken, analysis of unscheduled repairs, preventive measures. Casualties of units in traffic, preventive measures. Status of waiting material and heavy repair locos, assistance required from Board, Production units, other Railways and Shops. Availability of spares. Punctuality of diesel hauled passenger services. Consumption of lubricants. Special developments in maintenance techniques for achieving better quality of service and reduction in downtime. Scrutiny of by the the various outstanding listed in the monthly be addressed engineer in chargeissues of the maintenance sheds toD.O. the to CME covering the topics listed above.

The meeting described above should include every quarter the Field Executives in charge of the maintenance sheds and back shops covering all the topics listed in the foregoing.



The CME will conduct a review with the Headquarter Engineers in charge of Operations, Fuel and Maintenance covering the following aspects:-

Casualties of units in traffic involving crews, progress in monitoring of crews, refresher courses, preventive measures Trends in consumption of Fuels and lubricants – conservation measures. Review performance of fueling points in regards to cleanliness in dispensation of fuels and lubricants, safety and security measures.

Inspection: The CME will have a programme of inspection of diesel motive power unit maintenance facilities and backshops so as to cover all the sheds and backshops in the system atleast once in a year. Similar inspections will be carried out by CMPE/D applemacs.us(D) HQ at a frequency of once in three months. Such inspections should include.

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An appreciation of maintenance facilities, plant, equipment and personnel vis-à-vis present, intermediate future and long term requirements - progress of work.



Evaluation of the progress of the maintenance shed in achieving targets of availability, reduction in downtime, implementation of corrective measures



Review of casualties of diesel units and preventive measures.



Progress of locos alterations



Spot check of quality of work particularly selected from areas where difficulties have been experienced.



Availability of unit exchange spares in good condition.



Lubricant conservation measures.



Inspection of shed premises to see if facilities, plant and equipment, trackage, inspection pits, lighting are maintained functional, clean and ensuring safety.



Functioning of the staff grievance redressal system.



Measures for safety of rolling stock and at workplace, Random checks on vital items such as records of bogie maintenance, wheel profiles, testing of fire extinguishers, etc.



Inspection of locos measure, selected at random to monitor implementation a particular casualty prevention vital items such as: Speedometer, VCD,ofbrakes etc. or lubricant conservation measures.



Records of load test of units so as to ensure that repairs have been satisfactory.



Inspection of heavy repair/accident damaged units so as to monitor progress.



Review of status of repair of major assemblies and equipment such as power packs, compressors, rotating electrical equipment, major auxiliaries, trucks, etc.



Availability of spares, storage conditions in stock rooms.



Selected shed statistics such as late starts, locos returning late for schedules, loco wise defects register, lube oil change register, spectrograph reports etc



Random checks on quality of repairs such as on reconditioning of cylinder heads, parts cleaning, etc.



Review status of outsourcing activities, maintenance of records related to execution of contracts, timely initiation of new contracts, etc.



Progress of RSP, M&P and Works items



Compliance of various statutory acts laid down by Government of India

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Diesel Officers Organization at HQ: Under overall charge of CME, the diesel organization at HQ, depending on holding of diesel units (including multiple units, counting each Power car as one unit), will be as under: *Holding of Diesel Units ≤

SAG

CMPE/D

>≤

>

JAG

-

CMPE/D CME/O

applemacs.us **P-STC applemacs.us **P-STC

2CMPE/D CME/O applemacs.us **P-STC

SS

applemacs.us(O) EME/D

-

-

2- EME/D

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JS

EME/O

-

-

2-EME/O

1-AEME/ D

-

2- EME/D 2-EME/O

2-AEME/ D

AEME/O

* For the purpose of deciding organization of Mechanical Officers dealing with operations (O), holding of diesel units higher of two: territorial and based on that Railway, will be considered. **P-STC- Principal System Training Centre (explained in Ch-6 of this manual)

CMPE/D & CME(O)/applemacs.us(O) along-with their applemacs.us in their respective fields will be responsible for the effective discharge of the nominated functions and will report directly to the CME.

The CMPE/D with applemacs.us(Diesel) with their officers in-charge of maintenance of units. The CME/O/applemacs.us(O) with their officers in-charge of operation of diesel motive power units, fuel and related matters Functions of CMPE/D/applemacs.us(Diesel)-Intensive utilization of costly diesel motive power units – a prime factor in obtaining the economics inherent in diesel traction, is necessarily based on high standards of maintenance. To achieve this objective, CMPE/D with applemacs.us will on behalf of the CME:

Plan the necessary maintenance facilities in coordination with the planning department of the CME’s office to meet the operational needs.



Assist the CME to select, train and deploy experienced engineers to man the diesel maintenance facilities.



Assess requirements of supervisors for the railway system, plan their recruitment, training and deployment between different maintenance sheds.



Assess requirements of artisans and suitably monitor their availability and training.



Coordinate and review the annual requirements of bulk indent items and placement of demands by COS for both stock and non-stock items. As per present policy such requirements are bulked for ALCO designs of locos at DLMW/PTA and for HHP

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locos at DLW/BSB. Follow up with COS the procurement and availability of spares in the maintenance sheds. Liaison with COS for procurement with drawings and specifications and technical consultative services



Oversee the spares position in the Diesel sheds with the assistance of EME(D)/HQ and assist with timely liaison with stores to prevent hold ups on shortages of spares.



Technical scrutiny and furnish recommendations to stores in all cases of stores procurement of spares.



Processing maintenance/repair/overhauling proposals of field units on trade, of items which require specialized attention or are beyond the powers of the Division or adequate manpower for the same is not available and cannot therefore be handled at the Diesel sheds.



Coordinate with administrative officers of other disciplines in the Railways, Production Unit, Board, Public sector and Manufacturers in regard to matters of common interests.



Maintain a close day to day scrutiny of availability, casualties and performance of diesel units and arrange assistance to the maintenance sheds from all sources so as to ensure the best quality of service.



Oversee the budget, obtain such analysis as required from Accounts and institute measures for reducing costs.



Liaison with RDSO



Provide technical guidance to the Drawings & Designs organization on the Railways to provide the Maintenance sheds, Backshops, COS with drawings, specifications, maintenance information.



Coordinate, analyze and develop corrective measures on the basis of the data made available to the CME through the Management Information System in vogue on the railways. One of the important functions of the CMPE/D & applemacs.us will be to refine such systems.



Carryout periodic field inspections of the diesel maintenance sheds so as to cover each mega shed at least once in 2 months, major once in 3 months and minor once in 4 months. (Guidance may be sought from Para through – a set of selected topics being taken up in each visit). However, this is the suggested periodicity and can be suitably modified according to the local conditions (number and category of sheds, whether operations are also looked after by CMPE/D or not, etc.) on Zonal Railways.



Revised

Suitable liaison with back shops, production units and manufactures on the feedback from the maintenance sheds so as to get a better end product and improved services. For this purpose, he will visit back shops. He will exercise technical control over Diesel Back shops.

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Co-ordinate with field units in processing proposals for sanction of items/assemblies/sub-assemblies/alterations in locos/replacement of old items in Rolling Stock Programme and submit to CWE, after HQ finance vetting. Co-ordinate with field units in processing proposals for sanction of works and M&P required for effective maintenance of diesel units.

Functions of CME(O)/applemacs.us(O)

Train Operations:

Monitor day-to-day matters pertaining to train operations concerning running staff for smooth and efficient operation of train services. Arrange to prepare Loco links and scrutinize Crew links prepared by divisions and implement them through Power Officers of the division, coordinating with adjacent Railways. Coordinate with the divisions for working out the requirement of running staff at each depot, Loco Pilots working hours, implementing hours rule. All Power Officers in the divisions will assist him.

Human Resource Development:

Will be the cadre officer for all the running staff. Oversee the six-monthly reviews made by the divisions about the requirement of running staff and process for recruitment through both lateral-induction and direct-recruitment, keeping close liaison with Personnel branch. Organize training of running staff in initial, promotional and refresher courses, coordinating with Training Schools. Arrange training of supervisors and running staff in Simulator. HSD Installations: Overall in-charge for maintenance of HSD Installations. Power Officers of the division will assist him. Liaison with Railway Board, Stores branch and Oil Firms for smooth supply of Fuel Oil at every HSD Installation. Monitor proper accountal of fuel oil, safety and security at every HSD installation. Running Rooms: Overall in-charge for maintenance of running rooms in the Railway.

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Plan for capacity expansions, depending upon the necessity. Ch-1

Arrange for proper maintenance and upkeep of running rooms through Power Officers in the divisions.

Home

Diesel Loco Operations: No loco of home or foreign Railway to run overdue. Act as a link between Diesel sheds and Operating department. Arrange to prepare power-plan and distribute locos among diesel sheds, accordingly. Ensure proper utilization of diesel powers to meet the requirement of Operating branch. Ensure targeted daily outage of Diesel Locos from Sheds and their distribution over different divisions and other Railways. Coordinate with other adjoining Railways for Diesel Operation. Monitor daily utilization of locos and reduce detention of locos on line. Arrange for timely servicing and scheduling of locos.

ARTs/ SPARTs/MRVs/SPARMVs/BD cranes:

Nodal officer and overall in-charge for maintenance of ARTs/MRVs/SPARTs/SPARMVs and BD Cranes in the Railway, keeping a close liaison with Safety Organization, Mechanical Branch and Divisions. Plan for requirement of tools and other equipment for all the ARTs/MRVs/SPARTs/SPARMVs and BD Cranes and arrange for timely procurement. Coordinate with M&P section of CME's office for getting necessary sanctions under M&P Programme PH Arrange for proper upkeep of all the ARTs/MRVs/SPARTs/SPARMVs and BD cranes.

equipment

in

the

All the Officers of different disciplines in Mechanical department maintaining ARTs/MRVs/SPARTs/SPARMVs maintenance.

and

BD

Cranes

will

assist

him

in

Plan for Training of supervisors and staff in maintenance and operation of equipment of ARTs/MRVs/SPARTs/SPARMVs and BD Cranes. Diesel maintenance organization in the CME’s office: The Diesel maintenance organization in the CME’s office will basically consist of.

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An normally under the Information Acquisition Group (IAG) CME(O)/applemacs.us(O) who obtains the information from all over the system and furnishes a daily report to the CME, CMPE/D, CME(O) / applemacs.us(O), applemacs.us (Diesel) listing the availability and performance of diesel units. Staffing and other details about IAG are given in para of Chapter 2 of this manual. While needs vary, a proforma furnished in Annexure will prove useful for listing out the daily position.



A Technical Services Group (TSG)/(Material & Design) consisting of an experienced engineer in JAG/SS, suitably assisted by a SS/JS engineer and an adequately staffed team of supervisors and technicians. Depending on multiplicity of diesel units this nucleus group can be suitably expanded to meet diverse needs. Duties of this TSG will cover:-

Procurement of spares, consisting ofa) Scrutiny of all stock/non-stock recoupment memos/stocking & RSP proposals for diesel spares. Provision of drawings, wherever required, and specifications and vendors information to the Stores for aiding procurement. In this regard it is brought out that ideally all the drawings, specifications and vendors of RDSO/PUs should be utilized for procurement of material for use in Diesel units. Hence, normally there should not be any need of issue of local drawings, local specifications and locally approved vendors in Zonal Railways. Such instances should be exceptional and reasons for the same should be furnished by in-charge of TSG and approved by CMPE/D for continuing such procurement. b) Maintain material systematic manner, consisting of stocking at various field units, history changesinina specification over a period of time, AAC and consumption at various units, pointing out need of stocking of new items. Review of AAC of each field unit on the basis of past history and consumption in sister units, should be done once in six months, in consultation with officer in-charge of respective field unit and put up to CMPE/D for approval and onwards submission to stores department. c) Scrutiny of all tender offers and furnishing a technical appreciation to the purchase office. Liaison with maintenance sheds, evaluation of feedback information on performance of new design material and vendors. Liaison with RDSO & PUs for updating information on drawings, specifications and sources of supply. For this purpose, the respective website of the PUs and RDSO should be perused by the designated person in the TSG. Visit of each field unit by at least one supervisor of TSG, once in a month, to monitor the quality of material being supplied by various vendors and its field performance. Carryout investigation of causes of poor performance of specific material/items and defining corrective & preventive measures. Ch-1

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Give regular feedback to PUs and RDSO regarding performance of material supplied by various vendors. Keep record and follow up of warranty claims lodged by field units. ABC analysis of costs and follow up on cost control measures. Liaison with field units to frame the bulk indents of the railways. Keep track of various technological developments in loco and assemblies design and maintain proper record of the same. Keep track of various modifications in loco issued by RDSO and PUs, compile them, advised them to field units and monitor their compliance. Process proposals for outsourcing, non-stock procurement, AMC/overhauling, RSP, Miscellaneous, etc. received from sheds. Any other work assigned by CMPE/D. The organization of TSG/(Materials and Designs) will consist of SSEs/JEs and technicians. The technicians will help supervisor in discharge of their duties during visit to field units, for photocopying, binding, maintaining documents, etc. SSE & JE will form a separate cadre, converted from existing drawing cadre. Technicians will come from regular cadre and will go back to parent shed after five years. The staff complement of the TSG, depending upon the holding of dieselRailway, units (including multiple a Zonal will be as under:-units, counting each Power car as one unit) in Holding of Diesel Units ≤

>≤ >

SSE 6 8 10

JE 6 7 8

Technicians 4 6 8

The (TSG)/(Material & Design) should be suitably equipped with advanced computer work station having latest design and drawing software, computer operated duplicating machines, photocopying machine, advanced diagnostic tools like: Vibration measuring equipment, decibel meter, infrared thermometers, thermal imaging camera, high definition digital camera, high definition video camera, measurement equipments such as digital micrometers, digital verniers, thread gauges, basic hand tools, filling cabinets and record keeping equipments, drawing storage equipment ,etc.

A Quality Assurance Group (QAG) consisting of an experienced engineer in JAG/SS suitably assisted by an experienced inspector assists the Administrative officer to provide the backup support in the following fields:-

Maintain various performance statistics related to diesel units: Outage, Ineffective, Reliability, Punctuality, Heavy Schedules, Lube Oil and Fuel Oil consumption, Scrap disposal, etc.

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Analysis of casualties and follow up on casualty prevention procedures. Co-ordination with field units for sending diesel units to shops for POH timely. Co-ordination with Traction Directorate of Railway Board for submitting various information related to Outage, Reliability, Punctuality, allotment/transfer of locos, condemnation of locos, etc. Carry out checking of diesel units in yard and online for assessing the safety and reliability. Carry out Quality Audit of one major assembly and two ready locos (turned out after schedule) in each shed once in a month. Monitor various drives: Summer, Monsoon, Winter, Special Safety and Reliability Drives. Follow up on modification advices with assistance of TSG (Materials & Designs) Monitor follow up of safety, occupational and environmental management in field units Staffing of maintenance sheds – Planning & coordinating recruitment, training, refresher courses. Dissemination of maintenance instructions, manuals etc with the assistance of TSG/ (Materials & Designs). Any other work assigned by CMPE(D). The organization of QAG will consist of SSEs and technicians. The technicians will help supervisor in discharge of their duties. SSEs and Technicians will be drafted from regular maintenance cadre of sheds and will be rotated after every five years. The staff complement of the QAG, depending upon the holding of diesel units (including multiple units, counting each Power car as one unit) in a Zonal Railway, will be as under:Holding of Diesel Units ≤

>≤ >

SSE 4 6 8

Technicians 2 4 6

Field Organization:



The Field Organization on the Railways will consist of:-

The Diesel motive power maintenance sheds The outstation fuelling and servicing/ trouble shooting points. Operations of diesel units on the divisions

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A typical Diesel Motive power maintenance shed holding locos usually maintains Rs. crores worth of assets, spends annually a maintenance and lubricant budget of Rs. 16 crores and is closely linked with an annual fuel budget of over Rs. crores. Owing to the high level of investment and the high cost repercussion of out of service coupled with the complexity of the equipment, maintenance activities are no longer simple servicing and breakdown repairs. The maintenance management organization in the shed has to provide a comprehensive, well organized and administered engineering service. Various technical studies undertaken by RDSO have established the need for a wider and larger engineering service. Deployment of a larger number of trained engineers with the availability of sophisticated cost and time saving diagnostic techniques is becoming a must. Managerial organization of sheds will be as under:-

In view of a large variation in sizes, Diesel Sheds are place in three categories, as under:• • •

Mega Sheds – Holding > to ≤ locos Major Sheds – Holding > to ≤ locos Minor Sheds – Holding ≤ locos

Depending on the loco holding, the following orgainsation structure at diesel shed level is proposed:Shed Category

Holding

JA grade officer

Mega Shed

>≤ 1+*1

Major Shed

>≤ 1

Minor Shed



SS officer

3

6

2+*1

1

JS officer 10+*1

4

1

Total

7+*1

2+*1

4+*1

*One Principal DTTC, as explained in Chapter 6 of this manual Beside these officers, the following officers / subordinate staff are also required:Shed Type

Holding

Mega Shed

>≤ SMM

Major Shed

>≤SMM/AMM CMT/ACMT APO

Minor Shed





Stores

M&C CMT

AMM

Personnel Finance Engg. DPO

ACMT

SAO

DEN

AAO

OS (P)

SO

AEN Sup (W)

The diesel sheds will be independent units and will be under direct control of CME/CMPE(D), like workshops are under CME/CWE.



The Engineer-in-Charge of the Diesel Motive Power maintenance shed will be in overall charge of all technical and administrative matters in the shed connected with the maintenance of the stock and facilities. His activities range over “pure maintenance” with its attendant planning, operation of maintenance facilities, supervision to alterations/ modifications, and commissioning new designs and stock. The following list is illustrative:-

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Plan preventive maintenance of the stock with judicious use of regular scheduled maintenance, judiciously executed planned re-placement, and as also breakdown maintenance – replace when defective in accordance with various guidelines of RDSO/ manufacturers and the railways experience. Execute the above plan. Design, operate and utilize a suitable management information system (Guide lines are available in the chapter on MIS) Frame a budget and operate within it. Design and oversee a suitable documentation service so that the past guides the future with the help of data on identification of areas and information on the frequency of failures. Mean Time between failure (MTBF), data on rate of wear, etc. Oversees the planning and procurement of material for which he will be assisted by a suitable stores organization under the charge of an officer, the administrative control of the stores organization will rest with the Engineer –in-charge of the shed.

While no single procedure of business can universally apply to all sheds and types of motive power, the following will serve as a useful guideline which may be modified by the Engineer-in-Charge as found necessary to suit local conditions. Details of the documents, proforma etc. are available in the chapter on “MIS”.

Short term:a) The engineers and senior supervisors of the shed review the progress in the past twenty four hours and plan the work in hand of the next twenty four hours with the help of a ‘Daily Position Sheet’. This is made available at their residences by hrs. and has the position current upto hrs. This paper provides information on: outage in the last 24 hrs, casualties, outturn of locos from the various repair centers inclusive of the average time taken. For planning the days work the Daily Position Sheet gives the disposition of locos at various repair centers. The early scrutiny of this position sheet permits early planning to get repairs off to a flying start. b) A “Repair summary” of the locos that have come in the last 24 hrs with remark regarding repairs done and test results is made available a little later in the day. This permits a quick check on the efficacy of the repairs done and permits locos to be recalled or corrective measures instituted on the basis of this data. c) A “Repeated booking register” maintained loco-wise where dates that a particular item has been booked are posted under the appropriate column is used to keep tab on the general health of the fleet and Monitor a ‘no defect’ programme. Usually selected items are nominated for this book. A few of the items are changed from time to time as designs change or maintenance improves and attention is shifted to another area. However, now with advancements in information

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technology such booking of repeated bookings should be done directly by section in-charge through a computer provided to him. d) The vital parameters like water level & its concentration, lube oil level (taking into account additions, if any), Traction Motor & Traction Generator Gear Case lubricant level, Suspension bearing oil level to be checked for abnormal consumption by checking the record of outgoing and incoming levels. Accordingly, investigation to be done and corrective measures taken e)

“Lube oil consumption” record is checked to identify locos requiring attention

f) “Lube oil control” record is checked for spectrograph result, TBNE, Insolubles, fuel dilution, etc which gives a fair indication of engine condition. g) The “Loco scheduling” records provide information on planning of schedules, locating overdues and controlling maintenance attention so that optimization is achieved. h) The “Loco Alterations” records are scrutinized to monitor progress in effecting loco alterations directed from time to time. i) The “Water treatment” records are scrutinized to monitor that water treatment is being correctly done. Depletion in concentration and reduction in water level are used as an index of water leak and such locos are picked up for a special check. j) The “Load Test” record of each loco passing through annual schedule is checked over to ensure correct performance. k) Sample checks are done of the schedule forms. l) Sample checks are done of the water treatment plants output. m) Sample checks of fuel records n) Regular checks of plants and equipment out of commission or awaiting installation. o) Sample checks of quality of work at various repair centers, inclusive of night inspection p) Scrutiny of consumption of selected items- high value – with a view to assess judicious utilization q) Daily scrutiny of the “Casualties” register and follow up on remedial action with weekly meetings on nominated days with the maintenance team with senior supervisors and supervisors of the sections concerned involved in failures.

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Organization of the maintenance Sheds- Basically the organization is functional. Arrangements may vary to suit local conditions, but broadly they are grouped as under:-

Annual and above schedules Semi-annual schedules Monthly and quarterly schedules Trip Schedules Non-scheduled repair Over hauling sections – divided into several subgroups covering: Controls, Airbrake, Fuel injection equipment, Switch gear, Governor, Auxiliary machines, Traction Generator/Alternator and Traction motors, Compressors, Tool room, Standards room for gauges and their repairs inclusive of calibration of speedometer, etc. Trucks and chassis Millwright ( inclusive of electric equipment) Statistics or Repair office organization who does the scheduling and maintain the register Engine alterations Safety and Housekeeping Services Technical Services Group (Materials & Designs) – maintains Technical Specifications, Drawings, Other Technical Information, Updating maintenance instructions, prepare proposals, etc. This Group will maintain close liaisoning with HQ group.

Field Organization for Operations of Diesel Units:

The field organization of mechanical officers looking after operation of diesel units at the divisional level will be as under: Territorial of the Disel units# Holding on the Division >75≤ >25≤75 ≤25

JA grade officer 1 1 1

SS officer 1

JS officer 2 2 1

Total 4 3 2

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Functions of applemacs.us will be as under: a) Diesel loco activities: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Monitor diesel operations: punctuality and engine failures Monitor movement of due/overdue schedule locos Conducting load trials to fix optimum load to avoid stallings Fixing trip rations All other matters related to loco operations

b) Running staff matters: i. Half yearly reviews of requirement of running staff ii. Ensuring Training & Periodical Medical Examinations of running staff iii. Filling up of the vacancies of running staff including ensuring placement of indent on RRB iv. Drawal of crew links v. Monitor 10 Hrs implementation duty, Computerization of crew booking and other duties connected to Running staff c) Fuelling Points – Fuel Management: i. Ensuring proper maintenance of fuelling equipment ii. Availability of HSD oil, receipt, issues, consumption of HSD oil on day to day basis iii. Accountal offuel GTKMs, SFC, Trip rations, fuel budget and all other matters connected to d) Lobbies i. Computerisation of crew booking points ii. Compliance and issue of safety instructions to be followed for running staff, supply of safety bulletins, conducting safety seminars iii. Other activities connected to crew management like number of hours earned and KMs earned by LPs and ALPs e) Accident Relief Trains: i. All matters connected to maintenance and operation of ARTs including MRVs, HREs, HRDs and BD Cranes, etc. ii. Overall in-charge for relief and restoration at accident site. f) Running Rooms: i. Maintenance of Running rooms as per the standards laid down by the Board ii. The above duties are in addition to the duties on Carriage and Wagon side

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Annexure Daily Position to be put up to CMPE/ D regarding Performance and Availability of Diesel Units 1. Daily summary position: containing shed-wise punctuality, failures, outage, both on ownership and territorial, POH summary, overdue schedule locos summary, dead locos summary, new locos, etc. 2. Daily Punctuality and failure details: containing details of individual cases of punctuality and failures. 3. Daily summary of loco movement: containing individual details of locos going from and to shops, new locos, transfer locos, position of locos in POH, dead loco movements, link casualties, etc. 4. Daily detail accountal of diesel locos: containing details of goods locos in passenger service, departmental, shunting and siding, etc. 5. Daily repair position of locos: containing status of repair of individual locos in sheds. 6. Daily Inferior locos position: containing details of individual inferior service locos. 7. Daily overdue schedule locos position: containing details of overdue schedule locos. 8. Daily FOIS loco position-ownership: containing summary of shed wise loco position 9. Daily FOIS loco position-territorial: containing summary of division wise loco position Daily position HSD oil in RCDs: If operations are also being looked after by CMPE/D Detention of train on crew account; If operations are also being looked after by CMPE/D

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INDEX Chapter 2 Operations Management

Para No.

Description

Page No.



Operations Concept

21



Organization – Railway Board’s level

21



Daily Outage

22



Ineffective Position

22



Zonal Railways

22



Central Power Control Organization

23



Facilities

24



Maintenance Schedules

24



Operation

24



Crew Management

25



Crew Link

33



Diesel Operation Organization on the Divisions

35



Power Plan

36



Classification of Loco Failures

37



Daily Position

38



Crew Management System

40



REMMLOT

41



FOIS

43



Safety through Embedded Intelligence on Diesel Locos

43

Annexure Training of Loco Running Staff

44

Annexure Records to be Maintained at a Crew Booking lobby Annexure Information to be Available/Displayed in the crew lobby

45 46

Annexure Facilities at Crew Booking Lobby

47

Annexure Personal Stores of a Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot

47

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2. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Operations Concept: Diesel locos are costly assets. Therefore, it calls for a different operational concept for their management to achieve effective utilization and get the best results. An effective operations controlare management, requirement and monitoring, and their training required for loco effective utilization of its diesel locos. A crew dieselrequirement loco would cater to the power requirement of several divisions and even on the adjoining railways. Therefore, an effective Central Power Control Organization is required at the railway headquarter to monitor and direct the movement of diesel locos between different divisions in accordance with the requirement. Organization – Railway Board level With the increasing traffic requirement, the power requirements for each Railway need a very close scrutiny so that the allotment is made to get the best operational results, keeping in view the maintenance facilities available. At the same time, as more and more diesel locos are put on the line, the workload of utilizing these costly assets for the optimum return and coordination of diesel operation between different railways would increase. Hence, there is need that Director Mechanical Engineering Traction be assisted by a Joint Director and two Dy. Directors, duly supported by three Assistant Directors. The organization chart is given in para of Chapter 1 of this manual. This organization will be responsible for the following: Allotment and distribution: The requirement of diesel locos of each railway should be examined and the allotment made according to the priorities laid down. Depending upon the traffic needs, it may also sometimes require transfer of diesel locos from one zone to another for making necessary adjustments. Development of the diesel loco maintenance facilities to meet the operational demand is also required to be planned, commensurate with the projected diesel loco holding of the Zonal Railway/Area. Daily Outage: Monitor performance of different zonal railways with regard to daily availability of locos, i.e., day to day diesel outage, particularly with regard to locos of one zonal railway working on another railway, in accordance with the directives and the quota fixed from time to time. Ensuring reliable operation of the locos by monitoring day to day punctuality of important mail/express train. Analyzing failure of diesel locos online with regard to the reliability of their performance.

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Rendering assistance of material from DLW/DLMW and other railways to reduce the ineffective period, where locos are held up for long duration. Coordinating with RDSO/DLW/DLMW for sorting out major design/vendor related issues, affecting reliability of locos. Utilization of locos, i.e., Engine Kms/day/ engine “In use” and ‘ On Line’ Managing various issues related to Crew / loco Management. Managing various issues related to Diesel Fuel and Lubricants. Daily Outage: The outage of diesel locos for goods traffic would be fixed on the following basis: Total locos on line = N Ineffective percentage = N (N for HHP locos) Locos in use = N (N for HHP locos) Mail/Express/Passenger Link=L Spares for running maintenance = 10% of ( N-L) (5% for HHP locos) Outage

=N ( N for HHP locos), if L=Zero, otherwise as per the

calculation Ineffective Position: Ineffective position of diesel locos on each railway would also be watched daily to maintain the maximum outage of diesel locos. If any locos are held up for long duration, necessary assistance of material from DLW or other railways would be rendered to reduce the ineffective percentage. The provision of ineffective towards maintenance is 10% for the Alco locos (consisting approx. of 5% for heavy schedules 2% for POH and 3% for corrective maintenance, waiting for material etc.), other than WDP1 & WDP3A for which ineffective prescribed is %. The same will be 5% for HHP locos (consisting approx. of 3% for heavy schedules 1% for POH and 1% for corrective maintenance, waiting for material etc.). Zonal Railways: CME(O)/applemacs.us will be responsible for the following aspects of diesel operation: Planning and utilization of diesel locos to meet with the requirements of passenger, goods and other services on the Railway. Distribution of diesel locos between different divisions on the railway. Ensure daily outage target of diesel locos from sheds and their distribution over different divisions and railways.

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Co-ordinate with other railways for diesel operations. Watch daily utilization of diesel locos on each division and other railways. Reduce detentions to diesel locos on line. Plan servicing and scheduling facilities for diesel locos keeping in view the operating requirements. Ensure timely dispatch of locos to base sheds for undergoing prescribed maintenance schedule (locos not to run overdue schedule) Ensure reliability of diesel locos in operation. Keep a check on daily position of diesel loco failures and its repercussions on punctuality of coaching and goods operation. Analyze cases of loco failures and take remedial measures. Timely Movement of disabled diesel locos. Induction/Promotional and Refresher Training of running staff for diesel operation. Keep a check on crew link for passenger services and 10 hours duty working for goods services. Provision, maintenance and operation of HSD oil installation for fueling of diesel locos. Ensuring fuel economy in operation. Co-ordinate, upkeep and maintenance of all ARTs/SPARTs, ARMVs/SPARMVs and Break Down Cranes available in the Zone. Central Power Control Organization: A central Power Control Organization at the Railway Headquarters shall be provided for exercising the necessary control on diesel operation. This will be staffed by a Chief Power Controller, with two Power Controllers in each shift to function round the clock. An assistant (Group C) and a Group D staff shall also be provided in each shift to the shift Power Controllers for maintaining the various records, distributing daily position, various documents, etc. to the HQ officers. However, this scale of organization can be suitably enhanced depending on the local conditions, with the approval of CME. The Central Power Control will be responsible for: Maintaining close liaison between the shed and division regarding the power distribution. Monitoring availability of locos from each shed for traffic on 4-hourly basis. Continuous collection of factual data of loco position on each division on 4- hourly basis. Monitoring ineffective locos in sheds. Watching position of locos for schedule attention. Revised

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Forecast of locos to be turned out from shed. Keeping a watch on the movement of disabled, overdue schedule, new and locos from/to POH/Rebuilding shops.

Daily utilization of diesel locos on each division.

Monitoring of VVIP / VIP specials like MR, MOSR, GM, etc. from point of view of arrangement of diesel loco and running staff requirement. Close monitoring of ART /SPART, ARMV/SPMRT & BD Cranes during accidents. Monitoring of diverted trains in coordination with Zones & Divisions. Facilities: The Central Power Control Organization should be well equipped, to enable it to discharge its function efficiently. It should have suitable and well-furnished accommodation which is free from other disturbances. The key to proper functioning of centralized power control organization is prompt and efficient communication facilities. Central Power Control Organization should be able to contact all diesel sheds, Divisional Control Organization and all the major yards directly, and if possible, simultaneously, so that instructions to all concerned can be conveyed without delay. One P&T Line, three Railway phones with STD, two CUG phones, two computers with FOIS connectivity, two printers and one photocopier should be available to enable Central Power Control to get in touch with Central Control on other Railways, other diesel sheds and individual Officers, LIs/LPs/ALPs, Supervisors, etc., to effectively monitor the loco performance and prepare various types of information required.

Maintenance Schedules: Strict enforcement of maintenance schedule is one of the important responsibility of the Central Power Control Organization. If the locos are not attended for schedule maintenance in time, it would not only affect its reliability but would also cause serious setback to the maintenance as well as availability of diesel locos. The uneven flow of locos will result in shed capacity going underutilized during lean period and locos waiting for repairs when there is bunching of locos. As a rule, the loco should not be booked to work trains after the due date except with the specific permission of the Dy. CME (Diesel) or the Engineer-in-charge of the shed. The Central Power Control should therefore prepare a list of diesel locos which are due for schedule attention four days in advance and relay these numbers to the divisions on which the locos are working on that day so that they can be booked on trains working towards the home shed and reach in time for undergoing schedule attention.

Operations Passenger services: Allotment of diesel locos for passenger services is made on the basis of loco links. Loco links for working passenger services should be so framed as to get the

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maximum advantage of extended runs by providing fuelling facilities and change of crews en-route. Loco Link: Loco link is an arrangement of loco for working a set of trains from one station to another for Mail/Express/Passenger trains. Loco link gives the requirement of locos required to run the given number of trains. Loco link is prepared by HQ office in consultation with COM. Factors to be considered while preparing a loco link: 1) Availability of the Locos 2) Trip Inspection (Mail/Express /Passenger locos are required to be given trip inspection within the link) 3) Lie over period at destination station: When a loco completes its journey after working a train, this loco is sent to yard, trip shed etc. This loco is again attached to the train as per the link. The period for which it remains idle at destination station (i.e. the time period when loco is detached and again attached to train) is known as lie over period of the loco. This time should be adequate to take care of the types of attention required to be given to loco 4) Total Kms earned during trip should normally not exceed Kms. 5) Fueling locations. For every 30 locos in link, an additional overlapping loco shall be provided to cater for higher schedules (as per Railway Board’s letter no. /TT-IV/9/3 nd dated 2 Nov’06).

Goods operation:

The allotment of diesel loco for each division is worked out on the basis of number of through goods trains to be run daily on different sections. The number of diesel locos required for working the planned number of trains is arrived at on the of BG target of loco Kms locosingle in use. Normally, of basis Km on double-line and per day km per on BG – line per dayutilization per loco can be adopted. The actual targets should be fixed by each Railway taking into consideration the operating conditions prevailing on that Railway. To get the best results, all diesel loco operating goods trains should be run on fixed paths. This system is also helpful in forecasting the number of locos which are likely to be available at terminals or the interchange points The movement of each diesel loco in 24 hours should be monitored and plotted on a chart having hourly divisions. Locos working passenger and goods services should be plotted in different colors. The detention to locos in yards can also be shown in a distinct manner for clearly bringing out the utilization of the locos. Similarly, the idle time when a loco is waiting in the yard for load can be shown in a different manner Crew Management Training of Crew: Induction/Promotional training of crews for diesel operation and conducting refresher courses for the running staff should be organized by the Headquarters Office at the various Diesel Technical Training Centers on the Railway. A competency certificate must be issued to the running staff after they have been trained and qualified for operating each type of diesel loco. Revised

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In addition, special courses for diesel operation shall also be organized for the Trainers and Loco Inspectors. Details of training content and periodicity for promotional and refresher courses for LIs, LPs, Shunters and ALPs prescribed by Railway Board are given at Annexure After completion of training of particular(s) types of diesel unit(s) by running staff, endorsement of that diesel unit(s) should be made in their competency certificate. After a Loco Pilot/ Shunter/ Assistant Loco Pilot has done the basic course of a diesel electric unit, he can be retrained for Diesel Electric Multiple Unit/ Diesel Hydraulic Multiple Unit with a short 3 week familiarization course. Such courses should include 1 week of handling/on line training with Loco Inspector. In the event of a Loco Pilot / Shunter not having handled a particular type of unit for which he had been trained for a period of more than 6 months, he should be given 3 trips of handling with Loco Inspector. In the event of the period exceeding 18 months, the 3 week familiarization course as mentioned in para should be repeated. Road Learning Training: (i)

Road Learning training is given to running staff to make themselves conversant with signal locations and other operating conditions. This training is essential before a LPLearning or ALP is booked to work travel the train section. the Road period, LP/ALPs in independently the section onin loco andDuring make themselves aware with the following aspects of train working:

Revised

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Locations of signal at each station of the section. Idea of visibility of signals of each station. Intermediate block signaling in section. Automatic and semi-automatic signals. Location of spring points in section. Approximate idea of gradient of the section and ruling gradient. Siding at various places in section where goods train are placed or removed. Locations of Permanent speed restriction in section. Maximum load allowed in section with single and multiple locos. Banking section where banker is provided to avoid stalling of the train.

k) l) m) n) o) p)

Maximum permissible and booked speed of the train in section. Idea of capacity of loop lines at various stations. Idea of running time in section. Restriction of not stopping the good trains at certain stations or signals Knowledge of WTT Knowledge of approximate trip rations for different locos and loads.

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(ii) Every new LP should be given three trips, including one night trip between hrs. to hrs. This scale of trips would apply to all systems of working, including sections having one train only system of working. During road learning crew should sign ON & OFF, like working crew. (iii) After completion of Road Learning, LP/ALP should submit the diary indicating the Road Learning taken by them. During the Road Learning training, they should obtain the signature of the LP of the train by which they traveled during their Road Learning training. In addition to above, the depot in-charge should also interview the crew of his depot, to judge the knowledge gained during Road Learning. If the performance is unsatisfactory, the Road Learning period can be extended suitably with knowledge of branch officer. (iv) After the road learning training, the candidate should give a declaration as per the format given as under:-

FORMAT “I hereby declare that I have taken Road Learning in following section. ______________________________________________________________ applemacs.us Section Date of learning No. of trips From To 1. 2. 3. 4. Now, I aminfully familiar sections. with the requirements for safe and efficient operations the aforesaid Signature:_______________________ Name:__________________________ Design:__________________________ Date:____________________________ (v)

diesel

If the candidate is not confident of Road Learning, in the prescribed period, he may ask for an extension of road learning period to his depot in-charge. On getting such request, Road Learning period shall be suitably extended.

(vi) A register should be maintained at crew booking point indicating the Road Learning validity of LP/ALPs. Before a LP/ ALP is allowed to work the train, a declaration should be obtained that he has taken the Road Learning of the section and he is fully familiar to work the train in the section. (vii) If a LP/ALP has not operated on a section for over three months, he should be given Road Learning trips as per schedule given below:Absence of 3 to 6 months 6 months to two years Absence of over 2 years.

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Number of Trips One trip Two trips Three trips (as given to new entrants)

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(viii) More over the depot in-charge should keep watch on the trips performed by a particular crew so that if any crew has not operated in a particular section for about two or two and half months, such crew should be identified immediately and booked to such section. This will avoid expiry of Road Learning of the crew. Training as Co-LP:- It is normally a good practice to allow the newly promoted LP to work as Co-LP for a month along with the experienced goods LP. This helps to get the feel of driving and absorbing the driving technique by newly promoted candidate and clarify his doubts. During this period of working as a Co-LP, the nominated loco inspector keeps a watch on the performance of the LP, guides and counsels him suitably. System of monitoring and counseling of running staff:- The working of running staff needs to be continuously monitored to ensure safe train operation. The running staff, i.e., LPs / ALPs belong to a category of staff who are not available at a time on a given workplace. In other types of working, like workshops and sheds, the work place of the staff is definite and therefore, any instruction can be given to the staff in a planned manner. On the contrary, the running staff, moves from one place to another and working is round the clock, with no fixed period of duty and rest. Therefore, giving instructions, counseling and taking the feedback on their working becomes very difficult and cumbersome. Running staff either remains on line or takes rest in running room / at their HQ station. Therefore, they can be counseled / monitored only when they come for duty at the time of sign on and also during their journey by way of foot plate inspection. The system is as under: Categorization of LPs: On the basis of monitoring done by LI of their nominated LPs, they will be assigned/reviewed Categories :A, B, C & D, as per Board’s guidelines contained in letter no. 97/Safety-I/23/15 dated 29/03/ Monitoring and counseling by Loco Inspector: a) Division has certain number of loco inspectors. Each loco inspector should be allotted 15 LPs. These nominated LPs are monitored and counseled by loco inspector during their foot plate inspection and their visit to lobbies. The periodicity of monitoring of the LP as per their category is: ‘A’ are once in 2 months, ‘B’ once in a month and ‘C’ once in a fortnight by their nominated loco inspector. Monitoring should include both up and down directions, all sections, as per crew beat, in night also and for all types of stock. b) It has become important to formally monitor Shunters and ALPs as they also play an important part in ensuring safe train operations. Hence, one LI should be nominated to monitor 45 shunters or 45 ALPs. These Shunters and ALPs should be monitored, at least once in 3 months. No categorization of Shunters/ALPs is considered necessary. c) One LI can be assigned mix of LPs/Shunters/ALPs, keeping the overall workload same e.g. 3 Shunters/ALPs can be assigned to a LI, in place of one LP. So, LIs can be assigned: 15 LPs or 45 Shunters or 45 ALPs or 10 LPs + 15 Shunters/ALPs or 10 LPs + 6 Shunters + 9 ALPs, etc.

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d) Loco inspector should submit reports to applemacs.us (Power) once in a fortnight. This report would include the performance of their nominated LPs/Shunters/ALPs in respect of technical knowledge, driving techniques (as applicable), safety awareness and traffic rules. The ones found lacking in knowledge during such inspection are to be given special training in his area(s) of weaknesses so that their performance can be brought upto the mark. Such training is imparted in Diesel Technical Training Center (DTTC) of division which is generally headed by a Sr. Loco Inspector (Training). All new Goods LPs should be treated as ‘C’ category, for first 4 months. e) On receipt of the report from loco inspector, the frequency of monitoring done by these inspectors are compiled and it is seen whether any LP/Shunter/ALP is overdue for monitoring by loco inspector or not. If any LP/Shunter/ALP is found overdue for monitoring, the nominated inspector is questioned. Special training to ‘C’ category and weak LPs (including Shunters and ALPs): There are some LPs in division who lack in one field or other of train operations and driving techniques. Such LPs should be identified and their weak area like traffic rule knowledge, trouble shooting technique etc. identified with the help of their nominated loco inspector and suitable training of one or two weeks need to be planned to upgrade their knowledge and driving skill. A special watch is required to be kept on the LPs classified as ‘C’ category. Watch on the accident prone and alcoholic LPs (including Shunters and ALPs): (1) List of alcoholic LPs and (2) list of accident prone LPs shall be maintained in each lobby. The LPs are included in this list based on the monitoring reports received and from loco inspectors. Accident prone LPs will require frequent monitoring counseling regarding safety rules and correct method of working in some risky situations. Similarly, more ambush checks are required to be done on alcoholic LPs to find out whether the condition of LP is sober or not. Visit of running staff to Trip Shed / Diesel Loco Shed: Loco inspectors should take their nominated LPs, who are found weak in awareness about loco trouble shooting, for training in loco shed or trip shed for practical demonstration of trouble shooting to improve their skill.

Regular issue of Safety Circulars, General Instructions, Safety Camp and Meetings:

Safety Circulars & Technical Instructions: The safety branch regularly issues the safety circulars indicating the salient features of train operation. This safety circular also highlights the recent unusual/accidents which have taken place due to human failures. Running staff should go through these safety circulars and note the contents of the safety circulars for strict compliance. Similarly, executive branch i.e. mechanical branch, issues the instructions which are mainly technical in nature. This is done to upgrade the knowledge of running staff, make them aware of the recent developments taking place in technical upgradation of loco and rolling stock. These safety circulars and general instructions to running staff are kept in specific folders at crew booking point where the LPs/ALPs sign on and sign off. At the time of signing on, the running Revised

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staff shall go through these important instructions, make themselves aware and acknowledge the same. Issue of Monthly Bulletin: Divisions issue monthly bulletins to the LPs. These monthly bulletins highlight the important points of train operation to be followed by running staff. At the same time, case studies of recent failures are also written in simple language with the advice to running staff to follow the correct procedure to avoid recurrence of such mistakes. These monthly bulletins should be circulated to all running staff, even individual copies given to all, if required, duly taking acknowledgement.

Safety Camps: Safety camps are held at various places in division at an interval of a week’s time. These safety camps are organized by safety branch in which experienced safety counselors are associated. In these safety camps, the running staff assemble at a given station and they are counseled on important aspects of train working. These aspects of train working are explained in simple and interesting manner by having man to man contact. Any doubt during such safety camps is clarified and even practical demonstration is arranged. Full use of these safety camps should be ensured for the benefit of the running staff. Safety Meetings. It shall be held by lobby in-charge atleast twice a month. In these safety meetings, safety circulars, general instructions, issued during the month are read and the same is explained to each and every staff of the depot. Crew Booking Lobby: The crew change point is provided in the division keeping in view the duty at hours the LPs. There are stations whereLPs only LPs are changed whereas someofstations coaching as well as goods aregoods also changed. Each crew booking lobby is manned by a Crew Booking Shunter who is a member of running staff. In addition to Crew Booking Shunter, each crew booking lobby can have an indoor and outdoor Shunters depending on the workload. The crew booking points may have a Chief Crew Controller/crew controller in the lobby who is in charge of the crew booking point. Support staff in the lobby for calling the LPs/ALPs, entering CTRs into computer, other data entry, etc. will be provided as per the local conditions and workload. Records to be maintained and information to be displayed at Crew Booking Lobby & its facilities are given at Annexures , & Crew Booking Lobby Working System: The Crew Booking Shunter gets the Train Notice containing the information of expected arrival of train, loco number, and train number. As per the availability of crew, Crew Booking Shunter sends the call to the LP and ALP, about two hours in advance of the time of expected arrival of the train, mentioning the required reporting time. Whenever the LP comes for sign ON or sign OFF, Crew Booking Shunter ensures that the same is done properly. The brief description of duties of the Crew Booking Shunter is given as under :a) To maintain the sign ON/OFF register properly. b) To ensure B.A. (Breath Analyser) test of crew at the time of signing ON / Signing OFF Ch-2 Revised

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c) To call the crew for the train as per Train Notice given by traffic department. d) To maintain the book of availability of LP upto date. e) To maintain the training particulars (Technical/G&SR), PME & LR particulars of the crew. f) To have close liaison with the crew controller in control office for balancing the LPs from one depot to another. g) To ensure timely loading/unloading of LPs’ line boxes containing their personal stores. h) Strive to achieve hrs. of progressive duty in a FN for each LP/ALP, without causing any Breach of his Rest i) Providing prescribed Periodic Rest every month to running staff j) Strive for reducing both Pre-Departure Detention and Post Arrival Detention of crew. Personal Stores of LP and ALP: LP is the only person available on a train who is technically more competent than the other Railway staff like T.T.E, conductor, guard etc. present on the train. Therefore, LP of the train is provided with certain important tools so that the minor trouble in loco, coaches or wagons can attended to and of section canare begiven cleared without undue to the applemacs.uscribed items the LPs at Annexure This is given to detention each LP as personal store. In addition to LP, three items required for train operations are also given to ALP, which is also issued to each ALP as personal store. List of these items is also given at Annexure Method of issue of personal stores to LPs and ALPs: As soon as the staff is promoted as LP (or inducted as ALP), he is given required training and issued with personal store as mentioned in para above by the depot in-charge. The concerned depot in-charge maintains a register wherein details for issue of personal store to LP/ALP, along with his signature, is recorded. Whenever a LP/ALP is transferred or retires, the personal stores is taken back and kept in store for issue to other LPs/ALPs. Whenever a LP/ALP is on duty, the personal stores shall be kept by the LP/ALP. This personal store of LP is kept in a box called line box, while ALP keeps his stores in his personal bag. Periodical Medical Examination (PME) of running staff: Medical examination of running staff is very important for ensuring the safety of train operation. Railway Board vide letter No. 88/H/5/12 dated have given the guidelines for medical examination. A thorough and stringent Medical Examination, including X-ray (Chest), ECG, Urine Examination. Blood sugar Estimation, or any other investigation/observation as deemed fit by the medical examiner is to be done keeping in mind the following conditions: Hypertension, Diabetes Ischemic Heart disease, Hearing, Mental condition / Reactions of the Ch-2

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candidates, Visual Ability as per instructions laid down in medical manual from time to time. No running staff should remain overdue PME. Technical and G&SR refresher: No running staff should remain overdue technical and G&SR refresher course. Issue of competency certificate to running staff: Whenever the running staff passes the training course along with necessary handling and Road Learning training, a competency certificate is issued to authorize to carry out the work for which he is trained and found fit after examination by concerned training centre and same to be certified by divisional Power Officer. Duty Hours of Running Staff: It is very essential to know the duty hours of running staff for their efficient management. Similarly, the allowance paid to running staff are different than that of other category of staff. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the type of allowances paid to running staff for better management. The running staff are classified as continuous. The duty hours for running staff is counted from sign ON to sign OFF. The duty hours for the running staff are: Max. Hrs to be utilized = hours in a fortnight. Normally, running staff are not put on duty for more than 10 hrs at a stretch. They can claim rest after performing 12 hours duty provided they have given 2 hours notice. Rest to Running Staff a. Periodic Rest: No. of periodic rest in a month = 4 rests of 30 hrs each or 5 rests of 22 hrs each, including a night in bed. This rest should normally be given in a week. b. HQ rest: For duty less than 8 hours = 12 hours rest. For duty more than 8 hours = 16 hours rest. c. Outstation rest: For duty hrs of 8 hrs or more = 8 hrs. rest. For duty hrs. less than 8 hrs. = rest equal to number of hours of duty. However, in this regard it is mentioned that in HOER, there is no mention of outstation rest to be given for duty less than 8 hours. However, for duty hours less than eight, as a convention many Railways are giving rest equal to number of duty hours performed. While giving the HQ or outstation rest as above, 2 hrs call time is also included. d. Night Duty: Running staff should not perform night duty for more than 6 consecutive nights. However, it is preferable if it is restricted to 3 consecutive nights only. e. Period outside HQ: They should not be out of headquarters for more than 72 hours continuously. However, it is preferable if it is restricted to 48 hours only. Ten-Hours Duty: Implementation of 10 hour duty of running staff is one of the important functions of Divisional Power Control Organization. A special duty Inspector for the Central Organization and one on each division is required to keep a check on this aspect. Duty hours put in by the running staff should be maintained for each section with complete break-up of pre-departure detention, Ch-2 Revised

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hours on road, post arrival detention so that the cases of over 10 hours duty could be analyzed and suitable remedial measures taken. Pre-departure detention of the crew: The time period from the sign on of crew to actual departure of the train is known as pre-departure detention of the crew. To illustrate this, let us assume that crew of the train has signed on at hrs and the actual departure of the train could take place at hrs due to line clear etc. therefore in this case pre-departure detention of the crew will be – = 2’30”. PDD should not increase more than 30 minutes by proper coordination between Power and Operating Deptt. It is essential to mention that higher the pre-departure detention, more will be the bursting of ten hours duty cases and requirement of running staff. Therefore, division should make all out efforts to minimize the pre-departure detention of crew. Post Arrival Detention: This is the time which the crew takes after arrival of train to sign off at destination/crew change point station. This time is generally 30”. However, if the arrival point of goods train is far away from the crew booking lobby, the crew may take more time to come to lobby to sign off. Time for Crew Change: LP should be given at least 20” for ensuring proper checking of the loco at crew changing points.



Running allowances for running staff: Running staff are paid running allowance instead of TA. Certain percentage of the running allowance is taken into account as pay for fixation of pension, leave salary, etc.

Crew link is prepared for ensuring proper mail/express/passenger utilization of running staff andonfora Crew Link: the calculating requirement of LPs/ALPs for running trains division. Factors to be considered while preparing crew link: Running time between two crew change points: While deciding the crew change point for Mail/Express/Passenger train, it is planned that the running time between two crew change point should not exceed 8 hours, as far as possible. Therefore, while making the crew link, this point should be taken into account and crew change point should be decided accordingly. Provision of running room at crew change point is essential so that LPs signing off at crew change point may take rest properly. Ensuring prescribed HQ rest, outstation rest and periodic rest. Excessive detention of LP/ALP in outstation running room should also be avoided. Duty hours in a fortnight: Crew link should be made in such a way that LP/ALP is utilized for not more than hours in a fortnight. Moreover, link should not be slack so that LP/ALP remains underutilized. Therefore, based on the time table timings, efforts should be made to optimize the use of LP/ALP. Procedure for making a Crew Link: Working time table (WTT): First of all, the arrival and departure timing of all the Mail/Express and Passenger trains at crew change points should be noted down for which crew link is to be made.

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LP signs on about 30” before the arrival / departure of the train to go through SOB and safety literature etc. Similarly, LP takes about 30” to sign off after arrival of the train for completing the work of Handing over the loco and repeating the punctuality position of train, unusual and S&T defects to Power Controller. Therefore, this one hour time should be taken into account while calculating the duty hours of LP. Calculation of sanctioned strength of LPs and ALPs : The procedure of calculation of the sanctioned strength of LPs is as under (Note: Number of ALPs required will be same as LPs, duly adding requirement of shunters): Average Fortnightly performing hours of Last 6 months (used only for working goods trains) = Required Fortnightly working hours per goods LP () = Bare requirement of goods LP = Requirement of LP as per crew link= Total requirement of LPs= Additional req. due to traffic fluctuation @ 10% Revised Bare requirement = Leave Reserve @ 30% on bare req. = Revised bare req. + Leave Reserve = Trainee Reserve (TR) @ T% on G = Total Crew requirement =

A

--

B C1

=A/B

C2 C

C1+C2

D

=XC

E

=C+D

F

=XC

G

=E+F

H

=G*T/

I

=G+H

Note: 1. 30% LR and 10% Trainee reserve should be provided for LP(M/E & Pass) in the category of LP (Pass) only. 2. Requirement of LIs should be worked out @ one LI for each 15 LPs, one LI for each 45 shunters and one LI for each 45 ALPs. 3. As per applemacs.us’s letter No/M(L)//2 dated , selection of CCCs & CPRCs is to be done amongst LIs, on tenure basis by a screening process. Hence, this additional requirement of LIs is to be added to the number worked out for monitoring of LPs/Shunters/ALPs. 4. Apart from this requirement of LIs for major activities like Safety Counselors, Fuelling, Lobbies, Running Rooms, Speedometers, Maintenance, etc., as brought out in applemacs.us’s letter No/M(L)//2 dated should also be added to the number worked out for monitoring of LPs/Shunters/ALPs. 5. Requirement of LIs, including % LR, should be added in the category of LP (Passenger) only. 6. Calculation of Requirement of Shunters: a. The bare requirement should be worked outrequirement based on the activity-wise workload of in 8shunters hours shift (it should include of shunters in diesel sheds. b. 30% LR should be provided on bare requirement. c. Detailed justification together with activity-wise, shift-wise calculations should form part of the proposal. d. The requirement so worked out should be added to ALP requirement.

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Running Rooms: It is of utmost importance that train crew get quality rest in running room. So, divisions should ensure that running rooms are maintained as per various guidelines issued by Board. Running Room Committees should regularly visit the running rooms and take corrective measures to put right deficiencies noticed, if any, on priority.

Diesel Operation Organization on the Divisions: Every division may not have a diesel shed located in its jurisdiction, but the division is responsible for the operation of diesel locos working under its jurisdiction. On the division, the diesel operation is to be looked after by the applemacs.us(P). Fuelling Installations provided on the divisions for fuelling of locos are also under the charge of applemacs.us(P). Considering the cost of fuel stocks and fuel issues being made by each fuelling point, locally the fuel installations shall be under the charge of a dedicated Supervisor.



Divisional Power Control Organization: A Power Control Organization at the Division shall be provided for exercising the necessary control on diesel operation. This will be staffed by a Chief Power Controller, with two Power Controllers in each shift to function round the clock. An assistant (Group C) and a Group D staff shall also be provided in each shift to the shift Power Controllers for maintaining the various records, distributing daily position, various documents, etc. to the divisional officers. However, this scale of organization can be suitably enhanced depending on the local conditions, with the approval of CME. This Cell shall be responsible for the following:

Diesel It will be the responsibility the Diesel Power outage anddivision availability: Controller on the to make diesel locos available inoftime according to the outage quota and the forecast of goods trains. The daily outage would be worked out by taking the average of the number of locos available on 4 hour basis. Utilization: To achieve the optimum utilization, record of every diesel loco in use shall be maintained section wise and its movement plotted on a graph every hour indicating in different columns the hours spent as train engine, yard detentions, light running, etc. These charts would be analyzed daily to work out the: (a) Section-wise locos on line (*) (b) Kms per day per loco in use- separately for each class of diesel loco.(**) (*) The total number of engines on a section will be worked out by dividing the total hours of all locos, including idle hours, by (**) Total Kms earned by all locos of one class/ Total No. of that class of locos in use. Crews: Each division shall have sufficient number of crews trained in diesel operation, posted at crew changing points. Crew should be called according to the forecast of goods trains arranged. Their duty hours should be watched closely and, if necessary, arrangements for their relief made at intermediate stations.

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The Divisional Power Control Organization should be well equipped and provided with suitable accommodation to ensure un-disturbed working. There should be effective communication and document preparation facilities: one P&T phone, two Railway phones with STD, two CUG phones, two computers with FOIS connectivity, two printers and one photocopier should be available with the Power Control Organization to conveniently get in touch with each station of the division and other Divisional and Central Power Control office, effectively monitor performance of locos and prepare various information required. It is necessary to provide adequate strength of Loco Inspectors on divisions to monitor the working of crews on line. The strength should be related to the number of diesel crews operating on the division. A yard stick of one Loco Inspector for every 15 LPs should be observed so that he can: Effectively monitor performance of the crew. Investigate avoidable diesel loco failure due to mismanagement of crews. Educate diesel crews in trouble shooting and fuel economy. Supervisor (Running) in Diesel Sheds: SSE/SE (running) working under applemacs.us (Diesel) in operating division will look after operational aspect of diesel locos in shed. He will be responsible for the following : Maintaining close liaison with the Central and Divisional Power Control Organizations. Maintain 4 hourly position of diesel outage. Maintain minor schedule forecast register: trip, monthly, other higher schedules. Keep record of important features like diesel loco failures, detentions, etc. Check speedometer & VCD records. Monitor issue of Technical Instructions to crew lobbies (called by different names: Shed Notice Book, Shed Order Book, etc.) Trial Loco Register. Supervisor (Running)’s relief Dairy containing important instructions to be followed by the SE/JE (Running) in shift duties

Power Plan: Power plan provides the information for planning the goods train on a division for each section. Procedure for issue of a power plan: Every six months, the running of goods traffic on a Railway is reviewed for each division. Data of actual number of goods trains run are collected. Moreover, the goods train to be run during next six months is assessed. While planning the goods train, availability of goods locos on railway is taken into account.

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Information available in a power plan: Information in a power plan shall be: a) Number of trains to be run on division section-wise in UP and DN direction. b) Requirement of power for inferior services i.e. shunting work, railway material train, PQRS work of engineering department, etc. c) Outage of the loco on a division (Outage is the average number of locos available for a calendar day of 24 hours) d) Target utilization of the locos, which may vary from one division to another, depending on the operating conditions. e) Net requirement (shortfall/excess) of locos (including the requirement for replacement of overaged locos and requirement for schedule maintenance of extra locos required). Shape of a typical power plan: A typical power plan shall contain columns: applemacs.us, Section, Kms (distance), Average Speed, Average Running time, Average number of trains per day for various types of wagons, Requirement of various types of Locos -SH/DH, Total traffic requirement (outage), No. of SH Trains, No. of DH trains, Total Engine Kms. Classification of Loco Failures: Loco is considered to have failed if the Loco is not able to complete its journey with the specified Loco in specified time. Loco failure is classified as under: Statistical Loco failure : If the Loco fails to work its booked train to destination or causes a delay in arrival at destination of 30 minutes or more for mail/express/passenger train and 60 minutes or more for freight trains due to the problems related with loco or enginemanship of crew, is categorized as Statistical Loco failure. Non Statistical Loco failure: Wherever the loco develops some problem during its course of journey but the loss of time is less than 30 minutes in case of mail/express/passenger trains and less than 60 minutes in case of goods train or the loco undergoing repair at the end of its trip and not being available for the return trip, the Loco failure is termed as Non Statistical Loco failure. Reasons for Loco failure: The reason for Loco failure is classified as under by the homing shed: i. Defective design. ii. Defective material. iii. Bad workmanship in shop. iv. Bad workmanship in shed. v. Bad workmanship in Production Unit. vi. Mismanagement by Loco crew. vii. Miscellaneous

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There are certain conditions where failure of a Loco is not to be counted as Statistical failure, even if the conditions mentioned for treating it as Statistical Failure are met. Such failures will be categorized as Non Statistical Loco failures. These conditions are as under: i. Failure of departmental service Loco. ii. Failure of shunting service Loco. iii. Failure of trial Loco (After heavy repair schedule, like Yearly, POH, Engine/Traction motor/Traction Alternator / Turbo Supercharger replacement). iv. Failure of loco overdue for schedule by more than 24 hours. Apart from above, failures due to external reasons like: Cattle Run Over, Bad Weather, Bird hit, trailing load being more than permitted, non-compliance of stipulations by traffic department for train running, Stone Pelting, etc. will not be treated as Loco Failure (neither Statistical nor Non Statistical) Daily Position: A daily position giving the complete accountal of incidence, loco and Crew Statistics is prepared by Power Controller and Crew Controller for the calendar day and sent to Power/Diesel officials in the morning. Following information is contained in daily position: Unusual occurrence of Loco: This position is prepared covering all the unusuals which have taken place in a calendar day. This position contains following information: i.

Loco No. with base shed to which it belongs

ii. iii. iv. v.

Last date and due inspection date Nameschedule of LP and nominated LI Train No. and load of the train Section and name of the station or name of two stations between which loco trouble took place. vi. Description of loco trouble and action taken by Crew and Power Controller or Loco Inspector. vii. If the loco has failed on Mail/Express/Passenger train or a goods train loco failure has caused repercussions to Mail/Express/Passenger trains, record of time lost and gained of such Mail/Express/Passenger to be mentioned. The taking over and handing over time of Mail/Express/Passenger trains in division is also indicated Punctuality position of mail/express/passenger trains: This position indicates the time lost by passenger carrying trains on division. It has following information as per the format given below: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Sr. No. Train No. Taken over time in Division/Rly Handing over time in Division/Rly Details of the time loss or gain by Division/Rly with reasons The trains losing time on loco account are analysed in detail and remedial action is initiated to avoid its recurrence.

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Crew unusual: Some time the trains are detained in division on crew account, as under: i. The crew may not be available for the train ordered by traffic department. ii. The crew may arrive late on duty. iii. The crew may ask for relief due to over hours, sickness or any other reasons. Therefore, all the trains detained on crew account are recorded and sent in daily position consisting of following information: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Name of crew Train No. and load Station Detention to train Brief description of the unusual Reason for the detention and responsibility

Late start summary of the major yards of division: Freight trains ordered from the yard suffers late start due to various reasons. These are recorded train wise and summary is prepared as per the following table: 1

2

3

4

5

6

SN

Loco No

Train No

Time of Arrival of Train in Yard

Name of nominated Outgoing LP

Time of Ordering

7 Time EOL

8

9

Load Reasons Ready for for departure detention

This table indicates delay for each train and reasons also. This helps in taking action for avoiding detention to train in the yard. Regular meetings are also held in yard by senior supervisor and divisional officers of the divisions wherein delay in the yard is discussed to find out the solution. Loco link of coaching services: Based on the current running of mail/express/passenger trains, the locos to be given to various trains for mail/express/passenger services as per the loco link is decided. The detail is also given in daily position. The loco changing required for scheduled/unscheduled repair is decided in consultation with the homing shed or the shed of neighboring division. This position indicates Loco No. nominated for various trains. Overdue Schedule Position: The record of locos overdue for schedule belonging to the homing shed of the division as well as the loco of other division/railway is maintained. This helps in close monitoring of such loco and directing such locos to homing shed for schedule in time. The position is given as per the following format: a) Overdue Locos of Shed of Own Division, Last Schedule Inspection, Train No. Section & Division/Rly where the loco is working, Overdue days, Remarks (the action taken by Power Controller is indicated in the Remarks Column) b) Overdue Locos of Shed of Other Divisions/Railways, Last Schedule Inspection, Train No. Section & Division/Rly where the loco is working,

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Overdue days, Remarks (the action taken by Power Controller is indicated in the Remarks Column) Locos running with defect: This position indicates the loco number with the nature of defect so that watch can be kept on such locos for timely withdrawal of the loco for its attention before it fails. The position is maintained as under : Sr. No., Type of Defect, Action taken. The typical defects with which loco is allowed to run before withdrawing the same at suitable station are: 1. Isolated TMs, 2. Oil throw from turbo chimney, etc. There may be several other types of defect in working loco. The same are to be recorded and action to be taken to withdraw from the service, as soon as possible, for attention to defect to be mentioned. Crew Position: Crew position is to be watched regularly to avoid the shortage of crew for running the trains. Depot wise crew position is given in daily position as under: a) b) c) d)

e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

Name of the depot Sanctioned strength of LP/ALP/Shunter Men on roll Absence of staff from duty due to: i) Leave ii) Medical examination iii) Sickness iv) Under training v) Under Road Learning vi) Under suspension vii) Unauthorized absence The staff on line at hours. The staff available at hours. The staff under Rest at hours. Average Head Quarter Rest of LP. Average outstation Rest of LP. LP used on special duty. Higher grade working against casualty

However based on the peculiar working conditions and train operation requirement, more details in daily position can be added by individual Division/Rly.

CRISfor hasoperating developed a Crew Management Systemof(CMS) Crew Management System: application for managing its crew trains. It covers all categories train crew who are required to operate a train. Objective: Following are the main objectives: Optimum and effective utilization of crew through monitoring of mandatory requirements

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Effective scheduling and assignment of train crew Ensuring schedule rests (12/16) of the crew based on total duty hours completed Paperless Lobby - Calls for booking through SMS, Caution Order, Circular, Sign On/OFF To generate computerized mileage report for direct submission to P Branch for payments. Functions: Main functions envisaged in CMS are: Planning and control: a) Booking of crew (Coaching, Freight and shunting) b) Scheduling of mandatory requirements due (Medical, Training, road learning and Loco compatibility) c) Optimum utilization of Crew d) Availability of crew position to all concerned "online" Safety a) Exposure to current circulars b) Exposure to Caution Orders in force c) Crew monitoring by Inspectors d) Grading of Crew e) Adequate rest Analysis: a) b) c) d) e) f)

Crew utilization Longer hours working Overtime working Outstation rest Crew balancing Current crew position to all concerned "online" at any given time.

Others a) Generation of CTRs based on Crew sign ON/OFF. b) Availability of MIS reports "online".(Bio-data, 10 Hrs reports, PRs, Violation of rules while booking crew, Etc.) c) Employee's self service. d) SMS call serve. e) SMS enquiry of position by crew. Alerts to lobby staff. f) Alert to LIs. g) Multilingual operations. h) Inter lobby communication.

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Modules in CMS a) Freight crew booking. b) Shunting crew booking. c) Coaching crew booking. d) Crew Console (Sign ON/OFF by tough screen Monitor). e) Caution Order Module. f) Circulars. g) SMS. h) MIS Reports. i) Crew Monitoring by Inspectors. j) Employees Self Service. k) Quiz for evaluation of crew knowledge. l) Development of Help menu. m)Bilingual Operation. n) Password Management. o) Universal Report Console. p) Crew Non run. q) Crew Bio-data. r) Creation of Coaching links. s) Creation of Shunter links. t) System non run Implementation of CMS: Implementation of CMS is under way and it is likely that by year all lobbies will have CMS i n place. REMMLOT: RDSO has developed online monitoring system of locos and trains (applemacs.us), which makes available real time data from the microprocessor of the loco, including the location of the loco, to authorized personnel. REMMLOT system has already been successfully tested and running on a large number of HHP & ALCO locos. RDSO Report on Remote Monitoring and Management of Locos and Trains (REMMLOT) No. MP. MISC – (Rev 00) March (or latest) has given details of this system. The goal of IR to migrate to predictive maintenance of Rolling stock from preventive maintenance has been brought out in this report. With predictive maintenance not only the cost of maintenance is reduced & availability is increased but also reliability is improved by preventing impending failures. It has also been felt time and again that we are perhaps doing over-maintenance. There has also been a need that monitoring (status and position) of the locos, which is being determined manually, should be replaced with a better system for optimized use of locos, based on the conditions in real time. A large No. of diesel locos have been fitted with microprocessor control system and gradually most of the loco shall be fitted. The MBCS stores operational, health, fault diagnostic, information pack and other vital information of the locos. This has provided an ideal platform for host of new capabilities. Following are the main actions being taken at present with the help of REMMLOT: Monitoring of loco parameters by the shed to plan schedule / out of course attention to loco at nearest shed.

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Advising LP to take timely action to prevent online failure/detention to loco, on the basis of faults noticed on line. FOIS: FOIS has been successfully implemented on divisional control and integrated with diesel loco sheds. Full use of FOIS should be made by the Division/Railway for collecting various data pertaining to use of locos. Division power controller should watch the following parameters to avoid variation between Domain base / Service base outage. a) Proper Shed in, Shed out for goods /coaching locos in FOIS/COIS b) Timely change of status of failed locos for goods /coaching locos in FOIS/COIS. c) Timely change of domain / service of goods on passenger locos in FOIS/COIS. d) Correct loco attaching /detaching of coaching trains in COIS. e) Frequent checks at periodic intervals for goods locos status i.e failed (Fd), Dead (D), Under repair (UR), not required for traffic (NRT), in Shed without any reason, in FOIS online by respective division control of the home shed and update it in time, accordingly. Safety through Embedded Intelligence on Diesel Locos: VCD: All diesel locos have been provided with VCD. It is an important safety device in type keeping LP&ALP alert. At presentBased there are two types of VCDs: which Stand helps Alone andthe inbuilt in Microprocessor Control System (MBCS). However, gradually all locos will be retrofitted with inbuilt VCD. Functioning of VCD takes place as under: VCD operates on a loco after 76 seconds, if LP is lax and had not acknowledged the signals of VCD. VCD operation after 76 seconds, ensure loco penalty brake application and requires LP to reset VCD. In the VCDs inbuilt in MBCS, the data about VCD activity is recorded by the microprocessor, in the following way : VCD acknowledgement- In case LP/ALP operates VCD button on loco control stand, it shall be recorded as “acknowledged” by LP in one of the computer database field. VCD operation- Diesel loco sheds can analyze the downloaded data to study the incidences of VCD operation on the run from MBCS database. Accordingly, it can inform the respective division to take suitable action against the erring LPs. VCD isolation- If LP/ALP isolates VCD for any reason, it shall be recorded in the database and sheds can inform the concerned division about the specific LP who isolated the VCD. Revised

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While analyzing SPAD cases, the embedded intelligence of loco should be made use of. The database of MBCS should be seen for “VCD activity fields”. Correlating the time of SPAD cases with “VCD activity” in event recorder of MBCS, shall give information about lax attention of LP. The VCD activity data from different locos, can be used to establish the trend of lax attention of a specific LP, to plan corrective action by Sr DMEs (Power). Event Recorder: It is provided in Locos which are fitted with Microprocessor Based Control System which gives recording of parameters like brake pipe pressure, brake cylinder pressure, throttle position, reverser position, head light position, distance travelled, etc., recorded during the least count duration, which helps to monitor LP and in investigation of unusuals.

Annexure

Training of Loco Running Staff Details of content and duration of training to be imparted to various categories of running staff are as under: S. No

1

Durati on ALP Initial course a) General Information+ fire fighting + first aid 3 b) Transportation Training (G&SR+Tech) 24 c) Basics of Mech. And Elect. Engg+ Coaches + 14 Course

Content

Wagons + Control + Crew lobby d) Loco familiarization and trouble shooting e) Footplate f) Review and Exam. 2

3

Total a) Loco familiarization and trouble shooting Conversion Course (ALP/Elec b) Footplate c) Review and Exam. to ALP/Diesel) Total a) Loco + G&SR + Signals + Accident + fire ALP Refresher fighting course b) Trouble shooting on line (G&SR+Tech)

c) *Simulator training d) Safety Camp e) Viva Voce 4

LP (Shunting)

Total Same as LP/Goods

36

LP (Shunting) Same as LP/Goods Refresher course(G&SR+Te ch)

Revised

RB applemacs.us E(MPP)/20 09/3/14, dt

20 6 36 10 2 48 15

1 1 3 1 21 79

Initial course (G&SR+Tech)

5

Authority

21

RB applemacs.us E(MPP)/19 98/3/8, dt

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S. No

6

Course

LP Goods Initial Course (G&SR+Tech)

Durati Authority on a) Loco + C&W + G&SR + Signals + Shunting + 54 RB applemacs.us Accident & Disaster Management E(MPP)/20 6 09/3/36, b) *Simulator training 18 dtc) Loco handling with LI 1 Content

d) Feedback and discussion 7

LP Refresher course (G&SR+Tech)

Total

79

a) Loco + G&SR + Signals + Accident + fire fighting b) Trouble shooting on line c) *Simulator training d) Safety Camp e) Viva Voce

12

Total

8

LP Goods to LP Passenger (G&SR+Tech)

a) Loco+ G&SR + Signal + Abnormal working + Shunting + Accident e) *Simulator training f) Loco handling with LI

2 2 3 2 21 36

RB applemacs.us E(MPP)/U9 98/3/8, dt

5 5 2

RB applemacs.us E(MPP)/19 98/3/8, dt

48 18

RB applemacs.us

b) Examination and Viva Voce 9

Loco Inspector Induction Course

10

Total a) Introduction+ Safety Rules+ Disaster Management+

Inspections+ Establishment+ Planning+ RCDs+ Driving Skill+ Manpower Loco Maintenance Management+ Power & Crew Control Organization+ S&T+ applemacs.us+ Rolling Stock+ Operational Issues+ Stress Management+ Evaluation and Feedback

a) Safety Rules+ Disaster Management+ Inspections+ Loco Inspector Establishment+ Manpower Planning+ Stress Refresher Course Management+ RCDs+ Loco Maintenance Management+ Operational Issues+ Evaluation and Feedback

E(MPP)/20 09/3/26, dt:

6

RB applemacs.us E(MPP)/20 09/3/26, dt:

*To be substituted by line training with LI in case simulator training facilities are not available.

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Annexure

Records to be Maintained at a Crew Booking Lobby The following registers are maintained at a crew booking lobby. 1. Bio-data register of all crew having HQ at that lobby. 2. Periodical Medical Examination (PME) Register : Running staff have to undergo medical examination periodically. Therefore, a register is maintained where the last date of PME is noted and the date of due PME is displayed each month on the board. The staff due for PME are sent for medical examination generally one week in advance. The staff overdue for medical examination cannot be booked to work the train. 3. Road Learning Register: Road Learning particulars of all the running staff are recorded in this register. 4. Progressive hours of working register: Working hours of the running staff for each nd fortnight is recorded. This helps in controlling the working hours of the LPs in 2 week of FN to achieve target of hrs. in a FN. 5. Periodic Rest register: Periodic Rest given is recorded for each running staff. It is also ensured that no LP remains without availing proper due periodic rest. 6. Safety camp/safety meeting register:- Record for attending or relieving running staff for safety camp is entered in this register. 7. Personal stores register: Personal stores issued to LPs / ALPs is recorded with the acknowledgement of the concerned. 8. Sign on register: This register is available at crew booking point where crew enters the detail at the commencement of the journey. 9. Sign off register: This register is available at crew booking point where crew enters the details at the end of the journey. Track and Signal defects register: In these registers the defects noticed during the train working is written by LPs for getting urgently attended. Loco defects Register: In this register defects noticed in locos during working by LPs are recorded. The important defects should immediately be reported to divisional power controller for advising to respective shed. Also, a monthly summary of defects noticed should be made and sent to applemacs.us(P) for onward submission to respective sheds with copy to CMPE/D, CME(O)/applemacs.us(O) of the respective Railways. Caution order register: Contains current caution orders Loco pilots detail book register: Availability of crew in HQ and in running room is maintained in this register. Loco pilots are booked with the help of this register.

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Annexure

Information to be Available/Displayed in the Crew Lobby Each crew booking point have/display up-to-date information/instructions issued from time to time by the administration. Following information should be available/displayed: 1. Safety Vigil/Bi-monthly Safety bulletin/Fly leaf issued by CSO. 2. Safety circulars issued by divisional safety branch. 3. General Instruction – issued by applemacs.us through SOB. The above-mentioned information should be got noted by the running staff at the time of sign on in lobby. 4. Safety slogans. 5. LPs passed medical with spectacles – The list of such LPs is displayed in the lobby. Whenever, these LPs sign on, the presence of 2 Nos. spectacles with them should be ensured. 6. List of Senior Goods LPs, screened for working passenger trains. 7. List of Accident prone/Alcoholic LPs. 8. Caution Order Board and Gradient Chart. 9. Flash New Board – For displaying urgent instructions / news concerning LPs/Shunters/ALPs

Annexure

Facilities at Crew Booking Lobby The crew lobby should be equipped with the following facilities: a. Should be of sufficient area and located at strategic and conspicuous location of the station. b. Easily identifiable and having access by road and also be within walkable distance. c. Sound proof arrangement to avoid disturbance. d. Should have proper arrangement to keep mandatory registers & other related instructions and display of relevant information. e. Adequate space for furniture and other peripherals like Computers, KIOSKs of CMS, BA equipment, Railway phones, CUG phones, etc. f. Should have crew counseling room and crew waiting lounge/rest room with required furniture. g. Purified drinking water facility and toilet arrangements. h. Vehicles stand for crew with proper safety measures.

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Annexure

Personal Stores of a Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot A. Loco Pilot: 1) Tool Box - 1 No. 2) Adjustable spanner - 1 No. 3) Pipe wrench 4) Screwdriver 6” ( mm) - 1 No. 5) Insulating Plier - 1 No. 6) Hand hammer - 1 No. 7) Chisel - 1 No. 8) Driver’s Rule book containing relevant portion of G&SR and Accident Manual 9) Driver’s Personal book Ch-2

10) Working Time Table 11) Troubleshooting guide - 1 No.

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12) Driver’s Memo Book - 1 No. 13) Walkie-Talkie- 1 No. 14) Red flag – 2 Nos. 15) Green flag – 1 No. 16) Detonator – 10 Nos. 17) Flare Signal – 1 No. 18) Spare Glasses (as applicable)- 1 No. 19) H.S. Lamp Tri colour torch - 1 No. 20) CBC operating handle key However, this is a tentative list and Railways can modify it depending on their experience and need. Note: a) Sr. Nos. 2 to 7, as per Rly Bd’s letter no. /M(L)//5 dated As per Rly Bd’s letter no. /M(L)//5 dated , tools at Sr. No. 6 & 7 are to be kept in loco in a sealed box for use by the LP. b) Sr. No. 8 to 19, as per Rly Bd’s letter no. 93/M(L)//12 dated c) Sr. No. 20 as per SR of South Central Railway B. Assistant Loco Pilot: 1) Working Time Table 2) Red flag – 2 Nos. 3) Green flag – 1 No. 4) H.S. Lamp Tri colour torch - 1 No. Note: a) The personal stores of ALP is as per SR of South Central Railway

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INDEX Chapter 3 Infrastructural Facilities for Diesel Loco Shed Para No. Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – A Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – Annexure – Annexure–

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66 67 68 69 69 70 70 71 71 74

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3. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES FOR DIESEL SHED Introduction: Shed layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including maintenance bay, operating equipment, storage space, material handling equipment and all other supporting services along with the design of best structure to contain all these facilities. Objectives of shed Layout are: streamline the flow of loco and materials through the shed, facilitate the repairing process, minimize materials handling cost, effective utilization men, equipment space, make provide effectiveemployee utilization of cubic space, flexibility ofofservicing operations and and arrangements, convenience, safety and comfort, minimize overall loco schedule time, maintain flexibility of arrangement and operation, facilitate the organizational structure, etc.

Size and Location of a Maintenance Shed

In the matter of deciding on the location and size of a maintenance shed, operating requirements are the prime consideration. However, due to the flexibility in operation available from diesel locos, it is not essential to have sheds at points coinciding with large traffic yards. It would suffice if a shed is located near to a train examination or crew changing point.



While determining the location of a shed it is important to give due consideration to any possible future changes in the mode of traction, for example, change over from diesel to electric traction. If any change in traction is involved, the requirements of the old and the new type of traction should be studied in an integrated manner, both in regard to location and size of the shed.



The size of a maintenance shed is optimum from the technical angle when the maintenance output is efficient and effective. Experience has shown that for this personalized attention is a pre-requisite. In the homing shed, full history of each loco should be readily available so that locos needing more attention can be selectively nursed even during minor repair schedules.



In the present method of maintenance, the workload of a shed homing locos is sufficient to justify installation of all the necessary machines, equipment and instruments.



The maintenance shed should be preferably located at or near an industrially developed town. The sophisticated assemblies used in a diesel loco sometimes require facilities of a kind which may not be readily available in the shed or which may not be possible to provide due to the rare necessity of their use. Facilities available in the industry are very helpful in such cases. The maintenance shed should be provided with good communication facilities for effective maintenance. Good communication link with large industrial centers help in arranging materials and components at short notice in case of emergencies. From the point of view of efficient maintenance, all repairs schedules M2 (60 days) and above shall invariably be carried out in the homing shed.

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Basic Features of Shed Layout Ch-3



Shed Layout should be expandable for homing Locos. (sufficient area should be available for future expansion).



A uni-directional movement of locos in the shed is preferable.



Separate entry and exit points should be provided to avoid bottlenecks.



The layout should permit a loco to skip stage of servicing without hampering the flow of other locos.



The shed should have covered accommodation in its repair area for about % of the locos homed. The yard of the maintenance shed should be able to hold about 50% of the total holding of the shed at a time.



Each line in the covered repair area of the shed should be able to hold 3 locos at a time.



The layout should provide for the possibility of expansion widthwise i.e. providing more lines side by side. Expansion along the length of the running lines should not be adopted.



The work area in the shed should be divided into two distinct portions, one dealing with servicing and light repairs and the other with heavy repairs. Facilities should

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be provided in the same sequence in which an incoming loco is to be attended to.

Painting booth: A separate proper paint booth shall be planned.



Now-a-days modern construction techniques are available in which optimum combination of weight, space, cost and aesthetics is ensured. A comparison of prefabricated fabrication technique over conventional one is given at Annexure



RCC buildings should also be constructed utilizing the latest construction techniques.



Use of latest construction materials such as light weight aluminum corrugated sheets, anti skid steel tiles, Translucent Poly carbonate sheets, Epoxy flooring etc. should be made for construction of shed



In designing of shed structure and building the aspect of use of daylight to the maximum possible extent should be kept in view.



For finalizing the shed layout as well as design of shed structure, building, drainage, rain water harvesting, surfaces, etc, consultancy to a reputed architect, who has got experience in designing such building and structures should be awarded. The design should include specifying the latest energy efficient lighting gadgets at various locations of the shed such as: pit, below catwalk, roof, side of shed, buildings, yard, etc.

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A turn table needs to be installed as in coming years speed of mail/express trains is bound to increase for which there will be requirement of running of locos with short hood leading. Other-wise also, for running of mail/express trains, it is desirable to run the trains with short hood leading. Apart from this when making Multiple Units, turn table will be useful in ensuring that they are made with Short Hood leading on both the sides.



With holding of upto locos, movement of locos to and from shed will increase. Hence, the shed should have two entry and two exit lines on each end for unidirectional movement of locos and facility for entry/exit from both the sides to avoid congestion.



With stricter environmental regulations, there is a need that the Diesel Sheds should take energy conservation measures to reduce the carbon foot print. When augmenting infrastructure on large scale, principles of sustainable development need to be kept in view, which will give good returns in the long run.



There should be a two pronged approach for energy conservation – one to reduce the power consumption and other to utilize otherwise wasted power for generating power and shed building should be green building.



The New shed should have environmental conservation measures like Solar distillation plant for batteries, Rain Water harvesting, ETP etc. Apart from this Waste Heat Recovery system (from incinerator) is also a good add-on. Solar paneling of administrative block – solar lighting, and use of Green house principles in construction of new sheds – so that there will be good air circulation as well as good natural lighting will be available.





The shed should have at least 30% Green cover.



Wherever there is potential, wind power can be harnessed to generate power. Indian Railways is already planning Wind Power Plants at some places.



There should be a dedicated over head water storage tank to hold a supply for at least 15 days, depending upon the availability of water supply situation in the area.



The drainage of shed should be well planned, which should have proper sloping, screens, pits. If required intermediate sludge pumps may be provided where sloping is a constraint

Sequence of Repair Operations:

The recommended sequence of operations for servicing is:

Cleaning and washing of under-gearing and body Sanding Fuelling Inspection and topping of lube oil and cooling water Revised

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Repairs Departure



Lines earmarked for normal servicing attention should be through lines so that minimum time is taken in movement of loco. In the repair areas, separate lines should be earmarked for schedule repairs and for locos needing out-of course repairs.

Servicing Facilities:

Washing and cleaning:

A separate Washing installation should be provided for loco cleaning before entering maintenance areas. A washing apron and pit laid with concrete and provided with good drainage, suitable hydrant points and adequate supply of water, should be located well away from the shed building to clean the under gearing and body of the locos. Automatic washers with mechanized sprays, brushes etc. should be installed to improve the quality of cleaning and minimize manual labour content. Hose and nozzle arrangement for spraying the under-gearing with water under, pressure will ensure proper removal of grease and oil from the chassis. Provision of a boiler to give a steam jet will be an additional help. Annexure shows schematically a washing installation.

Sanding:

Sand should be stored under cover to keep it dry. Sand drying arrangements may be necessary in areas having heavy rainfall. Sand should be properly sieved before being filled to prevent the sanding apparatus on the locos getting chocked. Mechanized sanding facilities should be installed to minimize manual labour content and avoid unnecessary spillage of sand. Sanding point should be at an adequate distance away from the fuelling installation and the running shed building.

Fuel supply installation: This has been dealt with in Chapter 8 (a).



Lubricating oil storage and dispensing: This has been dealt with in Chapter 8 (b).



Cooling water treatment and dispensing: Diesel engine water should be treated in accordance with maintenance instructions laid down for different classes of locos as per RDSO MI

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Shed Construction:

Three- level working floor arrangement should be provided. The rail level in the repair area is the same as the general shed floor level. The depressed floor area outside the rails is kept lower than the shed floor level so as to be able to attend effectively to the bogies and under- gear. The pit level between the rails is kept still lower to enable proper examination of under gearing. Above the depressed floor level, platform level is provided, which is at the same height as the loco floor, to attend to all components of the loco above the under frame. Ramps or steps should be provided to conveniently connect the three working levels with the general floor level in the shed. A typical cross section of the three level arrangements is shown in the sample drawing of a typical shed enclosed as Annexure



Flooring should be easily washable so that spilled oil can be effectively removed. All flooring should be finished with a hard top to withstand abrasion resulting from handling heavy parts and movement of material trollies, etc. Hardonite flooring is acceptable on the ground level in the Running Repair Bay and anti skid steel tiles flooring in Heavy Repair Bay. Epoxy flooring should be used in the Equipment Repair Bay and over Catwalk surfaces of the Running Repair Bay. Annexure shows Hardonite flooring details and Epoxy flooring.



Flooring in the heavy lifting bays of shed should be adequately strengthened. Special reinforcement is required in the location where heavy duty high lift jacks are installed.



To minimize dust nuisance in working area, RCC paved area for at least in 30 meter distance on both sides of shed bays (front and back) should be provided. Also, other paved area, wherever provided, should be RCC.



Roads in shed should be of RCC.



To minimize cracking and to facilitate repairs, flooring should be divided into rectangular panels, with sides not exceeding 2 meters using dividing strips.



The platforms, and ramps as also steps should be protected with steel or cast iron edging of non-skidding type.



Pits should have convex flooring and efficient drainage. Stilt arrangement consisting of steel beam on stub columns should be followed, as far as possible, for supporting track in the pits, since it permits better lighting and ventilation of the pits. See Annexure A.



The edge of the elevated platform should be suitably raised to provide a rim to prevent tools and materials from rolling off. This also reduces the possibility of men slipping at the edge.

To protect personnel working on the elevated platform from falling down when the line is not occupied by a loco, chain guards should be provided. These should be fixed in such a manner near the edge of the platform that they can be removed easily when a loco is placed alongside. Provision of sockets in the platform floor in which steel pipes can be inserted is a convenient method of doing so. Revised

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A uniform roof height should be preferably adopted for all bays to enable convenient construction and dispersion of natural light. The minimum height is governed by the requirement of heavy lifting bay. The roof should be of a construction that caters for maximum natural light in working area. 25% translucent corrugated poly carbonate sheets suitably arranged in a row form (Annexure ) is recommended, in preference to north- light glazing. Now-a-days, still better design of roof which uses minimum height with less clogging by cross members, affording uninterrupted ingress of natural light and an aesthetic view are available, which should be adopted. A typical Rafter roof is shown in Annexure and Annexure Rotary turbo ventilators should be provided at suitable locations and in sufficient numbers to remove smoke and fumes (a typical arrangement shown in Annexure ). The repair area in the shed should be made as dust proof as far as possible. All large openings should be provided with rolling or other type of shutters. Suitable provision should be made while laying out end columns of bays which may require to be extended at a later date, so that minimum alterations are required to the structure and the foundations. Sufficient welding points should be provided in shed @14m distance in all the repair bays

Lifting and Material Handling Facilities

Overhead cranes of suitable capacity should be provided to serve repair areas, a part of the machine shop and stores.



Crane capacity should be sufficient to lift the heaviest single repairable component or assembly. Overhead crane is not intended to lift complete loco singly; however, it should be capable of lifting a complete loco from one end so as to enable a bogie to be run out from under it.



Heavy duty high lift electrically operated jacks may be provided at suitable locations in the heavy repair area for lifting the loco. It should be possible to alter spacing of the jacks to suit locos having different spacing of lifting pads.



Tram beam cranes operated from the floor level and hoists should be provided at all suitable work locations. Wherever it is possible to provide these facilities and dispense with overhead cranes, the shed structure can be made lighter.



Fork lift/Platform trucks should be provided in maintenance sheds for movement of components and assemblies.



Movement of material flow should be made smooth. Material flow can be traced onto a plant layout through spaghetti diagram. Ch-3

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Illumination:

Diesel shed generally remains poorly pit, which is great handicap in ensuring proper and safe maintenance. Hence, it is important to provide good illumination in various areas of the shed.



Three tier metal halide lighting provision should be provided on Roof, Catwalk and pit level



Good illumination is necessary for efficient repair work. In the repair area energy efficient lights giving an even illumination of atleast lux at platform and floor levels should be provided.



Pits should be provided with bulk head fittings for direct lighting of the under-gear of the loco. Here also minimum illumination level of lux is necessary.



At fuelling, sanding and washing points and turn tables etc. illumination level of lux is sufficient.



In open repair sections, illumination level of lux will be required. However, in repair section rooms, illumination level of to lux may be provided, depending on the type of repair, e.g. in rooms carrying out repair of electronic cards illumination of lux will be required.



At the area where relief train is stabled, an illumination level of approximately lux should be available. The general level of illumination in the yard in the maintenance shed should also be of the same order.



Two high mast lighting tower for general illumination should be provided.



Low voltage plug points should be provided at all work areas, including the pits, for use of portable and hand lamps with flexible leads.

An Electrical substation with at least two kVA transformers (One stand by) or more, depending on capacity of the shed, should be provided.

Shed Building : The shed building, besides providing for the repair area, machine shop, etc should accommodate the following: a) Battery charging and storage room. b) Instrument repair and testing room. c) Fuel injection repair and testing room. d) Engine governor repair and testing room. e) Brake testing room. f) Flaw detector room (magnetic and zyglow, etc.) g) Filter storage. h) Tool room. Ch-3

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i) Lockers and washing room. j) Laboratory. k) Driver’s lobby and lockers. l) Booking office. m) Supervisor’s office rooms. n) Shed Officer’s rooms. o) Office room and record room. p) Library. q) Lecture or Meeting room.





Details of shed building and bays required in various categories of sheds is given at Annexure

Battery Charging:

The battery charging room should be located preferably at one end of the shed building, where fumes and gases can be easily exhausted to the atmosphere.



The floors and the walls in the battery room should be of acid resistant construction.



Plug-points for mobile battery charging plant should be provided near the pits to provide direct charging of loco batteries without the necessity of taking them off.



Adequate distilled water should be available for topping up the batteries. Distillation or demineralization plant of adequate capacity should, therefore, be provided.



Adequate number of fire extinguishers and sand filled buckets should be provided in the Battery Charging Room.



Adequate number of exhaust fans should be used in the Battery charging room.

Shed Stores: The shed stores should have approach by both rail as well as road. The approaches should not interfere with other movements in the maintenance shed. The rail siding should have a clear length of at least meters and access by crane or forklift from both sides of the track. Maximum use of cubic space should be made for storage of materials. For this purpose, high reach forklift trucks need to be provided in the store. Proper bins and racks should be provided for storage and handling of components, to avoid damage during handling and in storage.

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Adequate lifting facilities should be provided for handling heavy components. Use of fork lift trucks for this purpose is preferable. Special provision should be made for storage of rubber components since these are subject to deformation, if not properly stacked, and to ageing in the presence of air and due to the effect of temperature. While designing store building, due regard should be paid to the fire fighting precautions. To reduce material handling to minimum and save time, small components frequently required should be stocked at platform level near work areas. Heavier components such as brake-shoes etc. can be conveniently stored at the depressed floor level. A computer with a software shall also be used for effective management of items.

Auxiliary Building: A small shed should be provided in the vicinity of the main shed building for stabling spare wheels and bogies. A 3-tonne gantry should be provided in this shed. Under floor type of wheel lathe should be provided in a large maintenance shed for in-situ re-profiling of worn loco wheels. A separate shed for the underfloor wheel lathe is preferable. A load-box testing loco under load should provided every shed. It should havefor facility fora entry and exit from bothbesides. Loadinbox areadiesel should have sound proofing and should be for 2 loco length on 2 lines.



Compressed Air: Air compressor should be installed at a place where minimum disturbance due to vibrations and noise is caused to the surroundings. A separate compressor room is recommended outside the main shed building. However, now-a-days, silent compressors are available which can be installed near/inside the shed at convenient location. Also, good sound proofing enclosures for air compressors are available now-a-days. It will help in reducing unnecessary running of pneumatic pipeline outside the shed. Compressed air pipe lines should be laid so as to reach all working areas and adequate number of points should be provided to tap the air supply. The layout should permit provision of additional tapping points at a later date. Compressed air is also required for blowing out dirt, to operate hand tools, etc. The pneumatic pipe line should be color coded for distinction. However, to minimize running of the main compressor to the barest minimum, for energy saving, small air compressors for specific usage should be provided at various places. Also, few portable mobile compressor should be provided which can be moved to any point required. This will save the installation of long compressed air pipe lines and air receivers to safeguard against pressure drop.

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Repair Area: In the general repair area, separate areas should be demarcated for specialized repair groups such as: a) Diesel engines b) Electrical rotating machines c) Various assemblies of Diesel Engines d) Cooling equipment and radiators e) Brake equipment and valves f) Auxiliaries g) Under-gearing components Fitter’s benches should be suitably provided in each of the demarcated area. For ease of handling during repairs suitable hoists and jib cranes, etc. should be provided. Tool Balancers should also be used for various assembly works as these devices reduce fatigue of staff, e.g. these can be effectively used for cam gear assembly. Special stands and carriers, etc. for different components should be provided in the different repair areas. For example connecting rod and piston assemblies after removal from the engine should be stacked on a rack with the connecting rods suspended from the gudgeon pins. Similarly, special stands for storing / hanging camshaftsforshould provided. Specialnozzle holding provided bearingbeshells fuel injection etc. trays etc. should similarly be



Fuel Injection Room: A separate room for repair and testing of fuel injection equipment should be provided in every maintenance shed. This room is required to be absolutely dust free. It is preferable to wholly air-condition this area. Suitable arrangements for expelling fumes from this room should be provided. Anti-skid oil proof flooring should be provided in the fuel injection room. The type of testing equipment to be provided in the fuel injection room depends on the make of the diesel engine. However, the minimum repair facilities provided in this room should consist of : a) Test stands for checking nozzle spray and pressure. b) Fuel pump calibration stand. c) Nozzle valve lapping tools and machine. Spare parts required for repairing injection equipment should be stocked in the injection room itself. Ch-3

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Governor, Instruments and Brake Valve Repair Rooms: Separate rooms should be provided for repair and testing of engine governor, instruments and gauges and brake valves. All these rooms should be made dust free and have temperature controlled. For this purpose, these rooms should be made Air-conditioned.



Laboratories: In every diesel locos maintenance shed, it is essential to have a well equipped laboratory to exercise control on lubricating oil, fuel oil and cooling water. The laboratory is also helpful in NDT of parts during overhauling, carrying out metallurgical and chemical inspection of new parts and supplies received in the shed as well as investigation of failed components. Annexure gives the general equipment that should be available in the shed laboratory. The essential tests required to be carried out on fuel oil and lubricating oil are described in chapters 8(a) and 8(b), respectively. Some of these tests, including tests on cooling water, are required to be carried out during every trip schedule. For such tests, the laboratory should function round the clock.



Cleaning and Washing: Keeping the equipment clean goes a long way in ensuring trouble free operation and long equipment life. Suitable cleaning and washing facilities are, therefore, absolutely necessary in every shed. Cleaning the components immediately after their disassembly is necessary, before any inspection or repair can be undertaken. Degreasing and cleaning facilities whether of the vapour type or hot bath or spray –jet type are required in every shed. Preferably, mechanized cleaning equipments, to the extent possible, should be provided. Special cleaning devices with circulating pumps, air stirrers, etc are required for turbocharger after coolers, oil heat exchangers, etc.



Shed offices: The offices for Supervisors should be located near their place of work. This ensures effective and constant supervision of the repair work. The driver’s booking office and lobby should be located near the point where the locos are inspected and prepared for dispatch. The General Administration and other offices should also provide for a meeting room. Administrative Building: It should be close to the work area. It should be suitably sized and architecturally designed.

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A time and security office should be provided close to main entrance. It should be equipped with suitable access control system for all the staff working in the complex.

Plant and Equipment: A list of machinery, plants, tools and other items required in maintenance sheds of different sizes is given at Annexure to this Chapter. Suitable adjustments can be made depending upon local need. This list does not include ordinary tools such as spanners, chisel, files, hammers etc. Every shed should be provided with equipment required for testing and calibrating various tools, machines and fixtures used in repair work.



Fire Fighting : Adequate safety measures must be adopted against fire hazards in the shed. Since large volumes of petroleum products are handled, special precautions are necessary. Firefighting equipment such as hydrants, hoses, extinguishers and fire alarm boxes, etc should be conspicuously visible both at day and at night.



Diesel Technical Training Centre (DTTC) : For proper maintenance of the sophisticated equipment on diesel locos the work force has to be adequately trained. Each shed should therefore, include a diesel technical categoriestraining of applemacs.us for imparting theoretical and practical training to various Provision of a hostel attached to the training school is necessary. The training school should be provided with a library with sufficient books and technical literature and latest audio visual aids for training. Model room in the training school should display cutaway models and working models of as many components as possible.



Staff Amenities: Toilet and washing facilities and water coolers should be available both inside the shed building and for the use of office staff. Adequate precautions are necessary against dermatitis amongst workers handling fuel oil, lubricants, etc. Suitable cleaning agents and ample washing facilities in the vicinity of areas where these products are handled, are necessary. Use of hand protection cream before starting work and non-irritant cleaning soaps after completion of work should be enforced. Staff locker rooms, and change rooms for gents and ladies should be provided in the shed. Ample parking shall be provided for cycle, two wheelers and four wheelers close to the shed entry.

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Fuelling : Fuelling facilities for at least two locos or on track vehicles at a time (siding to be approx. of meter length) and fuel storage tanks of at least KL capacity should be provided in the shed. Fuelling arrangement should be such as to prevent any spillage. Still, some spillage invariably takes place, for this arrangements for recovery of spilled fuel should be provided.



Diesel Loco Service Centre (DLSC): From operating considerations it becomes necessary to provide DLSCs, where trip schedule attention to the locos can be given. Whereas the homing sheds are provided with all facilities described above, in the DLSC only the minimum facilities enough to ensure satisfactory completion of trip schedule are necessary. Facilities should also be provided for minor repair work. For infrastructural facilities and other details of DLSC, RDSO report No. applemacs.us September, may be referred to.



Power Supply: Auxiliary substations are planned for catering to the power supply requirement of the whole shed. Details of connected load feeder shall be worked out. Taking diversity factor of the maximum demands shall be computed. Two Auxiliary substations are proposed, as the demand by machines in set shed areaAMF would be very large. The standby power supply is proposed through DG with panel. The capacity of DG set will be adequate to supply all essential loads without over loading. Proper grounding, adequate number of earth pits, MCB and Circuit breakers of reputed make, etc. should be provided in wiring. Underground cable laying and cable trench, wherever possible should be preferred.



Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Work: In house facilities shall be developed for the water supply of the entire shed. Sewerage, pit and storm water drainage shall be given due care while designing the shed for efficient system functioning. The pit drainage and storm/rain water drainage should be separate for facilitating treatment of pit drainage through ETP. Past records of Municipal Corporation shall be used to design the drainage system. Rainwater harvesting would be given due emphasis to charge the underground water reserves.



General Layout Drawing: General layout drawing similar to that of Siliguri Diesel Shed and of Sabarmati Diesel Shed Phase II may be followed as template

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Annexure Ch-3

Comparison of pre-engineered and conventional Structural Steel Buildings Home

Pre Engineered Buildings Design Criteria A.I.S.C. / M.B.M.A. / A.W.S / IS Design Quick and efficient since standardization of P.E.B has significantly reduced design time.

Conventional Structural Steel Design Criteria IS , IS & IS (More conservative) Design Each conventional steel structure is designed from scratch by the consultant, with fewer

Specialized computer and optimize design programs reduce designanalysis time and material required. Drafting is also computerized with minimal manual drawings. Design, detail drawings and erection drawings are supplied free of charge by the manufacturer. Approval drawings may be prepared within 10 days to 3 weeks. Computer-generated building techniques and material designs provide better estimates. Pre-engineered components go together without a problem, preventing expensive construction surprises. Consultant fee/in-house design expenses are avoided. Life & Asthetics As the material is bought directly from major steel manufacturers, so quality and life is much longer. The sheeting is of best quality with an

design aids available& detailing to the required Engineer. Maximum engineering on every project. Generalized computer analysis programs require extensive input/output and design iterations. Drafting is manual or only partially automated. Much consultant time and expense is devoted to design and drafting, as well as co-ordination and review.

expected life network of over 30 years. As cumbersome of trusses andthere thereisisnoa wide variety of colors, so building looks much better from inside and outside Weight About 30% lighter through the efficient use of steel. Primary framing members are designed with tapered built-up plate sections with the most steel in the areas of highest stress, using high strength steel. Frame geometry matches the shape of the internal stress diagram, minimizing material wastage and reducing total weight, Built-up section with large depths in the highest stressed areas. Size of each member is selected on the basis of the max internal stress in the member. Secondary members are light gauge cold formed “Z” or “C” shaped members.

be replaced at regular intervals of which years. An ugly looking vast network of trusses wastes lot of space as well.

Members areand roll-formed minimum weight, time saving labor applemacs.us to less weight, light foundation will be required.

as cold-formed members. Made out ofdifficult heavier standard hot rolled “I” & “C” sections, to fit customized requirements, force under or over sizes, leading to requirement adjustments. Due to more weight, extensive heavy foundation will be required. Base Material In most of the cases (90%) Base Material is 36,/-P.S.I. minimum yield

Base Material Rigid Building P.E.B. System uses almost all steel to meet 50, P.S.I. minimum yield including the cladding

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Life & Asthetics Normally material is from small mills and of recycled steel so the quality and life are always questionable. Sheeting is of asbestos and is to

Weight Steel member sizes must be selected from standard hot rolled sections, which in many cases are heavier than what is actually required by design. Members are the same cross-section along the entire length, regardless of local stress, magnitude. Hot rolled section has a constant depth; many parts of the member, in areas of low internal stresses, are in excess of design requirements. Secondary members are from standard hot rolled “T”and “C” sections. In many cases members are heavier than required, and therefore are not as economical

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Pre Engineered Buildings Overall Price Price per square meter may be as much as 40% lower than conventional steel. Sourcing & Co-ordination Building is supplied complete with cladding and all accessories, including erection if required, all from one source of supply. Changes Very flexible, tailor made, accepts changes and

Conventional Structural Steel Overall Price High price per square meter. Sourcing & Co-ordination Sourcing of different material has to be done from different sources. Changes Changes, revisions & additions can be difficult

revisions easily. accommodated One supplier toat coordinate to extensive re-design co-ordination changes. Easily any stage due among suppliers and and sub-contractors. since this is made up of standard raw materials. Substitutions of hot rolled sections are infrequently rolled, time consuming and also very expensive if it is already shipped for fabrication. Performance Performance All components have been specified and Components are designed in general for designed specifically to act together as a system possible use in many alternative for maximum efficiency, precise fit up, and configurations. Design and detailing errors are performance in the field. The experience with possible in assembling diverse components similar buildings, in actual field conditions into unique buildings. Each building design is worldwide has resulted in design improvements unique, so prediction of how components will over time, which allow dependable prediction of perform together is uncertain. Materials, which performance. have performed well in some climates, may not in other environments. Seismic Seismic Low-weight flexible frames offer high seismic resistance Functional Versatility Larger spans & longer bay spacing. Easily relocatable & reusable as joints can be dismantled.

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Источник: [applemacs.us]

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Источник: [applemacs.us]
bAA ) indicates newly revised material.
Chapter 1MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY Introduction. Organization. Aircraft and Equipment Readiness. Maintenance Concept. Maintenance Discipline. Use of Technical Orders (TO) and TO Supplements. Publications. Waiver Request. Field Supplements/Installation Publications. Performance-Based Activities. 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 17 17

AFI 26 JULY


Table Modification Management. Maintenance Information Systems (MIS). Communications. Duty Shifts and Rest Periods. Maintenance Training. Maintenance Resource Management (MRM). Maintenance Repair Priorities. Maintenance Repair Priority Designators. AF Munitions Policy. Unit Committed Munitions List (UCML), Test/Training Munitions List (TTML). Associate Unit Program/Total Force Integration TFI. Civilian Visitors.

3
18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28

Chapter 2SAFETY General Safety Guidance. Air Force Occupational and Health (AFOSH) Guidance. Hazards. Hazard Abatement Program. Safety Equipment. AF Mishap Prevention Program. Safety Inspections. Flightline Safety. Flightline Driving. Work Center Safety Guidance. Confined Spaces. Munitions Safety Guidance. Lockout and Tagout Concept. Warning Tags. Danger Tags. Contracted Operations. Safety Knock It Off. Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) or Environmental Management System (EMS). Environmental and Health Working Groups (E&HWG).

AFI 26 JULY


29 29 29 29 30 35 36 36 37 39 42 44 46 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 51 51 51 52 53 55 61 70 70 72 72

Chapter 3GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR COMMANDERS AND KEY LEADERS General. Wing Commander (WG/CC) Responsibilities. Wing Vice Commander (WG/CV) Responsibilities. Maintenance Group Commander Responsibilities. Deputy MXG/CC will: MXG Superintendent Responsibilities. Squadron Commander (SQ/CC) Responsibilities. Maintenance Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. Flight Commander/Flight Chief or AMU Officer in Charge (OIC)/Superintendent: Section NCOIC/Chief. Production Superintendent (Pro Super).

Chapter 4AIRCRAFT/HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (AMXS/HMXS) Table Table Table General. MX Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities . AMU. AMU OIC/SUPERINTENDENT Responsibilities. Production Superintendent. Flightline Expediter. Aircrew and Maintenance Debrief Section. Landing Status Codes. System Capability Codes. Deviation Cause Codes. Aircraft Section. Specialist Section. Weapons Section (excluding systems listed in para ): Weapons Section (Helicopter/CV/UAS Units). Support Section. AMU Supply Support Element.

Chapter 5MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (MXS) General.

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Figure MX Operations Officer(MOO)/MX SUPT Responsibilities. Production Superintendent. Specialist Support. Accessories Flight. Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Flight Armament Flight. Avionics Flight Example Index Numbers. Fabrication Flight. Maintenance Flight. Munitions Flight. Propulsion Flight. Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE) Flight.

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72 72 72 73 76 79 83 84 90 93 97 97

Chapter 6MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS SQUADRON General. Maintenance Operations Flight (MOF). Maintenance Training Flight (MTF). (N/A to ARC) Programs and Resources Flight.

Chapter 7MAINTENANCE PLANS, SCHEDULING AND DOCUMENTATION (PS&D) General. Manage the following programs for assigned aircraft and equipment using the following guidelines: Operations and Maintenance Planning Cycle. First Look Requirements. Annual Maintenance Planning Cycle. Quarterly Maintenance and Operations Planning. Monthly Maintenance and Operations Planning. Weekly Scheduling. AMU/AMXS dedicated scheduler. Wing Aerospace Vehicle Distribution Officer (AVDO). The PS&D section NCOIC is the wing 2R1XX functional manager. Responsibilities of Contingency/Expeditionary (Cont/Exp) units (i.e. maintaining non-assigned aircraft).

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Chapter 8QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA)

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General. Responsibilities. Quality Assurance OIC/Superintendent (QA OIC/SUP) (MXG QA Chief in ALC) Responsibilities. Chief Inspector (First Level Supervisor QAS for ALC) Responsibilities. Quality Assurance Inspector/Quality Assurance Specialists (QAS) Responsibilities. Quality Assurance Training. Quality Assurance Augmentation. Rotation of Quality Assurance Personnel. Activity Inspection Program. Maintenance Standardization and Evaluation Program (MSEP). Lead Command-approved QA database. QA Product Improvement Programs (PIP). Configuration Management (CM) and Modification Management. Technical Order Distribution Office (TODO). One-Time Inspections (OTI) program. Functional Check Flights (FCFs) to include Operational Check Flights (OCFs). . Inflight Operational Checks. High Speed Taxi Checks. Weight and Balance (W&B) Program. Chafing Awareness Program. Quality Assurance Evaluator (QAE)/ Quality Assurance Representative (QAR). QA Responsibilities. MXW Quality Assurance Chief Responsibilities. MXG QA Chief Responsibilities. Training Requirements.

Chapter 9IMPOUNDMENT PROCEDURES Aircraft and Equipment Impoundment. Specific Guidance. Impoundment Terms: Reasons for Impoundment of Aircraft or Equipment. Impoundment Official Responsibilities.

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Impoundment Process and Procedures. Rules of Impoundment Specifically for Explosive-Related Mishaps.

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Chapter 10TOOL AND EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT Table Tool and Equipment Management. Guidelines for Program Management. General Program Guidelines. Tool Accountability. Tool and Equipment Marking and Identification. ALC/AMARG ID number marking Codes. Locally Manufactured, Developed, or Modified Tools and Equipment. Tool Room Operations and Security. Lost Item/Tool Procedures.

Chapter 11MAINTENANCE SUPPLY SUPPORT General. Maintenance Supply Liaison (MSL) Section. Decentralized supply support. Ordering Parts. Processing. Readiness Spares Package (RSP) Review. Bench Stock. Consumable Readiness Spares Package (CRSP). Shop Stock.

Operating Stock. Work Order Residue. Adjusted Stock Levels. Shelf life Items. Equipment Items. Special Purpose Recoverable Authorized Maintenance (SPRAM). Supply Assets Requiring Functional Check, Calibration, or Operational Flight Programming. Time Compliance Technical Order (TCTO) Kit Procedures. Supply Points. Local Manufacture.

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Production Scheduling. Control of AWP Assets and Cross-CANN. Repair Cycle Assets. DIFM. Tail Number Bins (TNB). CANN actions. Bench Check and Repair Policy. Maintenance Turn-Around (TRN) Record Update Processing. Maintenance Turn-In to Supply. Buildup Items. Supply Reports and Listings. Deficiency Report (DR) Exhibits. Work Center Supply Management. Maintenance Repair/Supply Delivery Priorities. Intermediate Repair Enhancement Program (IREP). Destruction of TOP SECRET Material. Certifying Items Associated With Explosives:

Chapter 12WING WEAPONS MANAGER AND WEAPONS STANDARDIZATION Figure Wing Weapons Manager (WWM). Weapons Expediter Training. Weapons Standardization. Loading Standardization Crew (LSC). Academic Instructor. Lead Crews. Training Facilities/Aircraft. Academic Training. Practical Training. Load Crew Composition.

Task Assignment List (TAL). Weapons Load Training Basic Terms. Load Crew Certification/Decertification Load Configurations. Minimum Proficiency Requirement Loading.

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Load Crew Semi-Annual Evaluations. Documenting Load Crew Training. Transient Aircraft Responsibilities. Dual Loading Operations (DLO). Weapons Task Qualification. Munitions Load Time Standards. Table Table Table Fighter Aircraft Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes). Bomber Aircraft Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes). Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes).

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Chapter 13MOBILITY AIRCRAFT DEFENSIVE SYSTEMS LOADING POLICY Units required to install/remove chaff/flare on mobility aircraft. The WTQM and the Weapons Task Qualification. Training Requirements. Disqualifying Chaff/Flare Load Personnel. Transient Aircraft. Identification of Chaff/Flare-Loaded Aircraft. AF IMT Requirements. AMC requires: Chaff/Flare Build-up.

Chapter 14ADDITIONAL MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS AND PROGRAMS Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR). Aircraft and Equipment Decontamination. Aircraft Grounding. Aircraft Inlet/Intake/Exhaust Certification. Aircraft Rapid/Hot Defueling. Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP). Hydraulic Fluid Purification (HFP): Cannibalization Program. Combat Sortie Generation.

Crash Damaged or Disabled Aircraft Recovery (CDDAR) Program.

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Dropped Object Prevention (DOP) Program. FPW//E Eddy Current Inspection. End-of-Runway (EOR) Inspection. Engine Blade Blending Training and Certification Program. Engine Run Training and Certification Program. Flash Blindness Protective Device. Engine Flexible Borescope Inspection Training and Certification Program. Flying Crew Chiefs (FCC). Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. Forms Documentation. Ground Instructional Trainer Aircraft (GITA). Hangar Queen Aircraft. Hot Refueling Procedures. Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Management. Lead Technician. MRT Procedures. Protective Aircraft Shelter (PAS) Environment. Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)/Radar Threat Warning (RTHW) Testing. Ramp Inspection Program. Red Ball Maintenance. Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX) Master Chip Detector Analysis Program (MCDP). Self-Inspection Program. Senior Leaders Maintenance Course (SLMC). Special Certification Roster (SCR).

Table

Mandatory Special Certification Roster (SCR) and Prerequisites.

WRM External Nestable Fuel Tank Build-Up (NFTBU). MHz Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Systems. Lead Commands will establish an IFF Mode IV Program. Chapter 15MAINTAINING COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT Background Information and Objective. AF/A4L Responsibilities: HQ Air Force Materiel Command (HQ AFMC/EN)Responsibilities:

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Lead Command Responsibilities: Field Units Responsibilities: Certification Requirements. Inspection Requirements. Deviations From Inspection Requirements. Component Overhaul and Time Change Intervals.

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Airframe Overhaul. Aircraft and Component Modifications. Time Compliance Technical Orders. Chapter 16AIRCREW EGRESS SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE Egress Maintenance: Facilities: Safety Requirements. Classification Training: Initial Certification of Egress Personnel: Initial Certification of Non-Egress Personnel: Decertification: Recertification: Using Newly Assigned Uncertified Egress Personnel:

Egress/Cockpit Familiarization Training: Units with Unique, Experimental, or Test Aircraft. Egress Systems Inspections and Documentation: Aircraft Static Display. Technical Assistance. Training Aircraft. Conferences: Chapter 17CENTRALIZED REPAIR FACILITIES (CRFS) Introduction. Organization. Command Authority. CRF Common Operating Picture (COP). Rotable Pools. Wing-Retained Tasks.

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Documentation. Metrics. Liaison with Logistics Readiness Squadron (LRS).

Agile Combat Support (ACS) Planning. Chapter 18CONTRACT SURVEILLANCE Figure Government Contract Quality Assurance. Management of Government Property. Contract Administration. Contracting Officer. FC/FD Role. Chief QAE. QAE. QAE/FC/FD training requirements. PP. Key Elements.

Surveillance Scheduling. Inspections. Functional Check Flight (FCF) Pilot Responsibilities. Documenting/correcting contractor performance. End of month surveillance summary. Contractor non-conformance. Past Performance Reporting. Acceptance of services will be accomplished utilizing DD Form or the Wide Area Work Flow system (WAWF). Award fee administration. Transition administration (FAR Part 49). Prescribed Forms. Adopted Forms. Attachment 1GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION Attachment 2SUPPLY REPORTS AND LISTINGS Attachment 3AIRCRAFT COMMANDER FEEDBACK ON FCC Attachment 4QUARTERLY FCC REPORT FORMAT

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Attachment 5ANNUAL FCC REPORT Attachment 6FCC SDAP REQUEST Attachment 7MAINTENANCE RECOVERY TEAM (MRT) TASKING CHECKLIST. Attachment 8MAINTENANCE RECOVERY TEAM (MRT) CHIEF RESPONSIBILITIES Attachment 9MAINTENANCE RECOVERY TEAM (MRT) CHIEF TASKING CHECKLIST Attachment 10WAIVER/CHANGE REQUEST FORMAT Attachment 11DROPPED OBJECT PROGRAM (DOP) REPORTING FORMAT Attachment 12FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE (FOD) REPORT

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Chapter 1 MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY Introduction. This instruction prescribes basic aircraft and equipment maintenance policy and procedures used throughout the USAF. Any deviations from this guidance are prohibited without Lead Command review and HQ USAF/A4L waiver/variance approval. For the purpose of this instruction and development of maintenance policy, Lead Commands are Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, Air Education and Training Command, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command, Air Force Space Command, Air Force Global Strike Command and Air Force Materiel Command. As it pertains to weapon system specific issues or requirements, AFPD takes precedence. For the purpose of this policy, the term AFMC Single Manager (SM) includes System Program Directors (SPD), Product Group Managers (PGM) and Supply Chain Managers (SCM), Organization. AF wings will organize according to AFI , AF Organization, or as authorized by HQ USAF/A1M. Contractor and civil service maintenance functions are not required to organize in accordance with (IAW) AFI , but will implement the organization as outlined in their proposal as accepted by the government. Aircraft and Equipment Readiness. Aircraft and equipment readiness is the maintenance mission. The maintenance function ensures assigned aircraft and equipment are safe, serviceable, and properly configured to meet mission needs. Maintenance actions include, but are not limited to, inspection, repair, overhaul, modification, preservation, refurbishment, troubleshooting, testing, and analyzing condition and performance. All levels of supervision must place emphasis on safety, quality, and timeliness in the performance of maintenance. The concept of quality maintenance must be fostered by each supervisor and technician to ensure the integrity and skill of each maintainer is not degraded. To the greatest extent possible, maintenance is accomplished on a preplanned scheduled basis. Planning provides the most effective and efficient use of people, facilities, and equipment, reduces unscheduled maintenance, and allows for progressive actions toward maintaining and returning aircraft and equipment to safe operating condition. Conducting a bench check of components and proper control of repair cycle assets throughout the maintenance cycle are also critical elements of the equipment maintenance program. Preventive Maintenance. AF units must implement and manage the tasks specified in the scheduled program for their assigned aircraft and associated support equipment (SE). Preventive maintenance concepts are described in TO , Aerospace Equipment Maintenance Inspection, Documentation, Policies, and Procedures. Mission Generation maintenance activities must have the capability to launch and recover aircraft and sustain the preventive maintenance program. Generally, this means most units must possess a complement of equipment and supplies to perform on-equipment and off-equipment maintenance. Off-Equipment MaintenanceMaintenance tasks that cannot be effectively accomplished on or at the weapon system or end-item of equipment, but require the removal of the component to a shop or facility for repair.

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On-Equipment MaintenanceMaintenance tasks that can be effectively performed on or at the weapon system or end-item of equipment. Maintenance Concept. Maintenance is organized into two mutually supporting networks, Mission Generation Network (MGN) and Repair Network (RN), The MGN is optimized for mission generation at the wing level and contains the minimum capabilities required to launch, recover, configure, inspect and repair aircraft. The RN supports the MGN by providing serviceable components/equipment and conducting inspection, repair, and modification of aircraft and equipment. Requests For Assistance (RFA). If a maintenance activity requires assistance for evaluation and/or repair beyond unit capability, the request must be made IAW AFI , Equipment Inventory, Status And Utilization Reporting, TO , Maintenance Assistance, and TO , AF Metrology and Calibration Program, or automated process as approved by the mission design series (MDS) specific system manager (e.g., C AIRCATS, F TAR). All requests for assistance must be coordinated through the Quality Assurance (QA) office and Maintenance Operations Squadron (MOS) Plans, Scheduling and Documentation (PS&D). Maintenance Discipline. It is the responsibility of all maintenance personnel to comply with all written guidance to ensure required repairs, inspections, and documentation are completed in a safe, timely, and effective manner. Supervisors are responsible for enforcing and establishing a climate that promotes maintenance discipline. Compliance Terminology. For the purposes of this instruction, the following definitions apply: Shall, Must, Will - Indicate mandatory requirements. (Will is also used to express a declaration of purpose for a future event.) Should - Indicates a preferred method of accomplishment. May - Indicates an acceptable or suggested means of accomplishment. Use of Technical Orders (TO) and TO Supplements. Use of the prescribed technical data to maintain aircraft and equipment is mandatory. Units/Supervisors will: Strictly enforce adherence to and compliance with TOs and supplements. Establish and manage TOs and supplements IAW TO , AF Technical Order System Establish procedures for shipping TOs, E-Tools, and support equipment associated with E-Tools to support mobility requirements. Ensure all authorized technical data variances are kept with aircraft/equipment historical records until no longer applicable. All personnel will: Recommend improvements or corrections for TO deficiencies IAW TO The AFTO IMT 22 prescribed in TO may be submitted as an attachment to an e-

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AFI 26 JULY mail to report problems of a TO. Official TO updates are the only valid authority for correcting a technical deficiency and implementing change. Continually assess the currency, adequacy, availability and condition of their TOs and supplements and be familiar with ETIMS, as they will use ETIMS to view eTOs in ETIMS eTO libraries. Ensure waivers to, deviations from, or additional technical data procedures are issued using approved official communication methods (e.g., signed letter, organizational E-mail, AMHS message or authorized automated TO technical assistance request system, or applicable guidance from ALC). Ensure all authorized technical data variances are kept with aircraft/equipment historical records until no longer applicable. Lead Command will ensure any new or modified configurations or maintenance conditions are coordinated with, and approved by, the designated Weapons System Lead Command IAW AFPD and the System Program Manager (SPM) responsible for the operational safety, suitability, and effectiveness (OSS&E) of the systems and end-items prior to implementation.

Publications. Lead Commands will supplement this AFI. Units must tailor procedures to the unique aspects of their own maintenance operation and publish directives (instructions, supplements, and, for functional areas, operating instructions IAW AFI ), for areas where more detailed guidance or specific procedures will enhance operations. Units shall adhere to the following procedures: Do not publish unit instructions or Operating Instructions (OI) to change or supplement TOs. Units must use procedures in TO to update TOs. Coordinate directives with all appropriate unit agencies. Conflicts between administrative and technical publications will be resolved in favor of the technical publication. Conflicts between procedural technical publications and weapon system specific technical publications will be resolved in favor of the weapon system specific technical publication. Conflicts between Air National Guard/AF Reserve and AF publications are resolved IAW AFI Develop, control, and maintain technical data checklists IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction, TO , and Lead Command instructions. Develop, control, and maintain functional checklists. Functional Checklists are not formatted IAW TO and Chapter 8 of this instruction, but at a minimum are titled and dated. Functional checklists are required for use by functional area(s) during actions such as aircraft crash, mass loads, severe weather warning or evacuation, self-inspections, activity inspections, etc. Functional checklists shall not be used in place of or to circumvent technical data for operation, servicing, inspection or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft systems and all other equipment supporting aircraft and munitions maintenance. QA will ensure functional checklists are reviewed every two years for currency and document this review.

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Waiver Request. MAJCOMs are not permitted to deviate from this instruction without receiving written approval from HQ USAF/A4L. Units must submit waiver requests through the Lead Command. Waivers should only be submitted when urgent or immediate action is required. These circumstances are usually mission impacting and cannot be submitted as part of the normal AFI change process. See Attachment 10 for template. Field Supplements/Installation Publications. Official Air Force publications are the only approved vehicles for issuing official policy and/or guidance. The MXG QA will be the OPR for creating, IAW AFI , publications directed by this AFI. Units may create a Field Supplement in lieu of individual Installation Publications mandated in this AFI. QA will review unit level publications every 2 years for accuracy, intent and necessity and document this review. (ALC the MXW Management Operations Office will perform this function) The appropriate Safety activity will review unit level publications affecting munitions operations or safety; including all locally developed checklists, instructions, supplements, plans, or operating procedures relating to nuclear surety IAW AFI , AF Nuclear Weapons Surety Program. Performance-Based Activities. This section identifies the basic responsibilities for managing performance-based activities (e.g., contract maintenance, Most Efficient Organization (MEO), or High Performance Organization (HPO) except DoD High Performing Organization Pilot program under section of the NDAA (Public Law ) which will follow DoDI ). Additional guidance may be found in AFI , Performance-Based Services Acquisition (PBSA) and AFI , Commercial Activities Program. NOTE: By definition, a contractor, MEO, or HPO will be referred to as a service provider. Lead Command/MAJCOM Responsibilities: Designate focal points for organizational, functional, and technical questions pertaining to each performance-based activity program. Specify measurement areas and performance levels required for aircraft, systems, and equipment operated or maintained by performance-based activities. Specify the forms, methods of documentation, and frequency of reporting used to assess performance-based activities and ensures these requirements are included in the Performance Management Assessment Program (PMAP). Approve base-level requests that would permit a single Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified Airframe/Powerplant (A/P) contractor technician maintaining contracted logistics support (CLS) aircraft to repair and sign off their own Red Xs when sent to recover aircraft off-station. Identify the qualifications, training requirements, and responsibilities for QAE personnel assigned to surveil performance-based activities. Ensure units with assigned QAE personnel meet requirements of AFI , Performance-Based Services Acquisition, along with other applicable guidance. Ensure aircraft depot maintenance contracts, Statements of Work (SOW), and Performance Work Statement (PWS) are coordinated with the MAJCOM Munitions

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AFI 26 JULY Functional to ensure munitions accountability and disposition requirements are adhered to. Unit Responsibilities: Designate a focal point for all functional, technical, and QAE matters pertaining to performance-based activities. Designate a MXG focal point (e.g., Environmental Coordinator) for all Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health requirements, compliance, and, as appropriate, worker protection issues affecting performance-based activities. The Environmental Coordinator will perform duties as outlined in AFPD , Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health/AFI , Pollution Prevention Program and AFI , Hazardous Materials Management. In coordination with the contracting officer and the MXG/CC (or equivalent), provide specific guidance to the performance-based activity to ensure proper maintenance discipline and flight worthiness of aircraft and subsystems. Develop and publish contingency procedures for support of continuing operations in the event of disruption, termination, or default of contract. This includes the provision of contingency procedures for the accomplishment of critical mission operations in the aftermath of natural or man-made events such as natural disasters, major accidents, and terrorist attacks involving chemical, biological, or radiological materials.

Modification Management. A modification proposal is a recommendation to change the operation, use, or appearance of AF equipment. Modifications (temporary, permanent, or safety) to AF aircraft or equipment are expressly prohibited without SPM approval. Refer to AFI , Modification Program Management, for modification management procedures. (DELETED) Modifications to Munitions. All proposed modifications to aircraft-carried munitions shall include SEEK EAGLE certification (per AFI , The SEEK EAGLE Program). All modifications to AF nuclear munitions or their associated support/training equipment shall be nuclear certified IAW AFI , AF Nuclear Safety Design Certification Program. All modifications to AF conventional munitions or their associated support/training equipment shall be certified IAW AFI , Non-Nuclear Munitions Safety Board. Maintenance Information Systems (MIS). MIS refers to automated maintenance information systems that support and enable maintenance business processes. MIS will be used to document maintenance actions and determine fleet health. The information entered into the MIS will be accomplished IAW TO MIS data entries do not have to be accomplished by the same individual who documented the aircraft forms, but employee number/man number/USERID of person accomplishing the actual work must be entered into the MIS. Red Ball maintenance will be documented IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Units must use approved MIS portfolio which may be viewed by accessing the Enterprise Information Technology Database Repository located on the AF Portal. If a unit desires to use a system other than the authorized standard MIS the unit must submit a request to their Lead Command 3-digit Maintenance Management Division (i.e., A4M or A4Q). Lead Command 3-digit functional managers shall coordinate on all requests and forward

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through the Lead Command A4 to HQ USAF/A4L for final consideration/approval. Upon receipt of A4L approval request for MIS systems procurement must be done through the AF/A4RB process. Communications. Effective maintenance requires efficient communication. Radios must be available to expedite personnel, equipment, material, and maintenance data throughout the maintenance complex. Unit commanders shall develop communication plans according to mission requirements. Lead Commands will develop guidance on the use and proper control of personal electronic and communication devices (i.e. cell phones, pagers, portable music/video players, electronic games) on the flightline, in munitions areas, hangars, and/or other industrial work areas. Duty Shifts and Rest Periods. During normal operations, maintenance personnel will be scheduled for duty based on a goal of a hour work week. Maintenance personnel will have their duty hours aligned to provide optimal mission support. Supervision at all levels will be equitably distributed to cover all duty periods. The following guidance establishes maximum duty periods and minimum rest periods for all personnel assigned to a maintenance activity. MXG/CCs may waive the following provisions during emergencies and advanced readiness conditions. Duty periods for crew chiefs and maintenance technicians traveling in their units aircraft are normally controlled by the aircraft commander. Duty time begins when personnel report for duty (this includes aircraft showtime) and ends when their supervisor releases them. A rest period is a block of time that gives a person the opportunity for at least 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep in a hour period. (NOTE: This rest period may not be waived for exercises or inspections.) Do not schedule personnel for more than 12 hours of continuous duty time. Provide a rest period after each shift. Time spent in exercise/contingency deployment processing lines and in-transit counts toward the total duty day, and may impact time available to perform maintenance at the destination.(This includes Flying Crew Chiefs (FCC), Mission Essential Personnel (MEP), Maintenance Recovery Teams (MRT), and normal deployment travel). MXG/CCs are final approval authority for exceeding hour limit up to a maximum of 16 hours. AC/Detachment CC assumes this responsibility in deployed/travel status. Personnel will not handle, load or perform maintenance on nuclear weapons, conventional munitions and/or egress explosives beyond a hour continuous duty period. This requirement may not be waived for exercises or inspections; however, the hour continuous duty period may be exceeded for shift turnover/administrative actions only and will be avoided to the maximum extent possible. The Group Commander or equivalent may waive this requirement during advance defense readiness conditions, actual emergencies as defined in DoD Directive , DoD Nuclear Weapons System Safety Standards, or to resolve an unexpected event (e.g.; disabled vehicle, WS3 fault, hoist failure, etc). In alert force or standby duty situations where facilities are available for resting, established norms may be exceeded. Adjust rest periods to allow for at least 8 hours of sleep.

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AFI 26 JULY Ensure individuals are afforded adequate rest periods and breaks. Consider climatic conditions when determining work schedules. Stop anyone if fatigue may jeopardize safety. In all cases, aircraft commanders/supervisors ensure aircraft maintenance personnel are not required to perform duty when they have reached the point of physical or mental fatigue rendering them incapable of performing their assigned duties safely and reliably.

Maintenance Training. Maintenance training provides initial, recurring and advanced proficiency, qualification, or certification skills needed by a technician to perform duties in their primary AF Specialty Code (AFSC)/Civilian Job Series. Provide training in combat and sortie generation skills not normally integrated into peacetime operations (e.g., munitions and external fuel tank build-up, hot refueling). When balancing resources, (e.g., aircraft, support equipment, facilities, tools, funding, personnel), maintenance training carries an equal priority with the operational training mission. For maintenance training policy and guidance, refer to AFI , Maintenance Training and Lead Command directives. Cross-Utilization Training (CUT). CUT provides the unit internal flexibility by training individuals to perform tasks that are outside their primary AFSC. CUT is not a longterm fix or management solution for an AFSC shortfall. Ensure the training records of individuals receiving CUT are appropriately documented. Address questions regarding CUT to the applicable MAJCOM AFSC Functional Manager. For emerging weapon systems, extensive CUT may be necessary until proper workforce AFSC balancing and assignment is achieved. MAJCOM Functional managers will closely monitor the effects of CUT for adverse trends. NOTE: Prohibitions in this guidance do not apply to UAS (Predator/Global Hawk) weapon systems or other weapon systems where the AF approved maintenance philosophy dictates the merger of AFSCs. Weapons Load Training (WLT). Weapons standardization provides initial and recurring weapons load training and certification. Maintenance Resource Management (MRM). MRM is a course designed to immerse all personnel into the culture and knowledge of human factors philosophy focusing on the importance, requirements, and implementation of MRM principles into daily maintenance activities. Error reduction efforts through human factors will be used to improve processes, reduce maintenance errors, decrease maintenance induced damage, and decrease on-the-jobinjuries. This will be done by integrating the technical skills of maintenance personnel with interpersonal skills and basic human factors knowledge along with operational risk management in order to improve communication, effectiveness, and safety in maintenance operations. To facilitate our common MRM culture, the Air Forces Core MRM course will consist of a one-time, 4-hour block of instruction taught by a certified MRM facilitator using the mandatory course material currently documented at the MRM CoP, applemacs.us?Filter=OO-LG-AN To meet the needs of our total force, MAJCOMS have the option of supplementing the course, in both frequency and duration, to meet unique unit and mission requirements. MAJCOMs can further delegate individual MXG/CCs the authority to supplement their MRM courses to address local, base-level requirements. MRM training is required at all stateside and overseas long-tour locations and will be taught to all military personnel serving in maintenance organizations. MAJCOMs will

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determine the applicability and requirement for MRM training for contractors, government civilians, and AF military personnel possessing a maintenance AFSC but performing duties in a non-maintenance role. Because of the challenges posed by wholesale manpower rotations, MRM training is not required at short-tour locations; however, these units will advocate MRM to the maximum extent possible in order to strengthen the cultural changes MRM requires to succeed. The AF/A4L appointed OPR will: Conduct annual course reviews to ensure currency of MRM course content. Coordinate course updates with HQ AF Safety Center AFSC/SEFO and AFSC/SEH for subject matter expertise, to include those areas such as human factors, fatigue, etc, and for current safety statistics. Ensure current course content is available on the MRM CoP. MAJCOM A4s will: Assign an MRM OPR and identify the OPR POC to AF/A4LM. MXG/CC Encourage training participation and attendance by other base agencies. When practical, ensure classes are populated with a mixture of AFSs, skill levels and ranks from across the MXG to maximize benefits of course discussions. Ensure course completion is tracked in the applicable MIS. Maintenance Repair Priorities. Maintenance repair priorities are listed in Table This does not prohibit the Production Superintendent, in coordination with the Maintenance Operations Center (MOC), from changing the maintenance repair priority when warranted. Raising or lowering maintenance repair priorities does not necessarily require a corresponding change in the Logistics Readiness Squadron (LRS) delivery priority. During Operational Plan (OPLAN) or operational exercise, the preplanned maintenance flow determines job sequence. The maintenance repair priority and LRS delivery priorities are normally identical. However, the Production Superintendent may authorize the use of a less responsive LRS delivery priority. Table Maintenance Repair Priority Designators. PRIORITY APPLICATION 1 Aircraft on alert status, war plan or national emergency missions, including related Aero space Ground Equipment (AGE), munitions and munitions support equipment (MSE).

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PRIORITY APPLICATION 2 Primary mission aircraft, related AGE, munitions, and munitions support equipment, for the first 8 work hours after landing or start of recovery or within 6 work hours of a sched uled launch, alert or test flight and during simulated generation/ORI. Air evacuation, rescue, weather mission aircraft, related AGE, munitions, and munitions support equipment. All transient support, and FAA aircraft. Flight or missile crew training simulator, other training equipment or related AGE required repair, which is impacting the mission by pre venting or delaying student training. 3 Primary mission aircraft, engines, air launched missiles and related AGE, munitions and munitions equipment, and equipment undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, if not performed or repaired will prevent or delay mission accomplishment. Transient air vehicles not otherwise listed. Administrative aircraft within 8 hours of scheduled flight or on alert status with standby crews. Time change requirements for nuclear weapons. Repair cycle assets to satisfy a Mission Capable (MICAP) condition. Spares not available in supply. Critical end items and spares not available in supply. Routine maintenance of aircrew or missile-training simulator, or other training devices or related AGE or sites and aircraft or equipment used for maintenance training. Avionics shop electronic AGE and automated test stations. 4 Routine or extensive repair of primary air mission and related AGE and repair cycle assets. Administrative aircraft undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance. Routine maintenance of AGE, not otherwise listed above. WRM items due maintenance or inspection. Inspection, maintenance, and Time Compliance Technical Order (TCTO) compliance of mission support kit (MSK) or mobility readiness spares package (MRSP) materiel. Extensive repair of aircrew or missile training simulators, other training devices, or related AGE. Inspection, maintenance, and TCTO compliance of munitions and munitions equipment, excluding spares excess to base requirements not listed above. Scheduled calibration and unscheduled repairs on PME not listed above. Scheduled maintenance to include periodic inspections, routine TCTO, MCL, and Time Change Items (TCIs). Primary mission CEM systems or equipment including associated AGE undergoing extensive repair or modification.

AFI 26 JULY PRIORITY APPLICATION 5 Non-tactical or non-primary-mission aircraft undergoing extensive repair. Fabrication and repair of aeronautical items not carrying a higher priority. Bench stock requirements. Extensive repair of aircrew training devices. Time change requirements not listed above. Routine repair of AGE and repair cycle assets. Alternate and other CEM systems or equipment, including associated AGE undergoing extensive repair or modification. Clearing routine delayed discrepancies on training equipment or AGE, and routine maintenance which will not impair or affect mission accomplishment. Equipment requirements. 6 Fabrication and repair of non-aeronautical items. Repair cycle asset shortages required to fill a peacetime operating stock authorization 7 Spares/repair cycle assets excess to base requirements.

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AF Munitions Policy. AF Munitions Policies are contained in AFI , Munitions and Missile Maintenance Management, AFI , Conventional Munitions Maintenance Management and AF Nuclear Munitions Policy is contained in AFI , Nuclear Weapons Maintenance Procedures. Lead Commands will develop and provide policy and guidance on managing and limiting munitions use as necessary . This will ensure munitions remain available and in reliable condition and at the same time provide a realistic training environment and support for exercise purposes. Live and inert missiles (or electrical simulators) of the same type must not be loaded or flown together on an aircraft for any purpose. Live and inert (to include training or practice) bombs must not be loaded in/on the same dispenser/rack or flown on an aircraft load together. Any request to deviate from or waiver to this policy must be coordinated through the WWM, and must be submitted via official message to the MAJCOM Munitions Division, Weapons Safety, and Operations Weapons and Tactics/Training Divisions. The MAJCOM Munitions Division is the sole approval authority for these deviations/waivers. Test organizations may load and fly live and inert munitions on the same aircraft for test missions only, as long as the flight profile is IAW an approved test directive that has been through a Safety Review Board process and flight clearance through the applicable System Program Office SPO/Seek Eagle office has been properly obtained. Request for waiver of, or deviation to, this policy will include as a minimum: 1). Operational Risk Assessment report and proposed controls to mitigate or eliminate hazards to personnel, damage to aircraft and support equipment or inadvertent employment of live ordnance, and, 2). A signed copy of the Test Requirement Plan, Test Plan, or Concept Employment Plan. Approved requests will remain valid only for the event requested and will not exceed 60 days. Captive Air Training Munitions (CATM): Safety pins/streamers for arming keys/safe-arm handles on CATMs may be removed for daily training/flying operations provided positive control and accountability is maintained for these items. (NOTE: AIM-9M CATM arming handles will be permanently removed). These components are only removed

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AFI 26 JULY for foreign or dropped object prevention. Any CATM missiles used for exercises, Load Crew Training and inspections will be configured to the maximum extent possible with all safety devices and components to mirror the parent tactical munitions.

Unit Committed Munitions List (UCML), Test/Training Munitions List (TTML). Operational units will use UCMLs, Test/Training (AETC and AFMC only (includes ARC gained units in these commands)) will use TTMLs unless they already require a UCML (i.e., NORAD Committed). The UCML/TTML is a list of primary munitions (PM), support munitions (SM), and limited-use munitions (LM) necessary to meet unit operational/test/training requirements and is published IAW this instruction. The list of PM cannot include more than 10 individual munitions or munitions family groups (MFG) combined per mission, design, and series (MDS) aircraft assigned. The UCML/TTML also specifies the minimum certified load crews required to meet unit requirements. MAJCOMS may supplement UCML/ TTML processing, coordination and appendix requirements. As a minimum, UCML/TTMLs will be updated annually to identify all munitions tasked and/ or required to support test/training or OPLANs and Designed Operational Capability (DOC) statements. Additional munitions may be included on the UCML/TTML as SM or LM munitions if required by the unit or designated by the MAJCOM (A4M performs this in the ANG) to support test, training, or deployment. The UCML/TTML is the base document for aircrew and load crew training munitions forecasts, authorizations and operations. Units will start their UCML/TTML validation in July, and have a coordinated input to the MAJCOM Munitions Division in August. MAJCOMs will supply approved UCML/TTML to the units in September. NOTE: Specified months not applicable to ANG process. Unit changes to the UCML/TTML will be justified by Wing Weapons and Tactics, coordinated and processed through the WWM, Munitions Flight, MXG/CC and OG/CC before sending it to higher headquarters and MAJCOM. Standard Conventional Load (SCL) lists are not part of the UCML/TTML. They are stand-alone documents. The WWM determines the minimum number of certified load crews depicted on the UCML based on Unit Type Code (UTC) requirements identified in applicable DOC statements. The WWM determines the number of load crews depicted on the TTML as required to meet training unit syllabus and/or test unit mission requirements. (NOTE: WWM specifies in writing the minimum number of load crews required in aggressor units when no UCML/TTML exists). Associate Unit Program/Total Force Integration TFI. The USAF employs the Associate Unit/TFI program in some locations where active and ARC units are collocated and share aircraft, equipment, facilities, and other resources IAW AFPD , Total Force Integration Policy. Lead Command maintenance policy directives and enforcement as they pertain to aircraft, equipment, and facilities are as follows: ANG/AFRC owns the aircraft in an Active Association, ANG/AFRC maintenance policy will be followed by AD personnel, AFRC owns the aircraft in an ARC Association, AFRC maintenance policy will be followed by ANG personnel, AD owns the aircraft in an Classic Association, AD maintenance policy will be followed by ANG/AFRC personnel.

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Civilian Visitors. Units will not permit civilian visitors to operate any AF equipment, specialized vehicles, and any other equipment that requires training to operate, unless they have been specifically trained in the operation of such equipment. (see AFI for AF vehicle operation requirements.) Civilian visitors include: AF family members who are not employed by the AF or assigned to a military service. All civilians who are visiting another unit/installation and are not performing their normally assigned duties. Retired DoD employees. Civilian employees, contractor employees, and other civilian personnel who must operate AF equipment as part of their assigned duties are not considered civilian visitors. Civilian visitors may not be allowed in the flightline area if munitions are present IAW AFMAN , Explosive Safety Standards explosive citing criteria.

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Chapter 2 SAFETY General Safety Guidance. Maintenance personnel are exposed to a large variety of hazardous situations, machinery, equipment, and chemicals. Most hazardous situations can be avoided by following procedures, asking for help when needed, and using personal protective equipment (PPE). Supervisors must be knowledgeable of and enforce AFOSHSTDs, TOs, and AFIs applicable to their operations and ensure personnel are educated on safety requirements applicable to the job. Air Force Occupational and Health (AFOSH) Guidance. Use AF functional directives and technical data in conjunction with AFOSH STDs, see Attachment 1 for AFOSHSTDs applicable to aircraft maintenance activities (this list is not all inclusive). If conflicting guidance exists, the weapon system specific technical data will take precedence. Hazards. All managers and supervisors must incorporate Operational Risk Management (ORM) within the workplace. Identify, eliminate or control, and document hazards to minimize risk associated with uncertainty in the decision-making process. Additional guidance can be found in AFI , Operational Risk Management, and AFPAM , Operational Risk Management Guidelines and Tools. When written directives are not available for the task being performed, the supervisor, with safety staff help, completes a job safety analysis (JSA) to ensure worker, equipment, and work environment compatibility. Procedures for JSAs are contained in AFI , Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety, Fire Protection, and Health (AFOSH). Hazard Abatement Program. Implement and follow the AF Hazard Abatement Program in AFI Document safety plans, actions, hazards, and personnel training with the appropriate AF forms listed below. AF IMT 3, Hazard Abatement Plan; AFI AF IMT 55, Employee Safety and Health Record; AFI AF IMT , USAF Hazard Report; AFI , The US Air Force Mishap Prevention Program. AF Form , Notice of Hazard; AFI Safety Equipment. Ensure personnel are provided the appropriate PPE (when PPE is required) for the hazard and are trained in its use, inspection and care. Contact the installation ground safety or Bioenvironmental Engineering (BE) for assistance in the selection of PPE. Review AFOSH for additional information on PPE. AF Mishap Prevention Program. Implement and follow AFI to protect AF resources. Ensure all personnel receive safety, fire protection, and health on-the job training upon initial assignment and whenever there is a change in equipment, procedures, processes or safety, fire protection, and health requirements. Supervisors must document safety-related training on AF IMT 55, Employee Safety and Health Record, equivalent form or electronic database. Safety Inspections. Accomplish hazard assessment and identification through the application of occupational safety, fire prevention, and health inspections, evaluations, and

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surveys. Supervisors will perform self-inspections to assess the safety environment of the unit. Most AFOSHSTDs contain sample checklists for unit self-inspections. Also, use locally developed checklists tailored to specific unit requirements. Flightline Safety. Adhere to aircraft flightline safety guidance in AFOSHSTD ; Aircraft Flightline-Ground Operations and Activities, AFOSHSTD , Occupational Noise and Hearing Conservation Program, TO , Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding; and equipment TOs. Flightline Driving. All operators of vehicles on the flightline must first obtain training and possess a valid flightline driving permit. Follow the general safety requirements for flightline vehicle operations found in AFOSHSTD and AFJMAN , Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver, AFI , Airfield Management, and local instructions. Supervisors will familiarize all personnel authorized to operate vehicles on the flightline with the aircraft marshaling signals found in AFI , Aircraft Operation and Movement on the Ground. NOTE: see AFI for AF vehicle operation requirements. Operators must receive flightline driver's training on driving conditions and hazards inherent to the flightline environment and obtain a flightline competency card prior to operating any vehicle or equipment operated like a vehicle (bomb lifts, club cars, gators, mules, golf carts, etc.) on the flightline, even though these equipment items do not require a drivers permit or license. Work Center Safety Guidance. Use the general work center safety guidance in AFOSHSTD , General Industrial Operations and AFSOSHSTD , AF Consolidated Occupational Safety Standard, equipment TOs, and local instructions. Confined Spaces. A confined space is any area that is large enough to bodily enter; and has limited/restricted means of entry or exit; and is not designed for continuous human occupancy. CCs, functional managers, and supervisors must ensure all confined spaces that fall under their purview are properly identified, and implement a confined spaces program as outlined in AFOSHSTD , Confined Spaces. Also see AFOSHSTD , Respiratory Protection Program, and TO , Inspection and Repair of Aircraft Integral Tanks and Fuel Cells, for specific requirements. Supervisors will ensure all personnel required to enter a confined space are properly trained, equipped, and qualified and the training is documented prior to entry. For assistance in establishing an effective confined space program contact the installation ground safety office. Munitions Safety Guidance. Use munitions safety requirements found in AFMAN , Explosive Safety Standards; 11A-, 11P-, and 13A-series TOs (explosive and egress handling safety); Chapter 16; and specific equipment TOs. AFMAN contains safety topics, such as, explosive safety program elements, explosive facility licenses, quantity distance criteria, handling of aircraft, remotely piloted vehicles and drones containing explosives, fire protection, storage and compatibility standards, transportation, etc. The 11, 11A-, 11K-, 11P-, 13A-, and 21M- series TOs deal with the specifics of handling and maintaining explosive items or components. Chapter 16 of this instruction pertains to the handling of egress and escape systems and personnel training, certification, and decertification. Lockout and Tagout Concept. Use procedures to isolate machinery or equipment (in offequipment areas) from all hazardous energy. Instruct all personnel in the safety significance of

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lockout or tagout procedures. Find complete guidance for instituting an effective program in AFOSHSTD , Air Force Consolidated Occupational Safety Standard. Warning Tags. See TO Danger Tags. Will only be used when an immediate hazard exists and specific precautions are required to protect personnel or property or as required by TOs, instructions, or other directed requirements. Tags will be placed on damaged equipment and immediate arrangements made for the equipment to be taken out of service and sent to the repair shop. Do not use the AF Form , Danger Tag, for on-equipment aircraft maintenance. Contracted Operations. Refer to AFI , AF Occupational and Environmental Safety, Fire Protection, and Health (AFOSH) and AFOSH , Air Force Occupational Safety and Health Standard, for guidance on AFOSH applicability to contractors. Safety Knock It Off. Due to the inherent danger to life, limb, and property associated with maintenance operations, personnel require a means to pause or terminate an operation or situation which they perceive is unsafe or too dangerous. When crew leaders become taskfocused, junior personnel are often better able to assess the danger; however, deferring to the experience and judgment of the crew leader, they may choose to remain silent, missing an opportunity to break the mishap sequence chain. Operators have long used the call words Knock it Off in their profession; maintenance commanders and supervisors should foster the same culture in their units so that a simple, but recognizable audible from anyone can prevent a potential mishap. Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) or Environmental Management System (EMS). All personnel shall complete Environmental Management System (EMS) awareness training. Commanders or EMS management personnel shall complete EMS Manager training (ref AFPD ). Environmental and Health Working Groups (E&HWG). Installation weapon system squadrons/organizations will participate in the periodic Systems Group and Sustainment Group weapon system environmental and health working groups or their equivalent IAW AFPD , Environmental Safety and Occupational Health. Nuclear Weapons Intrinsic Radiation Safety. Nuclear-capable units will establish an intrinsic radiation (INRAD) program to ensure that INRAD exposure for all personnel conducting maintenance, on-load and off-load, transport, or storage of nuclear weapons is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Find complete guidance for instituting an effective INRAD program in AFI , Air Force Nuclear Weapons Intrinsic Radiation Safety Program.

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Chapter 3 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR COMMANDERS AND KEY LEADERS General. This chapter outlines responsibilities for commanders and key leaders involved in maintenance activities. For the purpose of this instruction, in units where there is not a military CC responsible for maintenance, the applicable civilian Director of Maintenance (DOM) will ensure compliance with all responsibilities in this instruction. NOTE: For the purpose of this instruction, contractor equivalents are as follows: A1C aircraft servicer or apprentice/journeyman; SrA (1 year time in grade)--aircraft worker or field maintenance worker or higher; SSgt--aircraft mechanic or field maintenance mechanic or higher; TSgt--senior mechanic or craftsman; MSgt lead mechanic; SMSgt/CMSgt/ maintenance officer--foreman or branch chief or higher. Lead Commands will determine grade/skill level equivalents for Civilians. Wing Commander (WG/CC) Responsibilities. The WG/CC allocates resources to meet all mission requirements. The WG/CC should ensure the maintenance organization is not overly tasked with augmentation duties outside maintenance functional areas. Commanders organize maintenance according to AFI The WG/CC: Conducts a daily "Wing Standup" meeting. The meeting will include, at a minimum, a review of the previous day, current day, and next days activities, focused on identifying and resolving issues with executing the established flying and maintenance schedule. Ensures a coordinated wing instruction is developed to control tools, equipment, and electronic devices from all wing agencies dispatching to aircraft parking/runway/taxi areas and aircraft maintenance areas IAW Chapter 1, Chapter 10, and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Participates in quarterly QA and monthly scheduling meetings to stay abreast of maintenance issues. Ensures maintenance and operations develop a joint annual maintenance and flying program. Establishes a balance between the requirement for sorties and maintenance capability. Establishes a joint MXG and OG planning and scheduling cycle to ensure the best use of aircraft, equipment, and personnel to accomplish short term sortie production and long term fleet health. Provide augmentees for the nestable fuel tank build up (NFTBU) team as required to support any wartime UTC tasking. Establishes a Crash Damaged or Disabled Aircraft Recovery (CDDAR) capability. Publishes a wing OI containing specific responsibilities for all applicable base agencies. Approve the weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual flying/test schedules IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Wing Vice Commander (WG/CV) Responsibilities. The WG/CV, Center CV/CA, (or equivalent) will: Manage the Foreign Object Damage (FOD) and Dropped Object Prevention (DOP) Programs. The WG/CV is the FOD/DOP Prevention Program Manager and appoints a

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AFI 26 JULY qualified technical sergeant (or above), civilian equivalent, or contractor if designated by performance work statement, as the FOD/DOP Prevention Monitor(s) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction.

Maintenance Group Commander Responsibilities. In addition to the responsibilities listed below, the MXG/CC must also ensure additional maintenance requirements and programs in Chapter 14 of this instruction are complied with. The MXG/CC (or equivalent) will: Establish a radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTD , Radio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program, when applicable. Ensure a focal point is identified as the MXG Environmental Coordinator for environmental, safety, and occupational health requirements, compliance, and worker protection issues. Refer to AFPD , AFI , Pollution Prevention Program, and AFI , Hazardous Materials Management, for additional guidance. Ensures strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Ensure maintenance is only performed by personnel who are trained, qualified, and certified, unless under the direct supervision of a trainer or certifier. Ensure standardization of maintenance discipline, procedures, organizational structures, compliance, and management philosophy. Coordinate with the base fire department, safety, and airfield operations in developing adverse weather procedures for protecting aircraft and equipment IAW AFOSHSTD , AFI , Responding to Severe Weather Events, and MDSspecific technical data. Ensure aircraft maintenance data is accurate by establishing and supporting a data integrity team (DIT). This team is not required in contract and civil service organizations unless specified in the statement of work (SOW), performance work statement (PWS) or performance requirements statement (PRS). Ensure members assigned to the DIT are qualified and provided sufficient time to accurately assess the data. Ensure each aircraft maintenance work center performs a review of all documentation entered into IMDS-CDB/G daily IAW TO , Maintenance Data Documentation.. Ensure activity inspections (if established) are conducted IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction and Lead Command guidance. Approve and publish In Process Inspection (IPI) listings every two years. Ensure the Maintenance Standardization and Evaluation Program (MSEP) requirements are implemented IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure effective management of the MXGs total maintenance training program IAW AFI , Air Force Training Program. Ensure maintenance training is accomplished according to the published (monthly) training plan. Ensure Aircraft/Munitions Maintenance Special Experience Identifier (SEI) management IAW AFI Provide aircraft, personnel, facilities and equipment to support the maintenance-training program.

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Develop plans to rotate personnel to enhance the mission and develop individual experience and knowledge. (N/A to ARC) Manages the maintenance/munitions-training program to include course development content, ancillary, qualification, and maintenance training activities. Publishes monthly training schedules outlining specific aircraft course and equipment requirements. The MXG/CC may authorize the Munitions Flight Commander/Chief to chair the munitions scheduling and training meetings and publish schedules. Approve RFAs (IAW Chapter 1) after they are coordinated with PS&D, QA, and all applicable maintenance organizations. Ensure TOs are managed IAW TO Designate a focal point for all functional, technical, and QAE matters pertaining to performance-based activity. See Chapter 1. Provide maintenance crosstell information IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Review the weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual flying/test schedules IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Ensure munitions are accounted for IAW AFI , Conventional Munitions Maintenance Management. Ensure all personnel assigned to maintenance are used to accomplish critical maintenance tasks before releasing them for non-maintenance duties. Accomplish quarterly reviews of maintenance limiting factors (LIMFACs), shortfalls, and simulation requests. Establish Minimum Equipment Levels (MELs) for essential maintenance assets to include aircraft, engines, pods, AGE, vehicles, etc. Function as the OPR for the Intermediate Repair Enhancement Program (IREP) IAW Chapter 11 of this instruction and ensure a meeting is conducted at least quarterly. Ensure an effective Flash Blindness Protective Device Maintenance Program is accomplished IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Implement an effective Corrosion Prevention and Control Program IAW TO , Application and Removal of Organic Coatings, Aerospace and Non-Aerospace Equipment; TO , Corrosion Prevention and Control, Cleaning, Painting, and Marking of USAF Support Equipment; Lead Command instructions; and MDS-specific TOs. Coordinate requests for naming aircraft through appropriate MAJCOM/CC, and forward to HQ USAF/A4LM for coordination and approval by AF/CV. Ensure a compliance-structured self-inspection program is established IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and Lead Command directives. Ensure a nuclear surety program is implemented (if applicable) IAW AFI , Air Force Nuclear Weapons Surety Program, and nuclear munitions are maintained, handled and accounted for IAW AFI , Nuclear Weapons Maintenance Procedures and AFI , Nuclear Accountability Procedures.

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AFI 26 JULY For units possessing NCE, ensure personnel are trained in the proper use of nuclear flagwords, mishap and deficiency reporting instructions IAW AFMAN , Weapons Safety Investigations and Reports and AFI Ensure effective management of the Engine Trending and Diagnostic (ET&D) program IAW Establish Crashed, Damaged, or Disabled Aircraft Recovery (CDDAR) capability IAW applicable MDS technical data and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure resources and trained personnel are available to perform responsibilities of the CDDAR program. Develop a year facility plan specifying maintenance, upgrade, and replacement projections for the groups facilities. Update and coordinate this plan with the base Civil Engineer annually. Coordinate and prioritize group maintenance facility work orders monthly (Quarterly for the ARC). Ensure adequate communication devices are available and appoint an OPR for assigned land mobile radios (LMR) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure repair cost evaluations are performed and appropriate levels of review and repair authorization are established in squadrons, flights, and repair sections IAW TO , TO , Uniformed Repair/Replacement Criteria for Selected USAF Support Equipment (SE) and TO , Economic Repair Criteria for Support Equipment (SE). Ensure effective use of the AF Engineering and Technical Services/Contracting Engineering Team Specialists (AFETS/CETS) and use appropriate engineering materials as prescribed in AFMCI , Engineering Data Storage, Distribution, and Control, and AFI , Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management. Establish the group maintenance awards and recognition program to meet AF and MAJCOM requirements IAW AFI , USAF Maintenance Awards Program. Ensure MXG activities serviced by an off-base PMEL establish a TMDE collection point. The collection point coordinator is the single point-of-contact between the MXG work centers and the servicing PMEL and is trained by the servicing PMEL. Designate the collection point primary and alternate coordinator in writing. The TMDE collection point shall perform the applicable responsibilities of this instruction, paragraph Ensure procedures are followed to properly turn in recoverable and consumable items IAW AFMAN Deploy MRTs and equipment to recover aircraft IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and applicable Lead Command guidance. Monitor unusual materiel conditions for investigation, consideration of fleetwide potential, and reporting IAW paragraph of this instruction. Ensure the egress section safes all static display aircraft according to series and weapon system TOs. Approve MXG Key Task List (KTL) and Routine Inspection Lists (RIL).

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Ensure an orientation program is developed and conducted for all personnel newly assigned to all unit maintenance/activities. As a minimum, topics must include unit mission, Air and Space Expeditionary Forces (AEF) vulnerability, tasking plans, supply procedures, FOD program, general flightline and work center safety rules, environmental issues, block training, and corrosion control IAW AFI Ensure training requests identified on AF IMT , Field Training Requirements Scheduling Document, are coordinated and approved. Establish MXG engine Lead the Fleet (Pacer) Program for engine type IAW the following documents: MOUs, MOAs, Propulsion Center of Excellence Best Practice , applemacs.us, and AFI , Selective Management of Selected Gas Turbine Engines. Establish MXG local manufacture procedures and controls. Ensure the MXG oil analysis program (OAP) complies with AFI , Oil Analysis Program and Lead Command directives. Chair the Product Improvement Program (PIP) R&M meeting IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Conduct meeting to establish priorities at the beginning of exercises and contingencies. Appoint a Stock Record Account Number (SRAN) engine manager (if a host unit), or a unit engine manager (UEM) (if a tenant unit), to accomplish duties outlined in TO series. Appoint in writing a qualified 2A6X1, minimum7-skill level, (or civilian equivalent) technician to perform Engine Health Management Plus (EHM+) duties IAW AFI (ANG may appoint in writing a qualified 2A6X1 or 2R1X1, minimum7-skill level). Designate the Installation Maintenance Advisor when applicable, to the Aero Club according to AFI , AF Aero Club Program. Appoint hot refueling/hot defueling OPRs for the WG, and designate an OPR for hot refuel training (if applicable) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure maintenance requirements (e.g., aircraft turnaround, alternate fuel cell, hot refueling, end-of-runway (EOR) check area, engine run spots, explosive load (cargo) areas) are included in the base parking plan. Ensure WG Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) is established IAW AFI , Aircraft Structural Integrity Program and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Establish a dedicated crew chief (DCC) program as applicable IAW Chapter 4 of this instruction. Ensure aircraft shelters at bases with permanently assigned aircraft are maintained, unless otherwise stipulated in contracting arrangements, IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction (If an aircraft shelter is used for other than its designed purpose, the using activity will maintain it).

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AFI 26 JULY Ensure effective management of weight and balance (W&B) program IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Coordinate with Operations and establish Functional Check Flight (FCF), Operational Check Flight (OCF), and High Speed Taxi Check programs. Implement hangar queen program IAW Chapter 14 in this instruction. Develop a MXG impoundment program and ensure compliance with the procedures IAW Chapter 9 of this instruction. Ensure squadrons not possessing 2W1X1 personnel establish a chaff/flare training program. As a minimum, the program will include academic, explosive safety, and load/unload training. The program will be administered using the following guidance; as a minimum, the academic program will include: Applicable TOs and publications. Applicable safety discipline/practices. Security requirements. Aircraft familiarization. Stray voltage checks (as required). Munitions characteristics. Local requirements. Establish written MXG procedures to review and clear repeat, recurring, and cannot duplicate (CND) discrepancies. Appoint a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)/Radar Threat Warning (RTHW) manager IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure compliance with Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Mode-IV Program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure the Maintenance Operations Flight (MOF) develops procedures to update and ensure Geographical Location (GEOLOC) codes for on/off-station possessed aircraft are updated/ correct in IMDS location subsystem. (G units are exempt as long as a HHQ agency accomplishes this requirement.) Develop procedures for Red Ball maintenance to include parts delivery, maintenance procedures, documentation methods, and follow-on actions IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Develop a wing instruction to control tools, equipment, and electronic devices from all wing agencies dispatching to aircraft parking/runway/taxi areas and aircraft maintenance areas IAW Chapter 1, Chapter 10, and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Establish written guidance on individual responsibilities and specific procedures for CANN actions (Chapter 5, Chapter 11 & Chapter 14 of this instruction). Ensure aircraft possessed by AFMC for depot maintenance are not cannibalized without approval from the applicable ALC Program Manager and coordinated with the MAJCOM functional manager.

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Establish local procedures for management and maintenance of assigned ground instructional training aircraft (GITA) to ensure they remain useful and safe within guidelines stated in Chapter 14 of this instruction, AFI , U.S. Air Force Heritage Program and AFMAN series. Is responsible for Transient Alert (TA) (if established) and will establish procedures and furnish necessary personnel and facilities for handling transient aerospace vehicles to ensure that servicing, inspection, and maintenance are consistent with the mission of each transient aerospace vehicle. Give special consideration to medical or air evacuation aerospace vehicle, emergency missions, and special missions. Ensure the Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) program is managed effectively IAW Chapter 1 of this AFI. Ensure an effective AFREP program is established IAW AFI , The Air Force Repair Enhancement Program. Deputy MXG/CC will: Chairs the daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to verify aircraft and equipment utilization and scheduled maintenance requirements for the next day, establish work priorities, and coordinate schedule changes. Meeting topics will include: aircraft status, MICAP and Repair Cycle Status, AF IMT , Weekly/Daily Flying Schedule Coordination, actions, current day flying and maintenance schedule execution and remaining portion of the current days schedule, review previous days flying and maintenance schedule deviations to the published schedule IAW MAJCOM guidance, supply MICAPs, prioritizing aircraft requiring/competing for shared resources, and review special inspections (SIs), TCIs, TCTOs, depot field team (DFT)/contract field team (CFT) schedules. Each AMU will brief current aircraft status and repair plans emphasizing high visibility aircraft (impounded aircraft, hangar queens, etc.). MXS will brief status and progress of inspections and any problems with projected flow/time line. Include status of back line aircraft and refurbishment aircraft when under MXS control. Discuss engine spare status and requirements. Perform the following reviews weekly: review next weeks flying and maintenance schedule to de-conflict and prioritize aircraft requiring/competing for shared resources weekly. Review any overdue special inspections and TCIs and planned corrective action. Review status of TCTOs that will ground within 30 days and completion plan. Review DFT/CFT schedule requirements. Review previous weeks deviations to flying and maintenance schedules. Designates mandatory meeting attendees. Develop maintenance capability in conjunction with the production activities. Ensure critical equipment, facilities, and materiel resources are allocated and establish overall priorities.

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MXG Superintendent Responsibilities. In addition to the Group Superintendent responsibilities outlined in AFI , The Enlisted Force Structure, the MXG Chief shall advise and assist the MXG/CC on their responsibilities as outlined in this chapter. The MXG Chief shall advise on personnel, morale, and welfare issues and serve as the groups focal point for maintenance issues and enlisted manning. MXG/CC will determine the scope and responsibilities for MXG Chief regarding meetings and activities. Squadron Commander (SQ/CC) Responsibilities. The SQ/CC will: Ensure manning is distributed between shifts to safely and efficiently accomplish the mission. Ensure there are adequate levels of supervision on all shifts. Ensure compliance with the Environment Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) programs as identified in AFPD , the AFI XX series of ESOH instructions, AFPD , Occupational, Safety, and Health, AFI , and the AFI XX series environmental instructions. Implement group radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTD , Radio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program. Comply with unit Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program IAW AFI , Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance. Designate an unit environmental coordinator (UEC). Ensure strict adherence to technical data and all other written management procedures. Enforce sound maintenance and supply discipline. Review Status Of Training (SOT) programs monthly. Ensure upgrade training and maintenance qualification programs emphasize quality and are not primarily focused on meeting minimum upgrade time frames. Monitor all personnel working outside of their primary AFSC to ensure that it does not hamper mission accomplishment. Establish a squadron vehicle management program IAW AFI Administer the squadron safety program IAW AFI and Chapter 2 of this instruction. Ensure personnel are trained and resources are available for CDDAR Program. Manage unit flying crew chief (FCC) program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure facilities comply with AF industrial environmental standards IAW AFI Ensure intrusion detection systems (IDS) are installed in permanent facilities when required to store munitions IAW DoD M, Physical Security of Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives. When IDS is not available, protect munitions as outlined in AFI , The AF Physical Security Program.

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Appoint custodians to manage the Custodian Authorization and Custody Receipt Listing (CA/ CRL). Support USAF awards program IAW AFI USAF Logistics Awards Program. Recommend personnel for QA duty positions to MXG/CC. Designate Flight Chiefs. Ensure the UMD is consistent with the organizational structure in AFI Maintenance Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. The MOO/MX SUPT is also referred to as Maintenance Operations. As applicable, Maintenance Operations advises the SQ/CC on technical matters, leads a missionfocused maintenance effort, and manages resources necessary to accomplish the mission. They provide necessary administration to manage assigned responsibilities, control maintenance through Production Superintendents, flight chiefs, section, and shop chiefs. The MX SUPT is responsible to the MOO. Maintenance Operations will: Ensure manning is distributed between shifts to safely and efficiently accomplish the mission. Ensure there are adequate levels of supervision on all shifts. Implement GP's radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTD , Radio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program. Ensure compliance with AFPD , the AFI XX series and AF XX series environmental directives and applicable environmental protection/compliance guidance. Also reference related and series AFOSHSTD. Enforces strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Enforce maintenance and supply discipline. Ensure maintenance is performed by personnel who are trained, qualified, and certified, unless under the direct supervision of a trainer or certifier. Ensure compliance with AFI series safety directives, appropriate AFOSHSTD, and applicable industrial safety publications. Ensure MIS and aircraft forms are documented IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Ensure timely and accurate engine data is provided to the EM element for all applicable engines. Enforce procedures to prevent FOD and dropped objects IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Monitor and recommend updates to local IPI requirements; forward IPI recommendations to QA IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure compliance with LMR Program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Enforce Lead Command standards on location of G-files (hard copy or electronic TO-library carried on aircraft) as applicable.

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AFI 26 JULY Coordinate with other squadrons to develop and execute a rotation plan for all applicable AFSCs to balance grade, skill level and experience of personnel between AMU/MXS as required. The WWM will perform this function for AFSC 2W1X1 (N/A to ARC). Manage the Special Certification Roster (SCR). (MXG/CC for the ARC) Ensure a sufficient number of personnel are qualified to perform mission critical tasks listed on the SCR Table in Chapter 14 of this instruction. Reviews and approves individuals for addition to the SCR. Ensure aircraft/SE is available to support unit training objectives. Enforces procedures for identifying, recording, and clearing repeat, recurring, and CND discrepancies. Establish a method to distribute maintenance cross-talk/crosstell messages, QA newsletters, policy announcements, technical notifications, and other important maintenance information for which no formal notification process exists. Review and evaluate management and production effectiveness. Analyze personnel and equipment performance history using QA reports. Initiate management actions to meet new workloads or correct reported/perceived deficiencies. Ensure an annual maintenance plan is developed and reconciled with the flying schedule and flying requirements to ensure maintenance can support the annual flying/test program. Participate in the maintenance planning cycle. Attend the MXG daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. Ensure a squadron SERENE BYTE or PACER WARE response capability exists IAW AFI , Electronic Warfare Integrated Reprogramming. Ensure a squadron Corrosion Control Program is implemented and managed IAW TO , TO , Lead Command instructions, and MDS-specific TOs. Ensure a Refurbishment Program is implemented and managed (as applicable). Ensure OAP is monitored and administered IAW AFI Ensure squadron CDDAR Program responsibilities are established. Ensure squadron ASIP responsibilities are accomplished IAW the MXG ASIP OI. Enforce CANN procedures. Review and support the monthly (quarterly for ANG) Weapons Load Training (WLT) schedule. Ensure all personnel performing duties associated with an applicable SEI are entered into the personnel data subsystem within 30 days of assignment; confirm SEI-qualified individuals are matched against proper SEI positions on the Unit Personnel Management Roster (UPMR). (Not applicable to the ARC). Distribute projected gain/loss lists to all work centers and establishes suspenses for updates. Ensures approved personnel actions have been received for all updates then submits consolidated updates to programs.

AFI 26 JULY

39

Ensure deferred maintenance, Pilot Reported Discrepancy (PRD), and back-ordered parts are properly managed. Review on-line supply products to monitor supply discipline. Ensures Special Purpose Recoverables Authorized Maintenance (SPRAM) accounts are established IAW AFI , Chapter 11 of this instruction, and AFMAN Ensure reporting of materiel deficiencies IAW TO D, USAF Deficiency Reporting, Investigating, and Resolution. Monitor requirements for composite tool kits (CTK), special tools, and SE and take necessary action to ensure availability, as required IAW Chapter 10 of this instruction. Coordinates with WWM on all issues affecting AFSC 2W1X1 personnel to include: work center/organizational manpower authorization change requests (ACR), AFSC changes, re-training, special duty requests, special assignment actions (SWAP, Palace Chase, etc), overseas DEROS extensions/IPCOT requests and physical profile changes. Flight Commander/Flight Chief or AMU Officer (OIC)/Superintendent: These positions are rated on IAW and will: in Charge

Manage shift manpower distribution and make necessary adjustments. Equitably distribute all levels of supervision based on manning and workload to supervise all duty periods. Identify imbalances between authorizations and the number of personnel assigned, or between authorized and assigned skill levels or grades to SQ/CC. Manage additional duties, leaves, ancillary training, and assign personnel to balance workload and minimize negative impacts on the work force. Execute the squadron's Mishap Prevention Program for the Flight/work center IAW AFI and Chapter 2 of this instruction. Ensure all personnel obtain the required safety training, document on AF IMT 55 IAW AFI , and applicable AFOSHSTDs. Ensure safety information is available and personnel in hazardous areas are briefed about the dangers. Identify requirements to BE, ensuring facilities meet AF industrial environmental standards IAW AFI Monitor and ensure environmental health physicals and respirator training, initial and recurring requirements, are accomplished when required for assigned personnel IAW applicable series AFOSHSTDs and TOs. Enforce lock-out/tag-out procedures IAW Chapter 2 of this instruction and AFOSHSTD Ensure organizational compliance IAW the installation ESOHMS/EMS program. Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Advocate use of the TO improvement program, and ensure work center TO files are maintained IAW TO Ensure requirements in TO 11A are complied with when certifying items associated with explosives such as: MERS, TERS, pylons, launchers, rafts, bomb racks, ejection seats, fire suppression bottles, Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE) and gun systems and components. Ensure they are explosive free prior to being turned-in to LRS or the Defense Reutilization Marketing Office (DRMO).

40

AFI 26 JULY Ensure aircraft and equipment forms and MIS documentation are completed, accurate and accomplished for each shift. Ensure aircraft/equipment status is accurately reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS. Ensure MIS and aircraft forms are documented IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Monitor cannibalization actions. Review deferred maintenance weekly for accuracy and determine if appropriate and timely actions are being taken. Use MIS screens/Automated Records Check and coordinate with the Production Superintendent for accomplishment. Review the aircraft automated records check after it has been validated by the section NCOIC IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Ensure operator inspections and user servicing requirements are accomplished on all assigned support equipment IAW TO Ensure sections (and elements) maintain records of inspection, lubrication, and maintenance of industrial equipment IAW TO on AFTO IMT , Industrial/Support Equipment Record, or AF IMT , Inspection Document. Comply with TO 33KCD-1, TMDE Calibration Interval Technical Order and Work Unit Code Reference Guide, applicable calibration measurement summaries (CMS), and TO , in the use, care, handling, transportation and calibration of TMDE owned by the flight. Evaluate maintenance quality, personnel qualifications, and training of assigned personnel. Review/update flight IPI requirements listing every two years and route through MX MOO/ MX SUPT. Ensure only designated personnel identified in the MIS verify MICAPs/Urgency of Need (UND) 1A and JA requirements. Select personnel to perform Special Certification tasks IAW Chapter 14, Table of this instruction and forward names to MX Operations Officer/MX SUPT for approval. Ensure training requirements are executed to support established training plan and individual AFSC Career Field Education and Training Plans (CFETP) IAW AFI Ensure CUT requirements are identified as required by the unit mission IAW Chapter 1 of this instruction and AFI Ensure CUT does not interfere with upgrade/qualification training. Ensure procedures are followed to identify, record, and clear repeat, recurring, and CND discrepancies. Review Maintenance Management Analysis (MMA), QA, and other management reports to determine appropriate management actions to meet new workloads, target deficiencies, and identify and correct root causes. Review current and updated publications and inform personnel of any significant changes.

AFI 26 JULY

41

Provide inputs to maintenance and flying schedules, and execute scheduled maintenance plans. Establish flight/AMU-specific emergency action procedures to respond to disaster control and severe weather and forward to MOC. Review unit responsibilities pertaining to aircraft/SE movement and personnel evacuation IAW AFI , AF Emergency Management (EM) Program Planning and Operations; AFI , Responding to Severe Weather Events; and Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan Actively solicit inputs and promotes the Product Improvement Program IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure the Corrosion Control Program is properly managed IAW TO , TO , Lead Command instructions, and MDS-specific TOs. Ensure personnel are familiar with the unit CDDAR Program and understand local procedures designed to protect personnel and prevent further damage to aircraft, equipment, and other resources. Manage the AMU/flights participation in the FOD and DOP program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Oversee the units FCC Program. Establish and enforce a flight Precious Metals Recovery Program, as applicable, IAW AFMAN and TO Conservation and Segregation of Critical Alloys and Precious Metal Bearing Parts and Scrap. Assign section supervisors. Ensure proper asset management by reviewing MIS data records, the D23, and other pertinent products to minimize shortfalls. When applicable, ensure warranty items are loaded in MIS according to applicable directives. Ensure deficiency reports (DR) are accomplished IAW TO D Ensure repairable/non-repairable parts are promptly processed through repair channels within the required time frame IAW this publication, paragraph Approve requirements for bench stocks and provide guidance as to the type, location and use by one or more sections. Spot check bench stocks to evaluate adequacy, supply discipline, and housekeeping. Consolidate Flight inputs for items received in supply requiring functional check, operational programming or calibration. Submit the listing to the LRS Materiel Management flight. Coordinate all AGE requirements through the AGE Flight Chief to ensure support capability and eliminate unnecessary duplication of equipment. Ensure tool/equipment and bench stock storage areas are managed IAW Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of this instruction. Review all AFTO Forms 22 for accuracy and applicability prior to submission to QA.

42

AFI 26 JULY Identifies individuals to the MOO/Sq Supt for addition to the SCR IAW Chapter Ensure nuclear weapons-related materiel (NWRM) is controlled IAW AFI

Section NCOIC/Chief. The section NCOIC is responsible to the Flight/CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief for the leadership, supervision, and training of assigned personnel. The section NCOIC is a first-line manager and supervisor of maintenance production and is the technical authority and advisor in that area. When sections are subdivided, element leaders perform the appropriate functional responsibilities. The section NCOIC will: Establish a work center safety program IAW AFOSHSTDs, AFI , and other applicable safety directives. Monitor, track, and ensure occupational safety, fire prevention, occupational and environmental health requirements, are accomplished for assigned personnel. Ensure AF IMT 55 is documented IAW AFI Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Advocate use of the TO improvement program, and ensure work center TO files are maintained according to TO Establishes procedures and ensures configuration control of all applicable software are both current (latest date) and correct for the application and use for which it is intended. Ensure technicians check Automated Computer Program Identification Number System (ACPINS) for software updates for assigned systems. A software sub-account will be established, allowing the shop/section access to the ACPINS. Software configuration control will be maintained IAW TO , Manual USAF Automated Computer Program Identification Number System (ACPINS) and TO , Users Manual USAF Computer Program Identification Numbering (CPINS) System. NOTE: AFSOC/AETC CV units will use Authorized Software Configuration Matrix (ASCM) for configuration control instead of ACPINS for aircraft software configuration. Ensure housekeeping, safety, security and environmental control standards are followed. Perform production and supervisory inspections. Ensure aircraft forms, equipment forms and MIS documentation are complete, accurate, and accomplished for each shift. Ensure aircraft/SE status is correctly reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Review and correct, as needed, the work center's events in the MIS on a daily basis to monitor scheduled and deferred events. Close, reschedule, or defer all events beyond their scheduled start date and time. (e.g., IMDS-CDB screen #/ and G screen #/A/) Review transcribed AFTO series IMTs/forms, work center MIS data entries for the previous day, and all preceding non-duty days, for job accuracy and completeness (IMDS-CDB Screen # and G Screen #).

AFI 26 JULY

43

Ensure all personnel assigned to nuclear-equipped units annotate the work center event (WCE) with the statement "Two-Person Concept Applies" IAW AFI and applicable series AFIs. Validate aircraft automated records checks and submit to Flight CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief for review IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction for records check procedures. (DELETED) Evaluate maintenance quality, personnel qualifications, and training of assigned personnel. Review and recommend changes for maintenance tasks requiring IPIs. Forward the IPI listing to Flight CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief. Ensure TMDE maintenance and calibration requirements are accomplished. Develop and manage workcenter training program. Evaluate personnel, track training requirements and ensure training documentation is accurate. Develop CUT requirements as required by the unit mission IAW Chapter 1 of this instruction and AFI Ensure CUT does not interfere with upgrade/qualification training. Review, evaluate, and take corrective action based on QA and other inspection reports. Ensure personnel follow procedures for identifying, recording and clearing repeat/recur and CND discrepancies. Review current and updated publications and inform personnel of any significant changes. Ensures work center publications are current and required publications are available to meet work center needs. Ensure section personnel coordinate all flightline maintenance with the flightline expediter. Ensure personnel and equipment are identified and prepared to deploy for taskings IAW AFI , AFI , and AFMAN Actively solicit inputs and promote the PIP IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Conduct and report self-inspections IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and local directives. Manage CTK and Supply Programs (e.g., bench stocks, and operating stocks) IAW Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of this instruction. Ensure the Bench Stock Review Listing (M04) is reviewed monthly and all recommendations are adjudicated to most efficiently meet mission needs. Manage the sections Repair Cycle Program. Review the D23 weekly and other pertinent supply products to ensure proper supply discipline. Establish procedures to control, store, and manage alternate mission equipment (AME); maintenance, safety, and protective equipment (MSPE); and Dash equipment according to AFI

44

AFI 26 JULY Identify items requiring calibration or operational check before installation. Provide a list of these items to the Flight CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief. Recommends individuals for addition to the SCR. Participate in and enforce the Bad Actor Program IAW TO D Maintain HAZMAT and ESOH items IAW AFI XX-series instructions, and AFPD Ensure HAZMATs are MIL-Spec approved materials. QP/Qualified Product Database (QPD) for changes. Monitor the

The QPL/QPD identifies qualified products (i.e., cleaners, paints, etc.) within a particular Mil-Spec and are the only approved materials for use on AF aircraft, subsystems, and support equipment for that specification. Products not listed on the QPL and or QPD are unauthorized and will not be used. Additional QPL or QPDs can be located at the Defense and Federal specifications and standards available in the official DoD repository web site: applemacs.us If a QPL/QPD for the specification does not exist choice of product used will be determined locally. For units with contracted operations, notify the Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO) of changes to the QPL/QPD. The ACO will notify contractors of changes to the QPL/QPD. QAEs will ensure only approved materials are used. Units assigned Nuclear Certified Equipment (NCE) (applies to both nuclear and non-nuclear tasked units) develop a quick reference list of all assigned NCE. IAW AFI , Nuclear Certification Program, paragraph , survey and document legibility of identification information (i.e., data plate, information plate, appropriate markings, etc.) and that the information matches the Master Nuclear Certification List (MNCL) applemacs.us Ensure Dull Sword reports are submitted for nuclear deficiencies IAW AFMAN , AFI and local procedures. Ensure Section is organized with tools, equipment and material as close to the Point of Maintenance (POMx) as possible, as approved by the Flight CC/Chief, without jeopardizing accountability and control procedures. Production Superintendent (Pro Super). The production superintendent directs the overall maintenance effort of their unit. The pro super will be a SNCO or civilian equivalent. The pro super will: Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures IAW TO Ensure aircraft and equipment forms and MIS documentation are completed, accurate and accomplished. Ensure aircraft status is accurately reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS.

AFI 26 JULY

45

Sign ERs IAW TO when authorized by the MXG/CC IAW Chapter 14, Table of this instruction. Participate in developing and executing the monthly and weekly flying and maintenance schedules/plans. Manage the maintenance production effort by assigning priorities to meet the flying and maintenance schedules. Attend the MXG daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. Fully understand actions required by the squadron under OPLAN or contingency plans. Develop, ensure currency of, and direct the aircraft generation sequence. Fully understand and be prepared to implement specific disaster control duties and squadron responsibilities pertaining to aircraft/SE movement and personnel evacuation IAW AFI , AFMAN , AFI , and unit directives. Maintain a current copy of the on-base disaster map with cordon overlay and appropriate functional checklists outlining duties during disaster exercises. Determine/track/report aircraft status, including ETIC, IAW AFI and Lead Command/local directives. Authorize CANN actions when authorized by the MXG/CC. Monitor unit CDDAR Program activities and local procedures designed to protect personnel and prevent further damage to aircraft, equipment, and other resources. Inform MOC of the maintenance effort and coordinate with MOC, Flightline Expediter, and other squadrons for support. Provide aircraft status updates as required. Verify MICAP conditions exist. Ensure flightline munitions are handled, accounted for, and expended IAW AFI and local instructions.

46

AFI 26 JULY

Chapter 4 AIRCRAFT/HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (AMXS/HMXS) General. AMXS/HMXS services, inspects, maintains, launches, assigned/transient aircraft (if applicable). Organize IAW AFI and recovers

MX Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities . In addition to common responsibilities outlined in Chapter 3 of this instruction, the MOO/MX SUPT: Ensure standardized procedures and organizations among AMUs. Manage the IFF Mode-IV and RWR program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensures sufficient personnel, equipment, and facilities are assigned, maintained, and provided to properly perform EOR inspections IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Provide input for development of an annual maintenance plan to MX PS&D Establish hot brake response procedures in coordination with base support agencies. (Fire dept, crash recovery). Monitors the squadron DCC and FCC programs. Ensure personnel use and understand the purpose of the AF IMT , Generation Maintenance Plan, and the AF IMT , Generation Sequence Action Schedule. Ensure an explosive safety and chaff/flare academics and loading program for airlift, helicopter, and tanker units is established. Publish procedures covering the storage, control, and handling of starter cartridges (if applicable). Provide input to MMA for the monthly metrics report to Lead Command. Oversee and coordinate daily hot pit operations. (DELETED) (DELETED) AMU. May include the following sections: Aircraft, Specialist, Weapons, Debrief, Supply, and Support. AMU OIC/SUPERINTENDENT Responsibilities. Allocates personnel and resources to the production effort. In addition to the common responsibilities in Chapter 3 of this instruction, the AMU OIC/Chief will: Review PRDs daily and ensure proper maintenance actions are taken. Review all aborts and ensure proper maintenance actions are taken. Monitor aircraft phase/isochronal/periodic/Home Station Check flow. Ensure sufficient number of personnel are engine run qualified IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction.

AFI 26 JULY Chair a daily AMU maintenance production meeting.

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Источник: [applemacs.us]

Afi21

HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE WASHINGTON, DC

AFI_AFGM1 19 October MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION C MAJCOMs/FOAs/DRUs FROM: HQ AF/A4L Air Force Pentagon Washington, DC SUBJECT: Air Force Guidance Memorandum to AFI , Aircraft and Equipment Maintenance Management This is a Guidance Memorandum immediately implementing changes to AFI , Aircraft and Equipment Maintenance Management, 26 July It adds AFPD , Air Force Nuclear Enterprise, to the opening paragraph, provides the current Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) web-site, clarifies WG/CC requirement to review the QA MSEP summary, updates Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) data collection and reporting procedures, removes Enhanced Maintenance Operations Center timeline, eliminates assigning CDDAR responsibilities exclusively to Maintenance Flight work centers, establishes procedures for Corrosion Control facility housekeeping, and removes the requirement for Aircrew Flight Equipment personnel to maintain a spare survival kit and personnel parachute for each MDS to support Red Ball maintenance. Compliance with this memorandum is mandatory. To the extent its directions are inconsistent with other Air Force publications, the information herein prevails, in accordance with AFI, Publications and Forms Management. In advance of a rewrite of AFI , the attachment to this memorandum provides guidance changes that are effective immediately. The directions of this memorandum become void after days have elapsed from the date of this memorandum or rewrite of the affected publication, whichever is earlier.

LOREN M. RENO Lieutenant General, USAF DCS/Logistics, Installations & Mission Support Attachment: Guidance Changes

AFI_AFGM1 19 October

ATTACHMENT Guidance Changes (Replace) This instruction implements AFPD , Air and Space Maintenance; is consistent with AFPD , Air Force Nuclear Enterprise; and subsumed AFI (19 Jul ), and (7 Sep ). It is the basic Air Force directive for aircraft and equipment maintenance management. It provides the minimum essential guidance and procedures for safely and effectively maintaining, servicing, and repairing aircraft and support equipment. It acknowledges the foundational contributions made to Agile Combat Support (ACS) capabilities of Generating the Mission, and Supporting and Sustaining the Mission, Forces, and Infrastructure. It applies to all major commands (MAJCOMs) and the Air National Guard (ANG), along with their subordinates. Lead Commands will supplement this document to identify any required deviations (applicability, variance, and/or differences in organizational placement of responsibilities/processes). Identify each deviation on the supplement with (DEV) directly preceding the paragraph number. These supplements must be submitted to AF/A4L for approval; however supplements not including deviations do not require AF/A4L approval. Additionally, supplements must be made In Accordance With (IAW) AFI , Publication Management Program. Any maintenance units, Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) operations support units, or operational test units who perform maintenance on aircraft, aircraft support systems, or communication interfaces such as Remote Split Operations LRUs carrying aircraft control signals not maintained by base Communications Squadrons or DISA, must comply with the requirements identified within this instruction. In the event of a conflict with other guidance, this instruction will take precedence over all except Technical Orders (TO)s. Refer recommended changes and conflicts between this and other publications to HQ USAF/A4L through your Lead Command channels, using the AF Form Waiver authority for this instruction is HQ USAF/A4L. For questions on interpreting this instruction, first contact your Lead Command maintenance policy activity. Ensure that all records created as a result of processes prescribed in this publication are maintained in accordance with AFMAN , Management of Records and disposed of IAW Air Force Records Disposition Schedule located at applemacs.us The use of the name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force. (Replace) To facilitate our common MRM culture, the Air Forces Core MRM course will consist of a one-time, 4-hour block of instruction taught by a certified MRM facilitator using the mandatory course material currently documented at the MRM CoP, applemacs.us?Filter= To meet the needs of our total force, MAJCOMS have the option of supplementing the course, in both frequency and duration, to meet unique unit and mission requirements. MAJCOMs can further delegate individual MXG/CCs the authority to supplement their MRM courses to address local, base-level requirements. (Replace) Participates in monthly scheduling meetings and reviews the monthly (quarterly for the ARC) MSEP summaries distributed by QA to stay abreast of maintenance issues.

AFI_AFGM1 19 October

(Replace) Collect and submit ASIP aircraft usage data IAW the MDS specific TOs, this instruction (Chapter 14), and AFI , Aircraft Structural Integrity Program. (Replace) Maintenance Operations Center (MOC). The MOC monitors and coordinates sortie production, maintenance production, and execution of the flying and maintenance schedules while maintaining visibility of fleet health indicators. Through coordination with maintenance units, the MOC communicates priorities for competing limited resources [e.g., fuel or calibration docks, wash racks, and dispatched specialists from the maintenance squadron(s) (e.g., egress)] based on daily flying schedule and maintenance priorities. The exchange of information between squadrons and the MOC must be in sufficient detail to allow the MOC to comply with reporting requirements and to identify potential problems. The Enhanced Maintenance Operations Center (EMOC) system is the program of record for the AF and its use is mandated. (Replace) The first two characters of the WWID in the EID are based on the wings/units personnel assignment system (PAS) base code. Multiple wings (or equivalent) at the same base (i.e., ANG, AFRC, and active duty) must have different WWID codes. When needed, request additional base codes from the TAS Program office, Enterprise Logistics Directorate, Electronic Systems Center (AFMC) Maxwell AFB, Gunter Annex AL. (Replace) The ASIP includes requirements for collection and evaluation of aircraft usage data to update or confirm the original design or baseline spectrum and to adjust maintenance intervals on an individual aircraft basis. The Loads/Environment Spectra Survey (L/ESS) data is collected via flight data recorders of instrumented aircraft to evaluate the loads spectrum. The Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) data is collected via flight data recorders or manual forms such as bubble sheets and the data is used to make maintenance/inspection/force structure decisions. Both the L/ESS and IAT aircraft usage data programs are established by applicable MDS specific TOs and AFI , and require coordinated action by a number of base level maintenance activities to achieve the required data capture rates. An effective ASIP aircraft usage data collection program is essential to establish, assess and support inspections, maintenance activities, repairs and required modification/replacement actions. (Replace) The MXG/CC or equivalent ensures an effective ASIP is established, appoints an officer or NCO as the unit ASIP project officer, and ensures effective measures are in place to capture and report ASIP aircraft usage data (L/ESS and IAT) to achieve the required data capture rates. (Replace) Act as OPR for a local ASIP aircraft usage data (L/ESS and IAT) collection and the local ASIP publication. As a minimum, the publication will include: (Replace) Identification of maintenance activities responsible for collection and submittal of ASIP aircraft usage data. (Add New) Identify ASIP Officer, ASIP monitor, and Debrief section responsibilities (as applicable).

AFI_AFGM1 19 October

(Replace) Appointment of ASIP monitors at home station and Deployed/Contingency locations. (Replace) Procedures to collect and submit ASIP aircraft usage data (e.g. computer files downloaded from a flight data recorder, tapes obtained from a flight data recorder, bubble sheets). (Add New) ASIP usage data must be submitted no later than the end of next duty day. (Replace) Procedures to collect and submit ASIP aircraft usage data at deployed locations. (Add New) Procedures, not listed in applicable TOs, to maintain flight data recorders on equipped aircraft and the associated downloading equipment or storage media, submit any recommended TO changes IAW TO (Add New) Training requirements for technicians responsible for ASIP aircraft usage data collection and submittal. (Add New) Documentation requirements for ASIP aircraft usage data collection and submittal (e.g., dates for downloads and submittals, dates for tape installation/removal/submittal, aircraft and flight data recorder serial numbers associated with submittals). (Replace) Coordinate with the MDS MAJCOM OPR and ASIP Manager to obtain feedback on data capture rates and to implement corrective actions as needed to achieve the required rates. (Replace) Maintenance activities (ASIP Monitors) responsible for ASIP aircraft usage data collection and evaluation will collect and submit ASIP aircraft usage data IAW local ASIP publication,TOs and this instruction. (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE (Replace) DELETE

AFI_AFGM1 19 October

(Replace) DELETE. (Replace) DELETE. (Add New) Establish a response capability to in-flight emergencies. (Add New) Corrosion Control Facility Housekeeping. (Add New) Housekeeping and contamination procedures are critical to protecting the health of workers and maintaining areas as free as practicable from surface contamination. A BE approved workplace housekeeping procedure will be employed to prevent contamination spread within a work center. Emphasis will be placed on controlling the source of the contamination and on ensuring workplace personnel follow proper work procedures, PPE use, and hygiene practices. (Add New) The Work Area/Shop Supervisor will develop and maintain a work area/shop-specific written housekeeping program. (Add New) The housekeeping program will be incorporated into the work area/shop specialized safety, fire protection, and health on-the-job training lesson plan IAW (Add New) Workplace supervisors will ensure the housekeeping plan is implemented, documented on a cleaning log, and is adequately carried out by workers. (Add New) Document supervisor housekeeping follow-up inspections and maintain documentation a minimum of 6 months. (Replace) AFE personnel will maintain control over spare survival kits and personnel parachutes within their facility. Terms (Add New) Corrosion Control Facility - A facility where activities are conducted to treat, prevent or repair corrosion control for aircraft or associated components and equipment; these activities include wash, treatment, repair, stripping, and repainting processes. Corrosion control shops also support vehicles, weapons and munitions, and avionics shops. Additionally, it provides space for the corrosion control shop which includes preparation and drying areas, abrasive blasting rooms, paint booths for mixing and/or applying paint, tool storage, lockers, and administrative areas.

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE

AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 26 JULY Incorporating Change 1, 16 August Maintenance AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ACCESSIBILITY: Publications and forms are available on the e-Publishing website at applemacs.us for downloading or ordering. RELEASABILITY: There are no releasability restrictions on this publication. OPR: HQ USAF/A4LM Supersedes: AFI, 12 April Certified by: HQ USAF/A4L (Maj Gen Robert H. McMahon) Pages:

This instruction implements AFPD , Air and Space Maintenance and subsumed AFI (19 Jul ), and (7 Sep ). It is the basic Air Force directive for aircraft and equipment maintenance management. It provides the minimum essential guidance and procedures for safely and effectively maintaining, servicing, and repairing aircraft and support equipment. It acknowledges the foundational contributions made to Agile Combat Support (ACS) capabilities of Generating the Mission, and Supporting and Sustaining the Mission, Forces, and Infrastructure. It applies to all major commands (MAJCOMs) and the Air National Guard (ANG), along with their subordinates. Lead Commands will supplement this document to identify any required deviations (applicability, variance, and/or differences in organizational placement of responsibilities/processes). Identify each deviation on the supplement with (DEV) directly preceding the paragraph number. These supplements must be submitted to AF/A4L for approval; however supplements not including deviations do not require AF/A4L approval. Additionally, supplements must be made In Accordance With (IAW) AFI , Publication Management Program. Any maintenance units, Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) operations support units, or operational test units who perform maintenance on aircraft, aircraft support systems, or communication interfaces such as Remote Split Operations LRUs carrying aircraft control signals not maintained by base Communications Squadrons or DISA, must comply with the requirements identified within this instruction. In the event of a conflict with other guidance, this instruction will take precedence over all except Technical Orders (TO)s. Refer recommended changes and conflicts between this and other publications to HQ USAF/A4L through your Lead Command channels, using the AF Form Waiver authority for this instruction is HQ USAF/A4L. For questions on interpreting this instruction, first contact your Lead Command maintenance policy activity. Ensure that all records created as a result of

AFI 26 JULY

processes prescribed in this publication are maintained in accordance with AFMAN , Management of Records and disposed of IAW Air Force Records Information Management System located at applemacs.us The use of the name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES This interim change reflects administrative changes, clarifies guidance and procedures dealing with Aircraft and Equipment Maintenance Management and cites the major changes and deleted paragraphs. Deleted paragraphs are , , , , , , , , and It includes trade name disclaimer to the opening paragraph and Enhanced Technical Information Management System (ETIMS) requirement for use of technical orders, correct referenced AFIs, updated Modification Management definition; clarified processes for Management Philosophy and Policy, General Responsibilities for Commanders and Key Leaders, Engine Management Section manager skill level requirement, procedures for MXG MSEP grading, and AGE flights organized as consolidated maintenance units. Also, it clarifies erroneous engine serial number input into the Comprehensive Engine Management System (CEMS) and the CEMS website. Further, it includes Lead Commands determination of the pre/post dock requirement for inspections with less than a hourly or calendar days cycle, bundling multiple maintenance events to the greatest extent possible for completion during a single aircraft down time, Production Superintendent in inspection post-dock meetings, and Training Aid Aircraft to permanently grounded aircraft category. It removed MXG/CC and CD requirement to be listed on the special certification roster, changed Table Nuclear Weapons Related Material appointment official, clarified inadvertent released munitions dropped object reporting definition, and updated Weapons Expediter training in Table Finally, section was revised to clarify aircraft grounding procedures. A margin bar (

Manual for Style 1 - AF Logistics Management Agency

ManualforStyle 1


Air Force Journal of Logistics

Ward Street

Gunter Annex, Mawell AFB AL

First Edition July


4

Contents

Chapter 1 Manuscript Submission 7

Chapter 2 Word Usage 9

Chapter 3 Punctuation 19

Chapter 4 Numbers 27

Chapter 5 Tables and Figures 31

Chapter 6 Formulas and Symbols 33

Chapter 7 Endnotes and References 37

Chapter 8 Capitalization 39

Chapter 9 Abbreviations and Acronyms 79

Chapter 10 Compounding 95

Index

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Preface

Although our language is fluid, it has certain disciplines that constitute an essential part of that

language. These disciplines—spelling, grammar, and punctuation—are an essential part of our

language, allowing exactness in communication. The imprecise use of words and misplaced

punctuation can alter the meaning of a sentence. While this style guide may not convert

everyone to the AFJL style, it will serve as a base for establishing clarity and consistency, both

of which are key to effective communication.

We have included ten sections to assist both the reader and the contributor. The first section

is on punctuation, which allows a thought to be stated more clearly and tells the reader how to

read a sentence. Punctuation performs the same function as inflection, pauses, and emphasis

do in speaking.

The second section, capitalization, should assist in determining whether to capitalize a word or

not. Words may be capitalized according to use; however, a word incorrectly capitalized can

cause inconsistencies within a publication and confuse the reader. Likewise, when too many

words are capitalized, they lose their importance and no longer attract attention. Therefore, we

have chosen specific capitalization requirements for words frequently used in AFJL publications.

A section on compounding is included since there seem to be to be three stages in the development

of compounds. At first the components are written separately. Next they are united by

a hyphen, seemingly preparatory for the next stage. When the significance and accent of these

compounds become common, they lose the hyphen and one word is born. We have included

examples based on the rules for compounding found in this section.

The section on the use of numerals is based on the principle that numbers in figures are easier

to understand than in words. However, some of the rules are based simply on typographic

appearance.

A section on abbreviations and acronyms is included since they can save space and avoid

distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases. Because acronyms come and go,

they must be spelled out the first time for the benefit of future readers.

The English language has many words that sound alike and are frequently confused, along

with those that just are incorrectly used. Section 8 includes those that can be hazardous to

communication if incorrectly used.

We have included sections on references, tables, and submitting a manuscript that contain

AFJL idiosyncrasies.

We hope this style guide will assist in establishing consistency without detracting from the

personal styles of the writer.

5


6

Air Force Journal of Logistics








1

Manuscript Submission

ManualforStyle

Tables, figures, and photographs should be submitted with the

manuscript but not inserted into it. They should be properly titled

and numbered consecutively, from the beginning of the manuscript

to the end.

The place for each illustration should be indicated in the manuscript.

Figures and photographs downloaded from the Internet do not

reproduce satisfactorily.

All material sent to the Journal should be verified and final.

When composing a manuscript, write in a concise, simple, and

direct manner.

Acronyms must be spelled out the first time.

7


8

Air Force Journal of Logistics


a/an

about

above

absolutes

advance

affect/effect

agree to/

agree with

all of

among/

between

amount

ManualforStyle

2

Word Usage

When the word following an article begins with a consonant sound,

a is used; when it begins with a vowel sound, an is used. However,

when a word begins with an aspirated h, correct usage is a—a

history, a hill. Words beginning with vowels that have a consonant

sound, call for an a—a unique.

He will arrive at about 9 o’clock is not correct. Use at or about but

not both.

Should not be used in the sense of more than.

Some words are not subject to comparison by the use of more,

most, or very; for example, eternal or unique.

Used literally to designate a forward position in place or time

(advance party or advance payment. Advanced is used figuratively

to indicate a position beyond the norm (an advanced program).

Advanced planning is redundant; all planning is done in advance.

Has an influence; effect brings a result. Affect can mean to pretend

or feign something. Effect is the only one of these words in common

use as a noun; affect is used as a noun only in psychology.

You agree to a plan and agree with a person.

All is usually sufficient.

Among is used in referring to groups of three or more, and between

is used in referring to two persons or things.

A sum total; you have an amount of money and a number of errors.

9


Chapter 2

10

angry at/

angry with

anticipate

anyone/

anybody

anxious

anyplace

apparently

appear

approximately

around

as

as you know

assure/

ensure

basis

be

because/for/

since/as

One is angry at a situation but angry with a person.

To foresee; don’t use it when you mean expect.

Often mistakenly used with plural pronouns in the predicate.

“Anyone who attempts to cross that river is out of their mind” is

incorrect. His or her should be used in place of their, or the sentence

should be rewritten, “People who attempt to cross that river are out

of their minds.”

Used only when anxiety exists. We are eager to write good letters,

not anxious.

Not good usage; say anywhere.

Should be avoided.

Usually suggests that which is visible. A woman appears to be

young, but she seems to be intelligent.

Overworked; say about.

About $10; around is incorrect.

Use as before a phrase. Do not use like, which is used before nouns

or pronouns.

If they know, why tell them?

Assure people; ensure things.

Instead of saying as a basis for, simply say for.

Be sure to, not be sure and.

Because is used as a conjunction introducing a subordinate clause

stating the reason for the action reported in the main or independent

clause. “He claimed victory because the people were fleeing the

towns.” For, since, or as may be used in similar constructions.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


etween

biannual

Bible//bible

bimonthly

can

claim

compare to/

compare

with

continuously/

continually

couple

degreed

demonstrate

desire

desert/

dessert

ManualforStyle

Word Usage

Between 15 and 20 people not between 15 to 20 people.

Between is usually used with two objects; among with more than

two.

Between you and me, not between you and I.

Biannual and semiannual mean twice a year. Biennial means every 2

years.

Bible is preferred when the reference is to the Bible of the Christian

faith, but bible is preferred when referring to a standard or highly

respected book.

Bimonthly means every 2 months. Semimonthly is used to express

twice monthly.

Denotes ability; may denotes permission.

Do not use claim as an intransitive verb. Claim ownership but don’t

claim to be efficient.

These are sometimes interchangeable, but when you are stressing

similarities between the items compared, the most common word is

to: “She compared his home-made wine to toxic waste.” If you are

examining both similarities and differences, use with: “The teacher

compared Steve’s exam with Robert’s to see whether they had

cheated.”

Continuously means without interruption; continually means at

frequent intervals.

When used collectively to refer to a man and woman, couple is

usually followed by a plural verb.

Should be rewritten to “He has a degree.”

Shows is a good plain word to substitute for this.

Wish or want is usually better.

Desert means something abandoned or deserted, while dessert

means the last course.

11


Chapter 2

12

die of

differ

different

from

done

due to

during

each other/

one another

eager

either

e.g.

eminent/

imminent

enact

end result

ensure/

assure

equal

essential

event

ever so

often/every

so often

“He died of pneumonia” not “He died from pneumonia.”

Differ with a person; differ from something; differ on an issue.

Not different than.

Done is not interchangeable with finish.

Try “because of” unless it can be replaced with attributed to.

Suggests throughout. In (not during) the meeting, he brought up

the question of pay raises.

Each other is restricted to situations involving two people, while

one another applies to more than two persons.

Means desirous; do not confuse with anxious.

Either, like neither, is used in speaking of two persons and requires

a singular verb.

For example.

Eminent means outstanding; imminent means on the verge of

happening.

To make into law; enact into law is redundant.

End should be deleted.

You ensure things; assure people.

More equitable, not more equal.

An absolute; something is either essential or it is not.

Should not be used for incident, affair, or happening, unless the

occurrence is particularly noteworthy.

Means frequently and repeatedly, every so often means once in a

while.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


everyone/

everybody

fall off of

farther/

further

few/fewer

following

foot/feet

former

gerund

gift

hanged

I

i.e.

I don’t think

illusion

imminent/

eminent

imply/infer

important/

importantly

ManualforStyle

Use a singular verb and a singular pronoun.

Delete of.

Word Usage

Farther indicates distance; further denotes quality or degree. You

go farther away; you hear nothing further.

Use with numbers; less is for quantities or amounts. Write fewer

pages and say less.

He retired after (not following) an outstanding career.

A 6-foot rug, but a man is 6 feet tall.

Used to refer to the first of two things; use first to refer to the first

of more than two things.

The name given a verb form ending in ing when it is used as a noun

and can be used in any way a noun is used—as a subject of a verb,

object of a verb, object of a preposition, or a predicate nominative.

Do not say free gift.

A man is hanged; a picture is hung.

Use I only as the subject of a sentence or after is and was.

That is.

How can you express an opinion if you don’t think?

Imaginary; delusion means deceit.

On the verge of happening; eminent means outstanding.

To suggest; infer means to draw a conclusion.

More important, the trucks will arrive before the tanks.

13


Chapter 2

14

incidentally Not incidently.

individual

infinitive

join

last/latest

less

lie/lay

possess

least

less/fewer

like

linking verbs

locate

lots of

mad

material/

materiel

Should not be used indiscriminately for person. Person may be

applied to anyone as a general term; an individual is a particular

being.

An infinitive is split when other words, usually adverbs, are inserted

between the to and the verb; do so cautiously.

Join together is redundant.

Are not interchangeable. Last means final; latest, most recent. The

last page of a book but the latest book on the market.

An adjective or an adverb meaning not so much. Use fewer when

you refer to something that can be counted.

Lie is to be in a lying position; lay means to put something down.

Why not have?

Used when more than two persons or things have been mentioned.

Use less when only two persons or things have been mentioned.

He is the less (not least) forceful of the two speakers.

Less is used for quantities that can be measured, and fewer is used

for things that can be counted.

Never use like to introduce a subject and its verb. He wrote as (not

like) he spoke.

Serve to link a subject and its predicate modifier or noun. Usually a

linking verb is followed by an adjective.

You find (not locate) a file.

Use many.

Crazy or frenzied; do not use it when you mean angry.

Material is a very general term used for any matter or substance

from which something is made. Materiel refers to apparatus or

equipment, especially military supplies.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


me

minimal/

minimum

most

mutual/

common

needless to

say

nominal

none

nothing

not only . . .

but also

notorious/

notable

number

number, the/

a

off of

older/elder

on

ManualforStyle

Do not substitute I as the object of a preposition.

Word Usage

Minimal is used as a noun in the field of mathematics; it is an

adjective in all other instances. Minimum may be an adjective or a

noun.

Do not substitute for almost. Most all should be almost all.

Mutual is used when only two persons are involved; common is

something shared by two or more persons.

If it is needless, why say it?

A nominal price is so low as to bear no relation to the real cost or

value.

Can take a singular or plural verb.

Requires a singular verb in all cases.

In sentences with only one main verb, not only should immediately

precede the word or phrase it modifies. Where there are two main

verbs in one sentence, not only falls in front of the first verb and

but also in front of the second verb.

Notorious has a connotation of unsavoriness; notable has a

connotation of achievement.

Use number to refer to items that can be counted; use amount to

refer to a general quantity.

When number is preceded by the, a singular verb is used; if number

is preceded by a, a plural verb is used.

Delete of.

Elder applies only to persons; older can apply to a person or a

thing.

Superfluous in stating days and date. He arrived Tuesday, not on

Tuesday.

15


Chapter 2

16

oral/verbal Oral refers solely to words spoken; verbal may refer to words spoken

or written.

inside of/

outside of

over

partake

participate

past

persons/

people

plus/also

plus/and

possible/

probable

practicable/

practical

predominantly/

predominately

preposition

at the end of

a sentence

preventive

previous to/

prior to

Whenever outside or inside is used as a preposition, the of is

unnecessary. Outside should not be used in place of except for.

Should be avoided when you mean more than in referring to a

number.

Partake of means to have a meal; partake in means to participate.

Overused; say take part in.

Say last year if you mean the preceding year.

Persons is usually used when speaking of a number of people who

can be counted, and people is used when speaking of a large or

uncounted number of individuals.

Plus cannot be used as a substitute for also as the first word of a

sentence.

When used to introduce a prepositional phrase, plus does not have

the weight of and. “His education, plus his experience, makes him

eligible for the promotion.” His education and his experience make

him eligible for the promotion.”

Possible means capable; probable means likelihood.

Anything cable of being done is practicable; practical depends on

other factors.

Predominantly is an adjective; predominately is an adverb.

It is best not to end a sentence with a preposition.

Better than the irregular doublet preventative.

Why not before?

Air Force Journal of Logistics


principal/

principle

prospective/

perspective

proven

provided/

providing

pupil/

student

quarter of/

quarter to

quick/

quickly

rarely ever/

seldom ever

reason

recurrence/

reoccurrence

regard/

regards to

regardless

secure

somebody/

someone

ManualforStyle

Word Usage

The noun means head or chief as well as capital sum. The adjective

principal means highest or best in rank or importance. Principle

means, truth, belief, policy, or conviction.

Prospective is an adjective meaning anticipated. Perspective is a

noun and usually means an impersonal point of view.

Should not be used as the past participle of prove. Use proved.

Proven may be used as an adjective.

Neither should be used if the word if will suffice.

Used to designate a child in the elementary grades or one studying

under the supervision of a master of a particular art. Student is used

to designate a person enrolled in a secondary school or college or

one pursuing an independent study.

A quarter to four; a quarter of a dollar.

Both are adverbs.

Ever is applemacs.us we seldom fail, not we seldom ever fail.

A sentence beginning with “The reason” should be completed

with a noun clause introduced by that. A sentence should not

contain both reason and because. Reason why is redundant; there

is no need for the why.

Recurrence means happening repeatedly; reoccurrence means a

second happening.

Regards is used only in the sense of good wishes, as in “Give my

regards to your sister.” Use in regard to or with regard to elsewhere.

Not irregardless.

Might be better as obtain or get.

Use singular verbs and pronouns.

17


Chapter 2

18

stationery/

stationary

sums

surprise

talk to/talk

with

thankfully/

fortunately

that/which

try to

unique

unknown

utilize

wait for/

wait on

whereabouts

wish I were

yourself

Stationery is a noun meaning paper; stationary, an adjective, means

not moving.

Sums of money; numbers of people.

Indicates a relatively mild reaction to something unexpected;

astonish implies being shocked.

If you talk to someone, it is a onesided affair; if you talk with a

person, the other person contributes to the conversation.

Only people can behave thankfully (expressing gratitude).

“Fortunately, the heater did not go out during the storm.”

That should be used to introduce restrictive clauses; which should

be used to introduce nonrestrictive clauses.

Not try and.

An absolute.

An unidentified man but an undisclosed destination.

To find use for something already in service or to expand productivity

by finding new uses; do not substitute utilize for use.

Wait for someone to arrive; wait on (serve) the customer.

As a noun usually takes a singular verb.

Not I wish I was.

Not interchangeable with you.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Ampersand



Apostrophe






Brackets



3

Punctuation

The ampersand takes the place of and but is used only in prescribed

forms: abbreviations of organizations and if a part of a proper name.

Use an ampersand in tables and figures.

Use ‘s for the possessive of nouns not ending in s.

child’s man’s children’s men’s

Use the apostrophe without an s to form the possessive of nouns

ending in s, x, and z.

Use ‘s to form the possessive of indefinite pronouns.

Anybody’s everyone’s neither’s

Use ‘s with only the last noun for joint possession in a pair or

series.

The pilot and the maintainer’s plan (the two jointly have one

plan).

The pilot’s and the maintainer’s plans (both have plans).

Do not use ‘s to form the plural of numerals, letters, and words

being named.

Use brackets to replace parentheses within parentheses ([ ]).

Use brackets in direct quotes to interpolate material from another

source.

ManualforStyle 19


Chapter 3

Colon

20





Comma





Use a colon before quotations, statements, and series that are

introduced formally.

Logistically, you have hardening of the arteries: no agility, no

flexibility, and no options.

Under his vision, there are two overarching goals: “to shorten

acquisition cycle time and to gain credibility within and outside

the acquisition community.”

Use a colon between two independent clauses when the second

explains the first.

Use a colon between figures used to indicate hours and minutes

and between the city and publisher in bibliographical entries.

pm Boston: Houghton Mifflin,

Do not use a colon after a linking verb or a preposition

Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a

coordinating conjunction.

The logistics group worked tirelessly, and the task was eventually

accomplished.

Use a comma between words, phrases, or clauses in a series to

include the final connector.

Operations like those in Panama, Grenada, Bosnia, and

Afghanistan are examples of agile combat.

Use a comma between coordinate adjectives but not between

cumulative adjectives. Coordinate adjectives modify the noun

independently (coordinative adjectives are easily reversible).

Cumulative adjectives modify the whole cluster of subsequent

adjectives and the noun.

Use a comma after introductory phrases or clauses.

To understand what logistics officers can provide to the

warfighting commander, a detailed look should be made of the

specific career fields.

Air Force Journal of Logistics








ManualforStyle

Punctuation

If one studies history, it becomes obvious lessons concerning

logistics have been learned.

Use commas to set off nonrestrictive appositives, phrases, and

clauses. If it is nonrestrictive (cannot be omitted without altering

the mean of the main clause), it should not be set off with commas.

Further good news is that logisticians already have been

preaching and practicing a basic framework for years, which can

enable success, even in this changed acquisition environment.

Use commas with sentence modifiers, conjunctive adverbs, and

sentence elements out of normal word order. Modifiers like on the

other hand, for example, in fact, in the first place, I believe, in his

opinion, unfortunately, and certainly are set off with commas.

Commas are not used when however is an adverb meaning no

matter how.

Use commas with degrees and titles and with elements in places

and addresses.

Marvin R. Sambur, PhD, wants to usher in a new emphasis on

Reality-Based Acquisition.

Edward Aldridge, Jr, said that the best quality weapon system for

warfighting will have to come from an industry that is competitive

and innovative.

Similar efforts are underway at Hill AFB, Utah.

Write the editor of the Dispatch, LeMay Plaza, Maxwell AFB,

Alabama.

Use commas for contrast or emphasis and with short interrogative

elements.

The pilot used the military airport, not the municipal one.

The landing was smooth, wasn’t it?

Use commas with mild interjections and with words like yes and no.

Well, we didn’t think he could accomplish the task.

Yes, he was able to fulfill the mission.

Set off an absolute phrase with commas. It modifies the whole

sentence, not a single element within the sentence.

21


Chapter 3

Dash


Ellipsis

Exclamation

Point

Italics

22









Our mission completed, we returned to our home base.

Use an em dash to introduce summaries and to indicate

interruptions, parenthetical remarks, and special emphasis.

Bug sprays, citronella lamps, and bug bracelets—all were

ineffective that summer.

Three people emerged from the smoke—a fourth had

disappeared—and ran for cover.

Use an en dash in listing dates: –

Use ellipsis to indicate omission in quotations or text.

When an ellipsis is used at the end of a sentence, add a fourth

point as a period or use other terminal punctuation.

Do not use an ellipsis in place of commas or dashes to indicate

pauses, emphasis, or apposition.

An exclamation point is used for an emphatic comment.

Be careful!

Close the door!

Do not use other terminal punctuation after an exclamation point.

Italicize titles of books (except for the Bible and its divisions),

periodicals, motion pictures, paintings, sculpture, musical

compositions, and plays.

Italicize the names of ships and trains.

Italicize foreign words used in an English context, except words

that have become part of the English language. Words like faux

pas, amigo, and karate have become a part of the English language.

Consult the dictionary.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Parentheses

Period








ManualforStyle

Punctuation

Use parentheses to enclose loosely related comments or

explanations or to enclose figures within a sentence that number

items in a series.

A period is used to mark the end of a declarative or imperative

sentence.

The two girls walked along the seashore.

Stay by the garden.

Use a period after numerals or letters used to enumerate items in a

vertical list.

1. F a. Operation Desert Storm

2. C-5 b. Operation Enduring Freedom

Omit periods after items in a vertical list unless one or more of the

items are complete sentences:

Some examples of incompatibility are:

Flammables and corrosives

Acids and caustics

Reactives and ignitables

Flammables and combustibles

Omit periods at the end of a sentence included within another

sentence.

The pilots (they had taken off at dawn) were finding it difficult to

find a landing field.

The period is omitted in acronyms and after abbreviations, center,

side, and running heads but is used in run-in sideheads.

When a declarative or imperative sentence is enclosed in quotation

marks or quoted words and phrases fall at the end of a sentence,

the period is placed inside the closing quotation mark.

He said, “Today, more than 40 percent of our inventory is at least

20 years old.”

It is defined as being “quick,” “light,” and “sustainable.”

23


Chapter 3

Question Mark

Semicolon

24




Quotation Marks







The question mark is used after a direct question.

What time will the fuel arrive?

When did the troops secure the area?

Question marks may follow separate questions within an

interrogative sentence.

Do you recall the time of the accident? who was driving? when

the commander arrived?

A question mark may be used within parentheses to show that a

date or figure is historically doubtful.

It was on 7 August (?) that the airborne brigade received the

supplies.

Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations and dialogue.

Do not use quotation marks for direct quotations of five lines or

more. These quotations should be single spaced and indented.

Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a

quotation.

Use quotation marks to enclose titles of essays, articles, short

stories, poems, dissertations, episodes in television programs, and

short musical compositions.

Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks. Semicolons

and colons are placed outside closing quotation marks. A question

mark or an exclamation point is placed inside quotation marks only

when the quotation itself is a direct question or an explanation.

Otherwise, these marks are placed outside.

Use a semicolon between independent clauses not joined by

coordinating conjunctions and between coordinate elements with

internal commas.

They are beginning to see results; they should continue to see

results with continued emphasis on these techniques.

Air Force Journal of Logistics





Virgule (Slash)

ManualforStyle

Punctuation

Use a semicolon with a sentence modifier: The experience was

invaluable; on the other hand, it was costly.

Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that are long and

complex or that have internal punctuation.

Use semicolons in a series between items that have internal

punctuation.

Use the virgule to indicate alternatives (and/or, inside/outside).

25


Chapter 3

26

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Figures





Measurement

and Time


4

Numbers

A figure is used for a single number of 11 or more, with the exception

of the first word of a sentence.

When two more like numbers appear in a sentence and one of them

is 11 or more, figures are used for each number.

Measurement, time, or money, always expressed in figures, do not

affect the use of other numerical expressions within the sentence.

Figures are used for serial numbers.

Units of measurement and time are expressed in figures.

Age—5 years old

Clock time—

Dates—4 May If the word from precedes the year or the

word inclusive follows it, the word to is used instead of the dash.

In dates, AD precedes the year (AD ), but BC follows the

year ( BC).

Decimals—In text a cipher should precede a decimal point if there

is no unit, but ciphers should be omitted after a decimal point

unless they indicate an exact measurement.

inch; inches, caliber, silver fine

Degrees—12 degrees, degrees Fahrenheit

Within tables and figures—12 o

Longitude and latitude: 77 o 04’06" E

Game scores: 1 up, 9 to 5, 2 all

ManualforStyle 27


Chapter 4

28



Ordinal Numbers





Mathematical expressions: multiplied by 4, divided by 7, a factor

of 2

Measurements—3 meters, about 5 yards, 5 by 7 inches, 6 acres,

1 gallon, 12 gauge shotgun

Money—$, 75 cents, but two nickels, four quarters

Percentage—8 percent, percent, 4 percentage points

Within tables and figures—8%, %

Proportion—1 to 5, ,

Time—8 hours 9 minutes 10 seconds, 3 minutes, 8 days, 4 fiscal

years, but four centuries, three decades, one-half hour

Unit modifiers—4-day week, 9-foot pole, $10 million airfield

Ordinal time precedes day, and day precedes place:

He will speak at noon Friday from the balcony of the hotel.

The time element usually follows the verb or verb phrase but may

precede the verb to avoid awkward construction.

President Bush said yesterday he will veto the bill. President

Bush last night called the Iraqi invasion a victory.

Military units are expressed in figures except for numbered air forces,

armies, fleets, and corps:

First Army, 1st Calvary

Seventh Air Force, 42d Air Base Wing

Seventh Fleet, 9th Naval District

XII Corps

When ordinals appear in juxtaposition and one of them is 11 or

more, figures are used.

Beginning with 11, figures are used in text matter for numbered

streets and avenues, but in tables, leaderwork, and footnotes,

figures are used at all times.

Punctuation—the comma is used in a number containing four or

more digits, except in serial numbers, common and decimal fractions,

and astronomical and military figures.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Numbers Spelled

Out









Fractions



Numerals are spelled out at the beginning of a sentence or head.

Rephrase sentence to avoid beginning with figures.

A spelled out number should not be repeated in figures.

Numbers used as part of proper names or mentioned with serious

subjects such as Executive orders and legal proclamations are

spelled out.

Three Rivers, threescore years and ten

When spelling out numbers larger than 1,, use the follow form:

Three thousand and forty

Numbers less than preceding a compound modifier containing

a figure are spelled out.

Twelve 6-inch guns

Indefinite expressions are spelled out.

The seventies, in his eighties, midthirties. Nearly, about, around,

and approximately do not constitute indefinite expressions.

Large numbers are written as follows:

$10B, $9M, $6K

6 million, millions of items

Related numbers appearing at the beginning of a sentence, separated

by no more than three words, are treated alike.

Eighty or ninety people attended the airshow.

Fractions standing alone or followed by of a or of an are generally

spelled out.

Three-fourths of an inch, one-half inch, one tenth

Fractions are in a unit modifier:

½-inch pipe, ¼-mile run

Numbers

ManualforStyle 29


Chapter 4

30

Roman Numerals

A repeated letter repeats its value, a letter placed after one of greater

value adds to it, a letter placed before one of greater value subtracts

from it, a dashline over a letter denotes multiplied by 1,

Air Force Journal of Logistics









5

Tables and Figures

The object of a table is to present, in a concise and orderly manner,

information that cannot be presented as clearly in any other way.

Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible so that the

meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the user.

To avoid burdening tabular text, commonly known abbreviations

are used in tables. Metric and unit-of-measurement abbreviations

are used with figures.

The names of months when preceded by the day are abbreviated.

The words street, avenue, place, road, square, boulevard, terrace,

drive, court, and building, following name or number, are

abbreviated. For numbered streets, avenues, etc, figures are used.

In columns containing both dollars and cents, ciphers will be supplied

on right of decimal point in the absence of figures.

Where a column consists of single decimal, supply a cipher on the

right, unless the decimal is a cipher.


0




ManualforStyle 31


Chapter 5

32

Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from text

footnotes.


Superior figures are used for footnote references, beginning with 1

in each table.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


6

Formulas and Symbols




Symbols with

Figures




ManualforStyle

The increased use of signs and symbols and their importance in

technical and scientific work necessitate standardization.

Certain symbols are standardized—number symbols (the digits, 0,

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9); letter symbols (the letters of the alphabet, a,

b, c, d, etc); and graphic symbols (the mathematical signs +, -, , x ,).

The signs +, -, , x , and, etc, are closed against accompanying

figures and symbols. When the x is used to indicate “crossed

with” or magnification, it will be separated from the accompanying

words by a space.

The equation A+B The result is 4 x 4

20,, Early June x Bright (crossed with)

x 4 (magnification)

In technical publications, the degree mark is used in lieu of the

word degree following a figure denoting measurement.

Following a figure, the spelled form is preferred. The percent

symbol is used in areas where space will not allow the word percent

to be used.

In that period, the price rose 12, 15, and 19 percent.

Not, In that period the price rose 12 percent, 15 percent, and 19

percent.

Any symbol set close up to figures, such as the degree mark,

dollar mark, or cent mark, is used before or after each figure in a

group or series.

33


Chapter 6

Letter Symbols


Equations

34







$5 to $8 price range

5'-7' long, not ' long

3 cents to 5 cents (no spaces)

2 to 7; 2 deg.1 deg.

but

Sec. 12 (thin space)

from 15 to 25 percent

45 to 65 deg.F not 45 deg. to 65 deg. F

Letter symbols are set in italic or in roman without periods.

In mathematical equations, use italics for all letter symbols—capitals,

lowercase, small capitals, and superiors and inferiors (exponents

and subscripts); use roman for figures, including superiors and

inferiors.

If an equation or a mathematical expression needs to be divided,

break before +, -, =, etc. However, the equal sign is to the left of

other beginning mathematical signs.

A short equation in text should not be broken at the end of a line.

Space out the line so that the equation will begin on the next line; or

better, center the equation on a line by itself.

An equation too long for one line is set flush left, the second half of

the equation is set flush right, and the two parts are balanced as

nearly as possible.

Two or more equations in a series are aligned on the equal signs

and centered on the longest equation in the group.

Connecting words of explanation, such as hence, therefore, and

similarly, are set flush left either on the same line with the equation

or on a separate line.

Air Force Journal of Logistics




ManualforStyle

Formulas and Symbols

Parentheses, braces, brackets, integral signs, and summation signs

should be the same height as the mathematical expressions.

Inferiors precede superiors if they appear together; but if either

inferior or superior is too long, the two are aligned on the left.

35


Chapter 6

36

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Endnotes and References 7








ManualforStyle

Avoid footnotes as much as possible as they are a hindrance to

smooth reading. Place explanatory matter in parentheses in the

text.

Articles should list the name of the author, title of article and

periodical, edition, volume, chapter, and page.

Lt Col William Frederick, “Lessons Learned in the Gulf War,” Air

Force Journal of Logistics, XXI, No 1,

If no volume or number is listed, list the name of the author (if

available), title of article, periodical or book, organization, address,

date, and page.

Maj Samuel Huston, “Countdown to Invasion,” Inside Logistics,

Office of Air Force Journal of Logistics, Maxwell AFB, Gunter

Annex, Alabama, 14 Mar 03,

Material obtained from the Internet should be cited as follows:

“Senator Pumps Up Wartime Benefits Package,” Air Force Times

[Online] Available: applemacs.usforapplemacs.us

applemacs.us?showchan=mon, 5 May

For books, list author, title of book, city, publisher, copyright or

publication year, page.

G. C. Chamberlain, Men of War, New York: McGraw-Hill Book

Company, ,

For lectures, list lecturer, title and place of lecture, and date.

Brig Gen L. C. Craven, “Logistics and the Warfighter,” lecture

Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 4 Nov


Unpublished papers should list author, title, type paper, institute,

and date.

37


Chapter 7

38



Col C. E. Roe, “Victory in Iraq,” graduate thesis, Air War College,

Maxwell AFB, Alabama, May

A second reference to a cited work is as follows:

If the work is cited just above, use Ibid.

If the work cited has a different page or there are intervening

citations, use the author’s name or, if no author, the title of the

book:

Chamberlain,

Logistics and the Warfighter,”

Interviews are cited as follows:

Author’s interview with Col R. M. O’Rourke, AETC Deputy

Commander, 16 Mar

Air Force Journal of Logistics












ManualforStyle

8

Capitalization

Use a capital letter to begin a sentence.

Capitalize first, last, and important words in titles, including the

second part of hyphenated words.

Articles, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not

capitalized unless they begin or end a title.

Capitalize titles preceding a name.

President Bush Prince Charles

Capitalize the head of a nation.

The President visited the troops in Iraq.

Titles that are common nouns that name an office are not capitalized.

Capitalize degrees and titles after a name.

Capitalize words of family relationships used as names when not

preceded by a possessive noun.

After Mother left, Father cleaned the house.

My mother and father have gone on vacation.

Capitalize proper nouns but do not capitalize common noun

substitutes.

Statue of Liberty, the statue Hoover Dam, the dam

Panama Canal, the canal Great Lakes, the lake.

Capitalize months, days of the week, and holidays.

39


Chapter 8

40









Do not capitalize seasons and number days of the month unless

they name holidays.

The sixth of May Fourth of July

Capitalize BC, AD, words designating the Deity, religious

denominations, and sacred books. Pronouns referring to the Deity

are usually capitalized.

Capitalize names of specific courses, but do not capitalize studies

other than languages that do no name specific courses.

English Chemistry

Auburn is offering night classes in English, sociology, and

chemistry.

Names and initials of persons are capitalized.

John F. Kennedy LBJ

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Academic degrees are not capitalized when the term degree is used.

associate degree, baccalaureate degree, master’s degree, doctor

of science degree

Associate in Applied Science in Criminal Justice, Bachelor of

Science in Aeronautical Engineering, Bachelor of Arts in

Education, Doctor of Science

Professional titles, named academic professorships, and fellowships

are capitalized if they are accompanied by a personal name.

the professor Professor James M. Smith

a professor emeritus William Warren Professor Emeritus

Terms of academic years are not capitalized.

Names of academic degrees and honors should be capitalized when

following a personal name.

Joseph Menlo, Doctor of Law

George Long, PhD

Air Force Journal of Logistics









ManualforStyle

Honorific titles should be capitalized.

His Majesty Your Excellency His Eminence

Capitalization

Names used for fictitious persons or names used as personification

are capitalized.

John Doe Uncle Sam

Names of specific racial, tribal, religious, and other groupings of

people are capitalized.

Arab Asian

Caucasian African American

Hispanic

Terms denoting socioeconomic groups are not capitalized.

Do not capitalize a numerical designation of a period unless it is

part of a proper name.

The twenties Eighteenth Dynasty

A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to denote

time or sequence or for the purpose of reference is not capitalized

room spring

table 6 page 9

group 4 appendix C

Particles in foreign names are capitalized unless preceded by a

foreign name or title. However, individual usage should be followed.

Von Braun Werner von Braun

Cardinal da Ponte Du Pont

41


Chapter 8

42

Capitalization Examples

A-bomb

abstract B, 1, etc

Academy:

Air Force; the academy

Coast Guard; the academy

Military; the academy

National Academy of Sciences; the

Academy of Sciences; the

academy

Naval; the academy

but service academies

accords, Helsinki

Act (Federal, State, or foreign), short or

popular title or with number; the act:

Appropriation

Classification

Economy

Lend-Lease Act; but lend-lease

materials, etc

Panama Canal

Pay

Public Act

Revenue

Selective Training and Service

Tariff

act, labor-management relations

activity-based cost management (ABC/

M)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Adjutant General, the

Administration, with name; capitalized

standing alone if Federal unit:

Farmers Home

Food and Drug

Maritime

Veterans’

but Reagan administration;

administration bill, policy, etc

Administrative Law Judge Davis; Judge

Davis; an administrative law judge

A

Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs

Admiralty, British, etc

Admiralty, Lord of the

Adobe Acrobat Portable Document

Format (PDF)

Adobe Acrobat Reader

Adviser, Legal (Department of State)

aerospace expeditionary force (AEF)

Africa:

east

East Coast

north

South

South-West (Territory of)

West Coast

African-American

Agency, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal

unit:

Central Intelligence; the Agency

Chippewa (Indian); the agency

agent orange

Ages:

Age of Discovery

Dark Ages

Elizabethan Age

Golden Age (of Pericles only)

Middle Ages

but atomic age; Cambrian age; copper

age; ice age; missile age; rocket

age; space age; stone age; etc

Agile Combat Support (ACS): concept

Agreement, with name; the agreement:

General Agreement on Tariffs and

Trade; the general agreement

North American Free-Trade

Agreement (NAFTA)

Status of Forces; but status-of-forces

agreements

United States-Canada Free-Trade

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Agreement; the free-trade

agreement

but the Geneva agreement; the

Potsdam agreement; Paris peace

agreement

air expeditionary force (AEF)

Air Force:

Air National Guard

Base (with name); Air Force base

Center for Environmental Excellence

(AFOSH)

Civil Air Patrol; Civil Patrol; the

patrol

Occupational Safety and Health

Stanrard (AFOSH)

One (Presidential plane)

Reserve

Reserve Officer Training Corps

specialty code (AFSC)

WAF

Air Force Contingency Supply Support

Activity (AFCSSA)

air logistics center (ALC)

airborne command post

Airport: La Guardia; Reagan National; the

airport

Alaska Native (collective term for Aleuts,

Eskimos, and Indians ofAlaska): the

Native; but a native of Alaska, Ohio, etc

Alliance for Progress; the alliance

Alliance for Progress Program

alliances and coalitions

Allied Powers; the powers (World

Wars)

Atlantic alliance

Axis, the; Axis Powers; the powers

Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands,

Luxembourg)

Big Four (European); of the Pacific

Big Three

Central Powers; the powers (World

War I)

European Economic Community

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Western Union (powers); the union

Allied (World Wars I and II):

armies

ManualforStyle

Capitalization

Governments

Nations

peoples

Powers; the powers; but European

powers

Supreme Allied Commander

Allies, the (World Wars I and II); also

members of Western bloc political

entity); but our allies; weaker allies, etc

Ambassador:

British, etc; the Ambassador; the

Senior Ambassador; His

Excellency Extraordinary and

Plenipotentiary; the Ambassador;

Ambassador at Large; an

ambassador

amendment:

Social Security Amendments of

; amendments; the

Social Security amendments; the

amendments

Baker amendment

to the Constitution (US); first

amendment, 14 th amendment, etc

American:

Federation of Labor and Congress of

Industrial Organizations (AFL-

CIO); the federation

Legion

National Red Cross; the Red Cross

Veterans of World War II (AMVETS)

American Standard Code for Information

Interchange (ASCII)

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; a

Mason; a Freemason

Annex, if part of name of building; the

annex

Antarctic Ocean

appellations:

Bay State (Massachusetts)

Big Four (powers, railroad, etc)

Cold War

Fair Deal

Great Depression

Great Society

Holocaust

Keystone State (Pennsylvania)

43


Chapter 8

New Deal

New Federalism

New Frontier

the Hub (Boston)

Third World

appendix 1, A, II, etc; the appendix; but

Appendix II, when part of title:

Appendix II: \2\ Education Directory

AppleShare

AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol

(AARP)

appropriation bill:

deficiency

Department of Agriculture

for any governmental unit

independent offices

aquaculture; acquiculture

Arab States

Arabic numerals

Arboretum, National; the Arboretum

Archipelago, Philippine, etc; the

archipelago

Arctic:

Circle

Current

Ocean

zone

but subarctic

arctic (descriptive adjective):

clothing

conditions

fox

grass

night

seas

Arctics, the

Area, if part of name; the area:

Cape Hatteras Recreational

White Pass Recreation; etc

but area 2; free trade area;

Metropolitan Washington area;

bay area; nonsmoking area

Arlington:

Memorial Amphitheater; the

Memorial Amphitheater; the

amphitheater

Memorial Bridge

44

National Cemetery

Arm, Cavalry, Infantry, etc (military); the

arm

Armed Forces (synonym for overall

Military Establishment); British Armed

Forces; the Armed Forces of the United

States

armed services

armistice

Armory, Springfield, etc; the armory

Army, American or foreign, if part of

name; capitalized standing alone only if

referring to US Army:

Active-Duty

Adjutant General, the

All-Volunteer

Band

Brigade, 1 st , etc; the brigade;

Robinson’s brigade

Command and General Staff College

Company A; A Company; the

company

Confederate (referring to Southern

Confederacy); the Confederates

Continental; Continentals

Corps

District of Washington (military); the

district

Division, 1 st , etc; the division

Engineers (the Corps of Engineers);

the Engineers; but Army engineer

Establishment

Field Establishment

Field Forces

Finance Department; the department

First, etc

General of the Army; but the general

General Staff; the staff

Headquarters, 1 st Regiment

Headquarters of the; the headquarters

Organized Reserves; the Reserves

Regiment, 1 st, etc; the regiment

Regular Army officer; a Regular

Revolutionary (American, British,

French, etc)

service

Surgeon General, the

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Volunteer; the Volunteers; a

Volunteer

army:

Lee’s army; but Clark’s Fifth Army

mobile

mule, shoe, etc

of occupation; occupation army

Red

Arsenal, Rock Island, etc; the arsenal

article 15; but Article 15 when part of

title: Article Uniform Code of

Military Justice

Articles

of Confederation (US)

of Impeachment; the articles

Assembly of New York; the assembly

Assistant, if part of capitalized title; the

assistant

assistant, Presidential

Assistant Secretary

Associate Justice

Association, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal

unit:

American Association for the

Advancement of Science; the

association

Federal National Mortgage (Fannie

Mae); the Association

Young Women’s Christian; the

association

Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM)

Atlantic:

Badlands (SD and NE)

Balkan States

Baltic States

Band, if part of name; the band:

Army, Marine, Navy

Eastern, etc (of Cherokee Indians)

Bank, if part of name; the bank;

capitalized standing alone if referring to

international bank:

ManualforStyle

B

Capitalization

Charter

coast

community

Coast States

Destroyer Flotilla; the destroyer

flotilla; the flotilla

Fleet

mid-Atlantic

North

Pact

seaboard

slope

South

time, standard time

but cisatlantic; transatlantic

Attorney General (US or foreign country);

but attorney general of Maine, etc

attorney, US

Authority, capitalized standing alone if

referring to Federal unit:

National Shipping; the Authority

Port of New York; the port authority;

the authority

Tennessee Valley; the authority

Auto Train (Amtrak)

autumn

Avenue, Constitution, etc; the avenue

Award: Academy, Distinguished Service,

Merit, Mother of the Year, etc; the

award

Axis, the

Ayatollah

Export-Import Bank of the United

States; Ex-Im Bank; the bank

Farmers & Mechanics, etc

Federal home loan bank at

Cumberland

Federal Land Bank of Louisville;

Louisville Federal Land Bank;

land bank at Louisville; Federal

land bank

45


Chapter 8

Federal Reserve Bank of New York;

Richmond Federal Reserve Bank;

but Reserve bank at Richmond;

Federal Reserve bank; Reserve

bank;

Reserve city

First National, etc

International World; the Bank

but blood bank, central reserve, soil

bank

Bar, if part of name; Maryland (State) Bar

Association; Maryland (State)

bar; the State bar; the bar association

Barracks, if part of name; the barracks:

Carlisle

Disciplinary (Leavenworth)

Marine (District of Columbia)

but A barracks; barracks A; etc

Base, Andrews Air Force; Air Force base;

the base; but Sandia Base

Battery, the (New York City)

Battle, if part of name; the battle:

of Gettysburg; but battle at

Gettysburg; etc

of the Bulge; of the Marne; of the

Wilderness; of Waterloo; etc

battlefield, Bull Run, etc

battleground, Manassas, etc

Bay, San Francisco Bay area; the bay area

Belt, if part of name; the belt:

Bible

Corn

Cotton

Dairy

Farm

Ice

Oil

Rust

Sun

Wheat

but money belt

Beltway, capitalized with name; the

beltway

Bible; Biblical; Scriptures; Ten

Commandments; etc

Bible Belt

Bicentennial

46

Commission; the Commission

the Bicentennial

celebration, ceremony

State bicentennial

a bicentennial (general sense)

bill, Kiess; Senate bill ; House bill 31

Bill of Rights (historic document); but GI

bill of rights

Black (synonym for African-American)

Black Caucus

bloc

block (grants)

Bluegrass region, etc

Board, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone only if referring to

Federal or international board:

Employees’ Compensation Appeals

Federal Maritime

Federal Reserve

General (Navy)

Loyalty Review

Military Production and Supply

(NATO)

National Labor Relations of Directors

(Federal unit); but board of

directors (nongovernmental) of

Health of Montgomery County;

Montgomery County Board of

Health; the board of health; the

board of Managers (of the Soldiers’

Home)

of Regents (Smithsonian)

of Visitors (Military and Naval

Academies)

on Geographic Names

Railroad Retirement

Bolshevik; Bolsheviki (collective plural);

Bolshevist; bolshevism

bond:

Government

savings

series EE

Treasury

war

book:

books of the Bible

First Book of Samuel; etc

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Good Book (synonym for Bible)

book 1, I, etc; but Book 1, when part of

title: Book 1: The Golden Legend

Boolean logic

Boolean operator

Boolean search

Border Patrol (US)

border, United States-Mexican

Borough, if part of name: Borough of the

Bronx; the borough

Botanic Garden (National); the garden (not

Botanical Gardens)

Bowl, Dust, Ice, Rose, etc; the bowl

Boxer Rebellion

Boy Scouts (the organization); a Boy

Scout; a Scout; Scouting; Eagle Scout;

Explorer Scout

Branch, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone only if referring to a

Federal unit:

Accounts Branch

Public Buildings Branch

but executive, judicial, or legislative

branch

Bridge, if part of name; the bridge:

Arlington Memorial; Memorial

Francis Scott Key; Key

M Street

but Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge

C-SPAN

Cabinet, American or foreign, if part of

name or standing alone: the Cabinet

the President’s Cabinet; the Cabinet;

Cabinet officer, member

cache

Calendar, if part of name; the calendar

Camp Lejeune; David, etc; the camp

Canal, with name; the canal:

Cross-Florida Barge

Isthmian

Panama

Zone (Isthmian); the zone

ManualforStyle

C

Capitalization

Brother(s) (adherent of religious order)

Budget of the United States

(publication); the Budget (Office

implied); the budget

budget:

department

estimate

Federal

message

performance-type

President’s

Building, if part of name; the building:

Capitol

House (or Senate) Office

Investment

New House (or Senate) Office

Old House Office

Pentagon

the National Archives; the Archives

Treasury; Treasury Annex

bulletin board service

Bureau, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal or

international unit:

of Customs (name changed to US

Customs Service)

of Engraving and Printing

of Indian Affairs

cannibalilzation (CANN)

Capital, Capital City, National Capital

(Washington DC); but thecapital (State)

Capitol Building (with state name); the

capitol

Capitol, the (Washington, DC):

Architect of

Building

caucus room

Chamber

Cloakroom

dome

Grounds

47


Chapter 8

Halls (House and Senate)

Halls of Congress

Hill

Police

Power Plant

Prayer Room

Press Gallery, etc

rotunda

Senate wing

stationery room

Statuary Hall

the well (House or Senate)

west front

career development course (CDC)

catch

caucus: Republican; but Black Caucus

(incorporated name); Sun Belt

Caucus; Decimal Caucus

CD-ROM

Cemetery, if part of name: Arlington

National; the cemetery

Census:

Nineteenth Decennial (title);

Nineteenth Census (title); the

census

census

Census of Agriculture; the

census of agriculture; the census

Center, if part of name; the Center

(Federal); the center (non-Federal):

Agricultural Research, etc; the Center

(Federal)

Kennedy Center for the Performing

Arts; the Kennedy Center; the

Center (Federal)

the Lincoln Center; the center (non-

Federal)

central Asia, etc

Источник: [applemacs.us]
) indicates newly revised material.
Chapter 1MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY Introduction. Organization. Aircraft and Equipment Readiness. Maintenance Concept. Maintenance Discipline. Use Category: Application Technical Orders (TO) and TO Supplements. Publications. Waiver Request. Field Supplements/Installation Publications. Performance-Based Activities. 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 17 17

AFI 26 JULY


Table Modification Management. Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Information Systems (MIS). Communications. Duty Shifts and Rest Periods. Maintenance Training. Maintenance Resource Management (MRM). Maintenance Repair Priorities. Maintenance Repair Priority Designators. AF Munitions Policy. Unit Committed Munitions List (UCML), Test/Training Munitions List (TTML). Associate Unit Program/Total Force Integration TFI. Civilian Visitors.

3
18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28

Chapter 2SAFETY General Safety Guidance. Air Force Occupational and Health (AFOSH) Guidance. Hazards. Hazard Abatement Program. Safety Equipment. AF Mishap Prevention Program. Safety Inspections. Flightline Safety. Flightline Driving. Work Center Safety Guidance. Confined Spaces. Munitions Safety Guidance. Lockout and Tagout Concept. Warning Tags. Danger Tags. Contracted Operations. Safety Knock It Off. Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) or Environmental Management System (EMS). Environmental and Health Working Groups (E&HWG).

AFI 26 JULY


29 29 29 29 30 35 36 36 37 39 42 44 46 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 51 51 51 52 53 55 61 70 70 72 72

Chapter 3GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR COMMANDERS AND KEY LEADERS General. Wing Commander (WG/CC) Responsibilities. Wing Vice Commander (WG/CV) Responsibilities. Maintenance Group Commander Responsibilities. Deputy MXG/CC will: MXG Superintendent Responsibilities. Squadron Commander (SQ/CC) Responsibilities. Maintenance Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. Flight Commander/Flight Chief or AMU Officer in Charge (OIC)/Superintendent: Section NCOIC/Chief. Production Superintendent (Pro Super).

Chapter 4AIRCRAFT/HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (AMXS/HMXS) Table Table Table General. MX Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. AMU. AMU OIC/SUPERINTENDENT Responsibilities. Production Superintendent. Flightline Expediter. Aircrew and Maintenance Debrief Section. Landing Status Codes. System Capability Codes. Deviation Cause Codes, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Aircraft Section. Specialist Section. Weapons Section (excluding systems listed in para ): Weapons Section (Helicopter/CV/UAS Units). Support Section. AMU Supply Support Element.

Chapter 5MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (MXS) General.

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Figure MX Operations Officer(MOO)/MX SUPT Responsibilities. Production Superintendent. Specialist Support. Accessories Flight. Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Flight Armament Flight. Avionics Flight Example Index Numbers. Fabrication Flight. Maintenance Flight. Munitions Flight. Propulsion Flight. Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE) Flight.

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72 72 72 73 76 79 83 84 90 93 97 97

Chapter 6MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS SQUADRON General. Maintenance Operations Flight (MOF). Maintenance Training Flight (MTF). (N/A to ARC) Programs and Resources Flight.

Chapter 7MAINTENANCE PLANS, SCHEDULING AND DOCUMENTATION (PS&D) General. Manage the following programs for assigned aircraft and equipment using the following guidelines: Operations and Maintenance Planning Cycle. First Look Requirements. Annual Maintenance Planning Cycle. Quarterly Maintenance and Operations Planning. Monthly Maintenance and Operations Planning. Weekly Scheduling. AMU/AMXS dedicated scheduler. Wing Aerospace Vehicle Distribution Officer (AVDO). The PS&D section NCOIC is the wing 2R1XX functional manager. Responsibilities of Contingency/Expeditionary (Cont/Exp) units (i.e. maintaining non-assigned aircraft).

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Chapter 8QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA)

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General. Responsibilities. Quality Assurance OIC/Superintendent (QA OIC/SUP) (MXG QA Chief in ALC) Responsibilities. Chief Inspector (First Level Supervisor QAS for ALC) Responsibilities. Quality Assurance Inspector/Quality Assurance Specialists (QAS) Responsibilities. Quality Assurance Training. Quality Assurance Augmentation. Rotation of Quality Assurance Personnel. Activity Inspection Program. Maintenance Standardization and Evaluation Program (MSEP). Lead Command-approved QA database. QA Product Improvement Programs (PIP). Configuration Management (CM) and Modification Management. Technical Order Distribution Office (TODO). One-Time Inspections (OTI) program. Functional Check Flights (FCFs) to include Operational Check Flights (OCFs). Inflight Operational Checks. High Speed Taxi Checks. Weight and Balance (W&B) Program. Chafing Awareness Program. Quality Assurance Evaluator (QAE)/ Quality Assurance Representative Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. QA Responsibilities. MXW Quality Assurance Chief Responsibilities. MXG QA Chief Responsibilities. Training Requirements.

Chapter 9IMPOUNDMENT PROCEDURES Aircraft and Equipment Impoundment. Specific Guidance. Impoundment Terms: Reasons for Impoundment of Aircraft or Equipment. Impoundment Official Responsibilities.

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Impoundment Process and Procedures. Rules of Impoundment Specifically for Explosive-Related Mishaps.

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Chapter 10TOOL AND EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT Table Tool and Equipment Management. Guidelines for Program Management. General Program Guidelines. Tool Accountability. Tool and Equipment Marking and Identification. ALC/AMARG ID number marking Codes. Locally Manufactured, Developed, or Modified Tools and Equipment. Tool Room Operations and Security. Lost Item/Tool Procedures, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen.

Chapter 11MAINTENANCE SUPPLY SUPPORT General. Maintenance Supply Liaison (MSL) Section. Decentralized supply support. Ordering Parts. Processing. Readiness Spares Package (RSP) Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Bench Stock. Consumable Readiness Spares Package (CRSP). Shop Stock.

Operating Stock. Work Order Residue. Adjusted Stock Levels. Shelf life Items. Equipment Items. Special Purpose Recoverable Authorized Maintenance (SPRAM). Supply Assets Requiring Functional Check, Calibration, or Operational Flight Programming. Time Compliance Technical Order (TCTO) Kit Procedures. Supply Points. Local Manufacture.

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Production Scheduling. Control of AWP Assets and Cross-CANN. Repair Cycle Assets. DIFM. Tail Number Bins (TNB). CANN actions. Bench Check and Repair Policy. Maintenance Turn-Around (TRN) Record Update Processing. Maintenance Turn-In to Supply. Buildup Items. Supply Reports and Listings. Deficiency Report (DR) Exhibits. Work Center Supply Management. Maintenance Repair/Supply Delivery Priorities. Intermediate Repair Enhancement Program (IREP). Destruction of TOP SECRET Material. Certifying Items Associated With Explosives:

Chapter 12WING WEAPONS MANAGER AND WEAPONS STANDARDIZATION Figure Wing Weapons Manager (WWM). Weapons Expediter Training. Weapons Standardization. Loading Standardization Crew (LSC). Academic Instructor. Lead Crews. Training Facilities/Aircraft. Academic Training. Practical Training. Load Crew Composition.

Task Assignment List (TAL). Weapons Load Training Basic Terms. Load Crew Certification/Decertification Load Configurations. Minimum Proficiency Requirement Loading.

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Load Crew Semi-Annual Evaluations. Documenting Load Crew Training. Transient Aircraft Responsibilities. Substance Painter 2021 Crack + License Key [LATEST] Loading Operations (DLO). Weapons Task Qualification. Munitions Load Time Standards. Table Table Table Fighter Aircraft Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes). Bomber Aircraft Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes). Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Munitions Family Group and Load Training Time Standards (in minutes).

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Chapter 13MOBILITY AIRCRAFT DEFENSIVE SYSTEMS LOADING POLICY Units required to install/remove chaff/flare on mobility aircraft. The WTQM and the Weapons Task Qualification. Training Requirements. Disqualifying Chaff/Flare Load Personnel. Transient Aircraft. Identification of Chaff/Flare-Loaded Aircraft. AF IMT Requirements. AMC requires: Chaff/Flare Build-up.

Chapter 14ADDITIONAL MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS AND PROGRAMS Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR). Aircraft and Equipment Decontamination. Aircraft Grounding. Aircraft Inlet/Intake/Exhaust Certification. Aircraft Rapid/Hot Defueling. Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Hydraulic Fluid Purification (HFP): Cannibalization Program. Combat Sortie Generation.

Crash Damaged or Disabled Aircraft Recovery (CDDAR) Program.

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Dropped Object Prevention (DOP) Program. FPW//E Eddy Current Inspection. End-of-Runway (EOR) Inspection. Engine Blade Blending Training and Certification Program. Engine Run Training and Certification Program. Flash Blindness Protective Device. Engine Flexible Borescope Inspection Training and Certification Program. Flying Crew Chiefs (FCC). Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. Forms Documentation. Ground Instructional Trainer Aircraft (GITA). Hangar Queen Aircraft. Hot Refueling Procedures. Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Management. Lead Technician. MRT Procedures. Protective Aircraft Shelter (PAS) Environment. Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)/Radar Threat Warning (RTHW) Testing. Ramp Inspection Program. Red Ball Maintenance. Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX) Master Chip Detector Analysis Program (MCDP). Self-Inspection Program. Senior Leaders Maintenance Course (SLMC). Special Certification Roster (SCR).

Table

Mandatory Special Certification Roster (SCR) and Prerequisites.

WRM External Nestable Fuel Tank Build-Up (NFTBU). MHz Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Systems. Lead Commands will establish an IFF Mode IV Program. Chapter 15MAINTAINING COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT Background Information and Objective. AF/A4L Responsibilities: HQ Air Force Materiel Command (HQ AFMC/EN)Responsibilities:

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Lead Command Responsibilities: Field Units Responsibilities: Certification Requirements. Inspection Requirements. Deviations Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Inspection Requirements. Component Overhaul and Time Change Intervals.

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Airframe Overhaul. Aircraft and Component Modifications. Time Compliance Technical Orders. Chapter 16AIRCREW EGRESS SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE Egress Maintenance: Facilities: Safety Requirements. Classification Training: Initial Certification of Egress Personnel: Initial Certification of Non-Egress Personnel: Decertification: Recertification: Using Newly Assigned Uncertified Egress Personnel:

Egress/Cockpit Familiarization Training: Units with Unique, Experimental, or Test Aircraft. Egress Systems Inspections and Documentation: Aircraft Static Display. Technical Assistance. Training Aircraft. Conferences: Chapter 17CENTRALIZED REPAIR FACILITIES (CRFS) Introduction. Organization, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Command Authority. CRF Common Operating Picture (COP). Rotable Pools. Wing-Retained Tasks.

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Documentation. Metrics. Liaison with Logistics Readiness Squadron (LRS).

Agile Combat Support (ACS) Planning. Chapter 18CONTRACT SURVEILLANCE Figure Government Contract Quality Assurance. Management of Government Property. Contract Administration. Contracting Officer. FC/FD Role, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Chief QAE. QAE. QAE/FC/FD training requirements. PP. Key Elements.

Surveillance Scheduling. Inspections. Functional Check Flight (FCF) Pilot Responsibilities. Documenting/correcting contractor performance. End of month surveillance summary. Contractor Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Past Performance Reporting. Acceptance of services will be accomplished utilizing DD Form or the Wide Area Work Flow system (WAWF). Award fee administration. Transition administration (FAR Part 49). Prescribed Forms. Adopted Forms. Attachment 1GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION Attachment 2SUPPLY REPORTS AND LISTINGS Attachment 3AIRCRAFT COMMANDER FEEDBACK ON FCC Attachment 4QUARTERLY FCC REPORT FORMAT

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Attachment 5ANNUAL FCC REPORT Attachment 6FCC SDAP REQUEST Attachment 7MAINTENANCE RECOVERY TEAM (MRT) TASKING CHECKLIST. Attachment 8MAINTENANCE RECOVERY TEAM (MRT) CHIEF RESPONSIBILITIES Attachment 9MAINTENANCE RECOVERY Full Downloads: PCSX2 0.9.8 - Emulador de PS2 (MRT) CHIEF TASKING CHECKLIST Attachment 10WAIVER/CHANGE REQUEST FORMAT Attachment 11DROPPED OBJECT PROGRAM (DOP) REPORTING FORMAT Attachment 12FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE (FOD) REPORT

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Chapter 1 MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY Introduction. Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen instruction prescribes basic aircraft and equipment maintenance policy and procedures used throughout the USAF. Any deviations from this guidance are prohibited without Lead Command review and HQ USAF/A4L waiver/variance approval. For the purpose of this instruction and development of maintenance policy, Lead Commands are Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, Air Education and Training Command, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command, Air Force Space Command, Air Force Global Strike Command and Air Force Materiel Command. As it pertains to weapon system specific issues or requirements, AFPD takes precedence. For the purpose of this policy, the term AFMC Single Manager (SM) includes CorelDRAW X3 crack serial keygen Program Directors (SPD), Product Group Managers (PGM) and Supply Chain Managers (SCM), Organization. AF wings will organize according to AFIAF Organization, or as authorized by HQ USAF/A1M. Contractor and civil service maintenance functions are not required to organize in accordance with (IAW) AFIbut will implement the organization as outlined in their proposal as accepted by the government, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Aircraft and Equipment Readiness, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Aircraft and equipment readiness is the maintenance mission. The maintenance function ensures assigned aircraft and equipment are safe, serviceable, and properly configured to meet mission needs. Maintenance actions include, but are not limited to, inspection, repair, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, overhaul, modification, preservation, refurbishment, troubleshooting, testing, and analyzing condition and performance. All levels of supervision must place emphasis on safety, quality, and timeliness in the performance of maintenance. The concept of quality maintenance must be fostered by each supervisor and technician to ensure the integrity and skill of each maintainer is not degraded. To the greatest extent possible, maintenance is accomplished on a preplanned scheduled basis. Planning provides the most effective and efficient use of people, facilities, product key finder windows 7 Archives - Patch Cracks equipment, reduces unscheduled maintenance, and allows for progressive actions toward maintaining and returning aircraft and equipment to safe operating condition. Conducting a bench check of components and proper control of repair cycle assets throughout the maintenance cycle are also critical elements of the equipment maintenance program. Preventive Maintenance. AF units must implement and manage the tasks specified in the scheduled program for their assigned aircraft and associated support equipment (SE). Preventive maintenance concepts are described in TOAerospace Equipment Maintenance Inspection, Documentation, Policies, and Procedures. Mission Generation maintenance activities must have the capability to launch and recover aircraft and sustain the preventive maintenance program. Generally, this means most units must possess a complement of equipment and supplies to perform on-equipment and off-equipment maintenance. Off-Equipment MaintenanceMaintenance tasks that cannot be effectively accomplished on or at the weapon system or end-item of equipment, but require the removal of the component to a shop or facility for repair.

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On-Equipment MaintenanceMaintenance tasks that can be effectively performed on or at the weapon system or end-item of equipment. Maintenance Concept. Maintenance is organized into two mutually supporting networks, Mission Generation Network (MGN) and Repair Network (RN), The MGN is optimized for mission generation at the wing level and contains the minimum capabilities required to launch, recover, configure, inspect and repair aircraft. The RN supports the MGN by providing serviceable components/equipment and conducting inspection, repair, and modification of aircraft and equipment. Requests For Assistance (RFA). If a maintenance activity requires assistance for evaluation and/or repair beyond unit capability, the request must be made IAW AFIEquipment Inventory, Status And Utilization Reporting, TOMaintenance Assistance, and TOAF Metrology and Calibration Program, or automated process as approved by the mission design series (MDS) specific system manager (e.g., C AIRCATS, F TAR). All requests for assistance must be coordinated through the Quality Assurance (QA) office and Maintenance Operations Squadron (MOS) Plans, Scheduling and Documentation (PS&D). Maintenance Discipline. It is the responsibility of all maintenance personnel to comply with all written guidance to ensure required repairs, inspections, and documentation are completed in a safe, timely, and effective manner. Supervisors are responsible for enforcing and establishing a climate that promotes maintenance discipline. Compliance Terminology. For the purposes of this instruction, the following definitions apply: Shall, Must, Will - Indicate mandatory requirements. (Will is also used to express a declaration of purpose for a future event.) Should - Indicates a preferred method of accomplishment. May - Indicates an acceptable or suggested means of accomplishment. Use of Technical Orders (TO) and TO Supplements. Use of the prescribed technical data to maintain aircraft and equipment is mandatory. Units/Supervisors will: Strictly enforce adherence to and compliance with TOs and supplements. Establish and manage TOs and supplements IAW TOAF Technical Order System Establish procedures for shipping TOs, E-Tools, and support equipment associated with E-Tools to support mobility requirements. Ensure all authorized technical data variances are kept with aircraft/equipment historical records until no longer applicable. All personnel will: Recommend improvements or corrections for TO deficiencies IAW TO The AFTO IMT 22 prescribed in TO may be submitted as an attachment to an e-

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AFI 26 JULY mail to report problems of a TO. Official TO updates are the only valid authority for correcting a technical deficiency and implementing change. Continually assess the currency, adequacy, availability and condition of their TOs and supplements and be familiar with ETIMS, as they will use ETIMS to view eTOs in ETIMS eTO libraries. Ensure waivers to, deviations from, or additional technical data procedures are issued using approved official communication methods (e.g., signed letter, organizational E-mail, AMHS message or authorized automated TO technical assistance request system, or applicable guidance from ALC). Ensure all authorized technical data variances are kept with aircraft/equipment historical records until no longer applicable. Lead Command will ensure any new or modified configurations or maintenance conditions are coordinated with, and approved by, the designated Weapons System Lead Command IAW AFPD and the System Program Manager (SPM) responsible for the operational safety, suitability, and effectiveness (OSS&E) of the systems and end-items prior to implementation.

Publications. Lead Commands will supplement this AFI. Units must tailor procedures to the unique aspects of their own maintenance operation and publish directives (instructions, supplements, and, for functional areas, operating instructions IAW AFI ), for areas where more detailed guidance or specific procedures will enhance operations. Units shall adhere to the following procedures: Do not publish unit instructions or Operating Instructions (OI) to change or supplement TOs. Units must use procedures in TO to update TOs. Coordinate directives with all appropriate unit agencies. Conflicts between administrative and technical publications will be resolved in favor of the technical publication. Conflicts between procedural technical Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen and weapon system specific technical publications will be resolved in favor of the weapon system specific technical publication. Conflicts between Air National Guard/AF Reserve and AF publications are resolved IAW AFI Develop, control, and maintain technical data checklists IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction, TOand Lead Command instructions. Develop, control, and maintain functional checklists. Functional Checklists are not formatted IAW TO and Chapter 8 of this instruction, but at a minimum are titled and dated. Functional checklists are required for use by functional area(s) during actions such as aircraft crash, mass loads, severe weather warning or evacuation, self-inspections, activity inspections, etc. Functional checklists shall not be used in place of or to circumvent technical data for operation, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, servicing, inspection or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft systems and all other equipment supporting aircraft and munitions maintenance. QA will ensure functional checklists are reviewed every two years for currency and document this review.

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Waiver Request. MAJCOMs are not permitted to deviate from this instruction without receiving written approval from HQ USAF/A4L. Units must submit waiver requests through the Lead Command. Waivers should only be submitted when urgent or immediate action is required. These circumstances are usually mission impacting and cannot be submitted as part of the normal AFI change process. See Attachment 10 for template. Field Supplements/Installation Publications. Official Air Force publications are the only approved vehicles for issuing official policy and/or guidance. The MXG QA will be the OPR for creating, IAW AFIpublications directed by this AFI. Units may create a Field Supplement in lieu of individual Installation Publications mandated in this AFI. QA will review unit level publications every 2 years for accuracy, intent and necessity and document this review. (ALC the MXW Management Operations Office will perform this function) The appropriate Safety activity will review unit level publications affecting munitions operations or safety; including all locally developed checklists, instructions, supplements, plans, or operating procedures relating to nuclear surety IAW AFIAF Nuclear Weapons Surety Program. Performance-Based Activities. This section identifies the basic responsibilities for managing performance-based activities (e.g., contract maintenance, Most Efficient Organization (MEO), or High Performance Organization (HPO) except DoD High Performing Organization Pilot program under section of the NDAA (Public Law ) which will follow DoDI ). Additional guidance may be found in AFIPerformance-Based Services Acquisition (PBSA) and AFICommercial Activities Program. NOTE: By definition, a Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, MEO, or HPO will be referred to as a service provider. Lead Command/MAJCOM Responsibilities: Designate focal points for organizational, functional, and technical questions pertaining to each performance-based activity program. Specify measurement areas and performance levels required for aircraft, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, systems, and equipment operated or maintained by performance-based activities. Specify the forms, methods of documentation, and frequency of reporting used to assess performance-based activities and ensures these requirements are included in the Performance Management Assessment Program (PMAP). Approve base-level requests that would permit a single Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified Airframe/Powerplant (A/P) contractor technician maintaining contracted logistics support (CLS) aircraft to repair and sign off their own Red Xs when sent to recover aircraft off-station. Identify the qualifications, training requirements, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and responsibilities for QAE personnel assigned to surveil performance-based activities. Ensure units with assigned QAE personnel meet requirements of AFIPerformance-Based Services Acquisition, along with other applicable guidance. Ensure aircraft depot maintenance contracts, Statements of Work (SOW), and Performance Work Statement (PWS) are coordinated with the MAJCOM Munitions

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AFI 26 JULY Functional to ensure munitions accountability and disposition requirements are adhered to. Unit Responsibilities: Designate a focal point for all functional, technical, and QAE matters pertaining to performance-based activities. Designate a MXG focal point (e.g., Environmental Coordinator) for all Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health requirements, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, compliance, and, as appropriate, worker protection issues affecting performance-based activities. The Environmental Coordinator will perform duties as outlined in AFPDEnvironment, Safety, and Occupational Health/AFIPollution Prevention Program and AFIHazardous Materials Management. In coordination with the contracting officer and the MXG/CC (or equivalent), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, provide specific guidance to the performance-based activity to ensure proper maintenance discipline and flight worthiness of aircraft and subsystems. Develop and publish contingency procedures for support of continuing operations in the event of disruption, termination, or default of contract. This includes the provision of contingency procedures for the accomplishment of critical mission operations in the aftermath of natural or man-made events such as natural disasters, major accidents, and terrorist attacks involving chemical, biological, or radiological materials.

Modification Management. A modification proposal is a recommendation to change the operation, use, or appearance of AF equipment. Modifications (temporary, permanent, or safety) to AF aircraft or equipment are expressly prohibited without SPM approval. Refer to AFIModification Program Management, for modification management procedures. (DELETED) Modifications to Munitions. All proposed modifications to aircraft-carried munitions shall include SEEK EAGLE certification (per AFIThe SEEK EAGLE Program). All modifications to AF nuclear munitions or their associated support/training equipment shall be nuclear certified IAW AFIDeep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, AF Nuclear Safety Design Certification Program. All modifications to AF conventional munitions or their associated support/training equipment shall be certified IAW AFINon-Nuclear Munitions Safety Board. Maintenance Information Systems (MIS). MIS refers to automated maintenance information systems that support and enable maintenance business processes. MIS Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen be used to document maintenance actions and determine fleet health. The information entered into the MIS will be accomplished IAW TO MIS data entries do not have to be accomplished by the same individual who documented the aircraft forms, but employee number/man number/USERID of person accomplishing the actual work must be entered into the MIS. Red Ball maintenance will be documented IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Units must use approved MIS portfolio which may be viewed by accessing the Enterprise Information Technology Database Repository located on the AF Portal. If a unit desires to use a system other than the authorized standard MIS the unit must submit a request to their Lead Command 3-digit Maintenance Management Division (i.e., A4M or A4Q). Lead Command 3-digit functional managers shall coordinate on all requests and forward

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through the Lead Command A4 to HQ USAF/A4L for final consideration/approval. Upon receipt of A4L approval request for MIS code vein skidrow Archives procurement must be done through the AF/A4RB process. Communications. Effective maintenance requires efficient communication. Radios must be available to expedite personnel, equipment, material, and maintenance data throughout the maintenance complex. Unit commanders shall develop communication plans according to mission requirements. Lead Commands will develop guidance Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the use and proper control of personal electronic and communication devices (i.e. cell phones, pagers, portable music/video players, electronic games) on the flightline, in munitions areas, hangars, and/or other industrial work areas. Duty Shifts and Rest Periods. During normal operations, maintenance personnel will be scheduled for duty based on a goal of a hour work week, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Maintenance personnel will have their duty hours aligned to provide optimal mission support. Supervision at all levels will be equitably distributed to cover all duty periods. The following guidance establishes maximum duty periods and minimum rest periods for all personnel assigned to a maintenance activity. MXG/CCs may waive the following provisions during emergencies and advanced readiness conditions. Duty periods for crew chiefs and maintenance technicians traveling in their units aircraft are normally controlled by the aircraft commander. Duty time begins when personnel report for duty (this includes aircraft showtime) and ends when their supervisor releases them. A rest period is a block of time that gives a person the opportunity for at least 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep in a hour period. (NOTE: This rest period may not be waived for exercises or inspections.) Do not schedule personnel for more than 12 hours of continuous duty time. Provide a rest period after each shift. Time spent in exercise/contingency deployment processing lines and in-transit counts toward the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen duty day, and may impact time available to perform maintenance at the destination.(This includes Flying Crew Chiefs (FCC), Mission Essential Personnel (MEP), Maintenance Recovery Teams (MRT), and normal deployment travel). MXG/CCs are final approval authority for exceeding hour limit up to a maximum of 16 hours. AC/Detachment CC assumes this responsibility in deployed/travel status. Personnel will not handle, load or perform maintenance on nuclear weapons, conventional munitions and/or egress explosives beyond a hour continuous duty period. This requirement may not be waived for exercises or inspections; however, the hour continuous duty period may be exceeded for shift turnover/administrative actions only and will be avoided to the maximum extent possible. The Group Commander or equivalent may waive this requirement during advance defense readiness conditions, actual emergencies as defined in DoD DirectiveDoD Nuclear Weapons System Safety Standards, or to resolve an unexpected event (e.g.; disabled vehicle, WS3 fault, hoist failure, etc). In alert force or standby duty situations where facilities are available for resting, established norms may be exceeded. Adjust rest periods to allow for at least 8 hours of sleep.

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AFI 26 JULY Ensure individuals are afforded adequate rest periods and breaks. Consider climatic conditions when determining work schedules. Stop anyone if fatigue may jeopardize safety. In all cases, aircraft commanders/supervisors ensure aircraft maintenance personnel are not required to perform duty when they have reached the point of physical or mental fatigue rendering them incapable of performing their assigned duties safely and reliably.

Maintenance Training. Maintenance training provides initial, recurring and advanced proficiency, qualification, or certification skills needed by a technician to perform duties in their primary AF Specialty Code (AFSC)/Civilian Job Series. Provide training in combat and sortie generation skills not normally integrated into peacetime operations (e.g., munitions and external fuel tank build-up, hot refueling). When balancing resources, (e.g., aircraft, support equipment, facilities, tools, funding, personnel), maintenance training carries an equal priority with the operational training mission. For maintenance training policy and guidance, refer to AFIMaintenance Training and Lead Command directives. Cross-Utilization Training (CUT). CUT provides the unit internal flexibility by training individuals to perform tasks that are outside their primary AFSC. CUT is not a longterm fix or management solution for an Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen shortfall. Ensure the training records of individuals receiving CUT are appropriately documented. Address questions regarding CUT to the applicable MAJCOM AFSC Functional Manager. For emerging weapon systems, extensive CUT may be necessary until proper workforce AFSC balancing and assignment is achieved. MAJCOM Functional managers will closely monitor the effects of CUT for adverse trends. NOTE: Prohibitions in this guidance do not apply to UAS (Predator/Global Hawk) weapon systems or other weapon systems where the AF approved maintenance philosophy dictates the merger of AFSCs. Weapons Load Training (WLT). Weapons standardization provides initial and recurring weapons load training and certification. Maintenance Resource Management (MRM). MRM is a course designed to immerse all personnel into the culture and knowledge of human factors philosophy focusing on the importance, requirements, and implementation of MRM principles into daily maintenance activities. Error reduction efforts through human factors will be used to improve processes, find product key Archives - Patch Cracks maintenance errors, decrease maintenance induced damage, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and decrease on-the-jobinjuries. This will be done by integrating the technical skills of maintenance personnel with interpersonal skills and basic human factors knowledge along with operational risk management in order to improve communication, effectiveness, and safety in maintenance operations. To facilitate our common MRM culture, the Air Forces Core MRM course will consist of a one-time, 4-hour block of instruction taught by a certified MRM facilitator using the mandatory course material currently documented at the MRM CoP, applemacs.us?Filter=OO-LG-AN To meet the needs of our total force, MAJCOMS have the option of supplementing the course, in both frequency and duration, to meet unique unit and mission requirements, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. MAJCOMs can further delegate individual MXG/CCs the authority to supplement their MRM courses to address local, base-level requirements. MRM training is required at all stateside and overseas long-tour locations and will be taught to all military personnel serving in maintenance organizations. MAJCOMs will

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determine the applicability and requirement for MRM training for contractors, government civilians, and AF military personnel possessing a maintenance AFSC but performing duties in a non-maintenance role. Because of the challenges posed by wholesale manpower rotations, MRM training is not required at short-tour locations; however, these units will advocate MRM to the maximum extent possible in order to strengthen the cultural changes MRM requires to succeed. The AF/A4L appointed OPR will: Conduct annual course reviews to ensure currency of MRM course content. Coordinate course updates with HQ AF Safety Center AFSC/SEFO and AFSC/SEH for subject matter expertise, to include those areas such as human factors, fatigue, etc, and for current safety statistics. Ensure current course content is available on the MRM CoP. MAJCOM A4s will: Assign an MRM OPR and identify the OPR POC to AF/A4LM. MXG/CC Encourage training participation and attendance by other base agencies. When practical, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, ensure classes are populated with a mixture of AFSs, skill levels and ranks from across the MXG to maximize benefits of course discussions. Ensure course completion is tracked in the applicable MIS. Maintenance Repair Priorities. Maintenance repair priorities are listed in Table This does not prohibit the Production Superintendent, in coordination with the Maintenance Operations Center (MOC), from changing the maintenance repair priority when warranted. Raising or lowering Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen repair priorities Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen not necessarily require a corresponding change in the Logistics Readiness Squadron (LRS) delivery priority. During Operational Plan (OPLAN) or operational exercise, the preplanned maintenance flow determines job sequence. The maintenance repair priority and LRS delivery priorities are normally identical. However, the Production Superintendent may authorize the use of a less responsive LRS delivery priority. Table Maintenance Repair Priority Designators. PRIORITY APPLICATION 1 Aircraft on alert status, war plan or national emergency missions, including related Aero space Ground Equipment (AGE), munitions and munitions support equipment (MSE).

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AFI Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen JULY

PRIORITY APPLICATION 2 Primary mission aircraft, related AGE, munitions, and munitions support equipment, for the first 8 work hours after landing or start of recovery or within 6 work hours of a sched uled launch, alert or test flight and during simulated generation/ORI, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Air evacuation, rescue, weather mission aircraft, related AGE, munitions, and munitions support equipment. All transient support, and FAA aircraft. Flight or missile crew training simulator, other training equipment or related AGE required repair, which is impacting the mission by pre venting or delaying student training. 3 Primary mission aircraft, engines, air launched missiles and related AGE, munitions and munitions equipment, and equipment undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, if not performed or repaired will prevent or delay mission accomplishment. Transient air vehicles not otherwise listed. Administrative aircraft within 8 hours of scheduled flight or on alert status with standby crews. Time change requirements for nuclear weapons. Repair cycle assets to satisfy a Mission Capable (MICAP) condition. Spares not available in supply. Critical end items Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen spares not available in supply. Routine maintenance of aircrew or missile-training simulator, or other training devices or related AGE or sites and aircraft or equipment used for maintenance training. Avionics shop electronic AGE and automated test stations. 4 Routine or extensive repair of primary air mission and related AGE and repair cycle assets. Administrative aircraft undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance. Routine maintenance of AGE, not otherwise listed above. WRM items due maintenance or inspection. Inspection, maintenance, and Time Compliance Technical Order (TCTO) compliance of mission support kit (MSK) or mobility readiness spares package (MRSP) materiel. Extensive repair of aircrew or missile training simulators, other training devices, or related AGE. Inspection, maintenance, and TCTO compliance of munitions and munitions equipment, excluding Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen excess to base requirements not listed above. Scheduled calibration and unscheduled repairs on PME not listed above. Scheduled maintenance to include periodic Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, routine TCTO, MCL, and Time Change Items (TCIs). Primary mission CEM systems or equipment including associated AGE undergoing extensive repair or modification.

AFI 26 JULY PRIORITY APPLICATION 5 Non-tactical or non-primary-mission aircraft undergoing extensive repair. Fabrication and repair of aeronautical items not carrying a higher priority. Bench stock requirements. Extensive repair of aircrew training devices. Time change requirements not listed above. Routine repair of AGE and repair cycle assets. Alternate and other CEM systems or equipment, including associated AGE undergoing extensive repair or modification. Clearing routine delayed discrepancies on training equipment or AGE, and routine maintenance which will not impair or affect mission accomplishment. Equipment requirements. 6 Fabrication and repair of non-aeronautical items. Repair cycle asset shortages required to fill a peacetime operating stock authorization 7 Spares/repair cycle assets excess to base requirements.

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AF Munitions Policy. AF Munitions Policies are contained in AFIMunitions and Missile Maintenance Management, AFIConventional Munitions Maintenance Management and AF Nuclear Munitions Policy is contained in AFINuclear Weapons Maintenance Procedures. Lead Commands will develop and provide policy and guidance on managing and limiting munitions use as necessary. This will ensure munitions remain available and in reliable condition and at the same time provide a realistic training environment and support for exercise purposes. Live and inert missiles (or electrical simulators) of the same type must not be loaded or flown together on an aircraft for any purpose. Live and inert (to include training or practice) bombs must not Xilisoft Video Converter Ultimate 7.0.0 crack serial keygen loaded in/on the same dispenser/rack or flown on an aircraft load together. Any request to deviate from or waiver to this policy must be coordinated through the WWM, and must be submitted via official message to the MAJCOM Munitions Division, Weapons Safety, and Operations Weapons and Tactics/Training Divisions. The MAJCOM Munitions Division is the sole approval authority for these deviations/waivers. Test organizations may load and fly live and inert munitions on the same aircraft for test missions only, as long as the flight profile is IAW an approved test directive that has been through a Safety Review Board process and flight clearance through the applicable System Program Office SPO/Seek Eagle office has been properly obtained. Request for waiver of, or deviation to, this policy will include as a minimum: 1). Operational Risk Assessment report and proposed controls to mitigate or eliminate hazards to personnel, damage to aircraft and support equipment or inadvertent employment of live ordnance, and, 2). A signed copy of the Test Requirement Plan, Test Plan, or Concept Employment Plan. Approved requests will remain valid only for the event requested and will not exceed 60 days. Captive Air Training Munitions (CATM): Safety pins/streamers for arming keys/safe-arm handles on CATMs may be removed for daily training/flying operations provided positive control and accountability is maintained for these items. (NOTE: AIM-9M CATM arming handles will be permanently removed). These components are only removed

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AFI 26 JULY for foreign or dropped object prevention. Any CATM missiles used for exercises, Load Crew Training and inspections will be configured to the maximum extent possible with all safety devices and components to mirror the parent tactical munitions.

Unit Committed Munitions List (UCML), Test/Training Munitions List (TTML). Operational units will use UCMLs, Test/Training (AETC and AFMC only (includes ARC gained units in these commands)) will use TTMLs unless they already require a UCML (i.e., NORAD Committed). The UCML/TTML is a list of primary munitions (PM), support munitions (SM), and limited-use munitions (LM) necessary to meet unit operational/test/training requirements and is published IAW this instruction. The list of PM cannot include more than 10 individual munitions or munitions family groups (MFG) combined per mission, design, and series (MDS) aircraft assigned. The UCML/TTML also specifies the minimum certified load crews required to meet unit requirements. MAJCOMS may supplement UCML/ TTML processing, coordination and appendix requirements. As a minimum, UCML/TTMLs will be updated annually to identify all munitions tasked and/ or required to support test/training or OPLANs and Designed Operational Capability (DOC) statements. Additional munitions may be included on the UCML/TTML as SM or LM munitions if required by the unit or designated by the MAJCOM (A4M performs this in the ANG) to support test, training, or deployment. The UCML/TTML is the base document for aircrew and load crew training munitions forecasts, authorizations and operations. Units will start their UCML/TTML validation in July, and have a coordinated input to the MAJCOM Munitions Division in August. MAJCOMs will supply approved UCML/TTML to the units in September. NOTE: Specified months not applicable to ANG process. Unit changes to the UCML/TTML will be justified by Wing Weapons and Tactics, coordinated and processed through the WWM, Munitions Flight, MXG/CC and OG/CC before sending it to higher headquarters and MAJCOM. Standard Conventional Load (SCL) lists are not part of the UCML/TTML. They are stand-alone documents. The WWM determines the minimum number of certified load crews depicted on the UCML based on Unit Type Code (UTC) requirements identified in applicable DOC statements. The WWM determines the number of load crews depicted on the TTML as required to meet training unit syllabus and/or test unit mission requirements. (NOTE: WWM specifies in writing the minimum number of load crews required in aggressor units when no UCML/TTML exists). Associate Unit Program/Total Force Integration TFI. The USAF employs the Associate Unit/TFI program in some locations where active and ARC units are collocated and share aircraft, equipment, facilities, and other resources IAW AFPDTotal Force Integration Policy. Lead Command maintenance policy directives and enforcement as they pertain to aircraft, equipment, and facilities are as follows: ANG/AFRC owns the aircraft in an Active Association, ANG/AFRC maintenance policy will be followed by AD personnel, AFRC owns the aircraft in an ARC Association, AFRC maintenance policy will be followed by ANG personnel, AD owns the aircraft in an Classic Association, AD maintenance policy will be followed by ANG/AFRC personnel.

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Civilian Visitors. Units will not permit civilian visitors to operate any AF equipment, specialized vehicles, and any other equipment that requires training to operate, unless they have been specifically trained in the operation of such equipment. (see AFI for AF vehicle operation requirements.) Civilian visitors include: AF family members who are not employed by the AF or assigned to a military service. All civilians who are visiting another unit/installation and are not performing their normally assigned duties. Retired DoD employees. Civilian employees, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, contractor employees, and other civilian personnel who must operate AF equipment as part of their assigned duties are not considered civilian visitors. Civilian visitors may not be allowed in the flightline area if munitions are present IAW AFMANExplosive Safety Standards explosive citing criteria.

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Chapter 2 SAFETY General Safety Guidance. Maintenance personnel are exposed to a large variety of hazardous situations, machinery, equipment, and chemicals. Most hazardous situations can be avoided by following procedures, asking for help when needed, and using personal protective equipment (PPE). Supervisors must be knowledgeable of and enforce AFOSHSTDs, TOs, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and AFIs applicable to their operations and ensure personnel are educated on safety requirements applicable to the job. Air Force Occupational and Health (AFOSH) Guidance. Use AF functional directives and technical data in conjunction with AFOSH STDs, see Attachment 1 for AFOSHSTDs applicable to aircraft maintenance activities (this list is not all inclusive). If conflicting guidance exists, the weapon system specific technical data will take precedence. Hazards. All managers and supervisors must incorporate Operational Risk Management (ORM) within the workplace. Identify, eliminate or control, and document hazards to minimize risk associated with uncertainty in the decision-making process, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Additional guidance can be found in AFIOperational Risk Management, and AFPAMOperational Risk Management Guidelines and Tools. When written directives are not available for the task being performed, the supervisor, with safety staff help, completes a job safety analysis (JSA) to ensure worker, equipment, and work environment compatibility. Procedures for JSAs are contained in AFIAir Force Occupational and Environmental Safety, Fire Protection, and Health (AFOSH). Hazard Abatement Program. Implement and follow the AF Hazard Abatement Program in AFI Document safety plans, actions, hazards, and personnel training with the appropriate AF forms listed below. AF IMT 3, Hazard Abatement Plan; AFI AF IMT 55, Employee Safety and Health Record; AFI AF IMTUSAF Hazard Report; AFIThe US Air Force Mishap Prevention Program. AF FormNotice of Hazard; AFI Safety Equipment. Ensure personnel are provided the appropriate PPE (when PPE is required) for the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen and are trained in its use, inspection and care. Contact the installation ground safety or Bioenvironmental Engineering (BE) for assistance in the selection of PPE. Review AFOSH for additional information on PPE. AF Mishap Prevention Program. Implement and follow AFI to protect AF resources. Ensure all personnel receive safety, fire protection, and health on-the job training upon initial assignment and whenever there is a change in equipment, procedures, processes or safety, fire protection, and health requirements. Supervisors must document safety-related training on AF IMT 55, Employee Safety and Health Record, equivalent form or electronic database. Safety Inspections. Accomplish hazard assessment and identification through the application of occupational safety, fire prevention, and health inspections, evaluations, and

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surveys. Supervisors will perform self-inspections to assess the safety environment of the unit. Most AFOSHSTDs contain sample checklists for unit self-inspections. Also, use locally developed checklists tailored to specific unit requirements. Flightline Safety. Adhere to aircraft flightline safety guidance in AFOSHSTD ; Aircraft Flightline-Ground Operations and Activities, AFOSHSTDOccupational Noise and Hearing Conservation Program, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, TOGround Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding; and equipment TOs. Flightline Driving. All operators of vehicles on the flightline must first obtain training and possess a valid flightline driving permit. Follow the general safety requirements for flightline vehicle operations found in AFOSHSTD and AFJMANManual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver, AFIAirfield Management, and local instructions. Supervisors will familiarize all personnel authorized to operate vehicles on the flightline with the aircraft marshaling signals found in AFIAircraft Operation and Movement on the Ground. NOTE: see AFI for AF vehicle operation requirements. Operators must receive flightline driver's training on driving conditions and hazards inherent to the flightline environment and obtain a flightline competency card prior to operating any vehicle or equipment operated like a vehicle (bomb lifts, club cars, gators, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, golf carts, etc.) on the flightline, even though these equipment items do not require a drivers permit or license. Work Center Safety Guidance. Use the general work center safety guidance in AFOSHSTDGeneral Industrial Operations and AFSOSHSTDAF Consolidated Occupational Safety Standard, equipment TOs, and local instructions. Confined Spaces. A Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen space is any area that is large enough to bodily enter; and has limited/restricted means of entry or exit; and is not designed for continuous human occupancy. CCs, functional managers, and supervisors must ensure all confined spaces that fall under their purview are properly identified, and implement a confined spaces program as outlined in AFOSHSTDConfined Spaces. Also see AFOSHSTDRespiratory Protection Program, and TOInspection and Repair of Aircraft Integral Tanks and Fuel Cells, for specific requirements. Supervisors will ensure all personnel required to enter a confined space are properly trained, equipped, and qualified and the training is documented prior to entry. For assistance in establishing an effective confined space program contact the installation ground safety office. Munitions Safety Guidance. Use munitions safety requirements found in AFMANExplosive Safety Standards; 11A- 11P- and 13A-series TOs (explosive and egress handling safety); Chapter 16; and specific equipment TOs. AFMAN contains safety topics, such as, explosive safety program elements, explosive facility licenses, quantity distance criteria, handling of aircraft, remotely piloted vehicles and drones containing explosives, fire protection, storage and compatibility standards, transportation, etc. The 11, 11A- 11K- 11P- Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, 13A- and 21M- series TOs deal with the specifics of handling and maintaining explosive items or components. Chapter 16 of this instruction pertains to the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen of egress and escape systems and personnel training, certification, and decertification. Lockout and Tagout Concept, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Use procedures to isolate machinery or equipment (in offequipment areas) from Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen hazardous energy. Instruct all personnel in the safety significance of

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lockout or tagout procedures. Find complete guidance for instituting an effective program in AFOSHSTDAir Force Consolidated Occupational Safety Standard. Warning Tags. See TO Danger Tags. Will only be used when an immediate hazard exists and specific precautions are required to protect personnel or property or as required by TOs, instructions, or other directed requirements, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Tags will be placed on damaged equipment and immediate arrangements made for the equipment to be taken out of service and sent to the repair shop. Do not use the AF FormDanger Tag, for on-equipment aircraft maintenance. Contracted Operations, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Refer to AFIAF Occupational and Environmental Safety, Fire Protection, and Health (AFOSH) and AFOSHAir Force Occupational Safety and Health Standard, for guidance on AFOSH applicability to contractors. Safety Knock It Off. Due to the inherent danger to life, limb, and property associated with maintenance operations, personnel require a means to pause or terminate an operation or situation which they perceive is unsafe or too dangerous. When crew leaders become taskfocused, junior personnel are often better able to assess the danger; however, deferring to the experience and judgment of the crew leader, they may Ubuntu 17.10.1 Final Full ISO Direct Download (x64) to remain silent, missing an opportunity to break the mishap sequence chain. Operators have long used the call words Knock it Off in their profession; maintenance commanders and supervisors should foster the same culture in their units so that a simple, but recognizable audible from anyone can prevent a potential mishap. Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) or Environmental Management System (EMS). All personnel shall complete Environmental Management System (EMS) awareness training. Commanders or EMS management personnel shall complete EMS Manager training (ref AFPD ), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Environmental and Health Working Groups (E&HWG). Installation weapon system squadrons/organizations will participate in the periodic Systems Group and Sustainment Group weapon system environmental and health working groups or their equivalent IAW AFPDDeep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, Environmental Safety and Occupational Health. Nuclear Weapons Intrinsic Radiation Safety. Nuclear-capable units will establish an intrinsic radiation (INRAD) program to ensure that INRAD exposure for all personnel conducting maintenance, on-load and off-load, transport, or storage of nuclear weapons is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Find complete guidance for instituting an effective INRAD program in AFIAir Force Nuclear Weapons Intrinsic Radiation Safety Program.

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Chapter 3 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR COMMANDERS AND KEY LEADERS General. This chapter outlines responsibilities for commanders and key leaders involved in maintenance activities. For the purpose of this instruction, in units where there is not a military CC responsible for maintenance, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, the applicable civilian Director of Maintenance (DOM) will ensure compliance with all responsibilities in this instruction. NOTE: For the purpose of this instruction, contractor equivalents are as follows: A1C aircraft servicer or apprentice/journeyman; SrA (1 year time in grade)--aircraft worker or field maintenance worker or higher; SSgt--aircraft mechanic or field maintenance mechanic or higher; TSgt--senior mechanic or craftsman; MSgt lead mechanic; SMSgt/CMSgt/ maintenance officer--foreman or branch chief or higher. Lead Commands will determine grade/skill level equivalents for Civilians. Wing Commander (WG/CC) Responsibilities. The WG/CC allocates resources to meet all mission requirements. The WG/CC should ensure the maintenance organization is not overly tasked with augmentation duties outside maintenance functional areas. Commanders organize maintenance according to AFI The WG/CC: Conducts a daily "Wing Standup" meeting. The meeting will include, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, at a minimum, a review of the previous day, current day, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and next days activities, focused on identifying and resolving issues with executing the established flying and maintenance schedule. Ensures a coordinated wing instruction is developed to control tools, equipment, and electronic devices from all wing agencies dispatching to aircraft parking/runway/taxi areas and aircraft maintenance areas IAW Chapter 1, Chapter 10, and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Participates in quarterly QA and monthly scheduling meetings to stay abreast of maintenance issues, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Ensures maintenance and operations develop a joint annual maintenance Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen flying program. Establishes a balance between the requirement for sorties and maintenance capability. Establishes a joint MXG and OG planning and scheduling cycle to ensure the best use of aircraft, equipment, and personnel to accomplish short term sortie production and long term fleet health. Provide augmentees for the nestable fuel tank build up (NFTBU) team as required to support any wartime UTC tasking. Establishes a Crash Damaged or Disabled Aircraft Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen (CDDAR) capability, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Publishes a wing OI containing specific responsibilities for all applicable base agencies. Approve the weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual flying/test schedules IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Wing Vice Commander (WG/CV) Responsibilities. The WG/CV, Center CV/CA, (or equivalent) will: Manage the Foreign Object Damage (FOD) and Dropped Object Prevention (DOP) Programs. The WG/CV is the FOD/DOP Prevention Program Manager and appoints a

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AFI 26 JULY qualified technical sergeant (or above), civilian equivalent, or contractor if designated by performance work statement, as the FOD/DOP Prevention Monitor(s) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction.

Maintenance Group Commander Responsibilities. In addition to the responsibilities listed below, the MXG/CC must also ensure additional maintenance requirements and programs in Chapter 14 of this instruction are complied with, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. The MXG/CC (or equivalent) will: Establish a radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTDRadio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program, when applicable. Ensure a focal point is identified as the MXG Environmental Coordinator for environmental, safety, and occupational health requirements, compliance, and worker protection issues. Refer to AFPDAFIPollution Prevention Program, and AFIHazardous Materials Management, for additional guidance. Ensures strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Ensure maintenance is only performed by personnel who are trained, qualified, and certified, unless under the direct supervision of a trainer or certifier. Ensure standardization of maintenance discipline, procedures, organizational structures, compliance, and management philosophy. Coordinate with the base fire department, safety, and airfield operations in developing adverse weather procedures for protecting aircraft and equipment IAW AFOSHSTDAFIResponding to Severe Weather Events, and MDSspecific technical data, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Ensure aircraft maintenance data is accurate by establishing and supporting a data integrity team (DIT). This team is not required in contract and civil service organizations unless specified in the statement of work (SOW), performance work statement (PWS) or performance requirements statement (PRS). Ensure members assigned to the DIT are qualified and provided sufficient time to accurately assess the data. Ensure each aircraft maintenance work center performs a review of all documentation entered into IMDS-CDB/G daily IAW TOMaintenance Data Documentation. Ensure activity inspections (if established) are conducted IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction and Lead Command guidance. Approve and publish In Process Inspection (IPI) listings every two years. Ensure the Maintenance Standardization and Evaluation Program (MSEP) requirements are implemented IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure effective Download Deezer 6.2.16.1 Crack Archives of the MXGs total maintenance training program IAW AFIAir Force Training Program. Ensure maintenance training is accomplished according to the published (monthly) training plan. Ensure Aircraft/Munitions Maintenance Special Experience Identifier (SEI) management IAW AFI Provide aircraft, personnel, facilities and equipment to support the maintenance-training program.

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Develop plans to rotate personnel to enhance the mission and develop individual experience and knowledge. (N/A to ARC) Manages the maintenance/munitions-training program to include course development content, ancillary, qualification, and maintenance training activities. Publishes monthly training schedules outlining specific aircraft course and equipment requirements. The MXG/CC may authorize the Munitions Flight Commander/Chief to chair the munitions scheduling and training meetings and publish schedules. Approve RFAs (IAW Chapter 1) after they are coordinated with PS&D, QA, and all applicable maintenance organizations. Ensure TOs are managed IAW TO Designate a focal point for all functional, technical, and QAE matters pertaining to performance-based activity. See Chapter 1. Provide maintenance crosstell information IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Review the weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual flying/test schedules IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Ensure munitions are accounted for IAW AFIConventional Munitions Maintenance Management. Ensure all personnel assigned to maintenance are used to accomplish critical maintenance tasks before releasing them for non-maintenance duties. Accomplish quarterly reviews of maintenance limiting factors (LIMFACs), shortfalls, and simulation requests. Establish Minimum Equipment Levels (MELs) for essential maintenance assets to include aircraft, engines, pods, AGE, vehicles, etc. Function as the OPR for the Intermediate Repair Enhancement Program (IREP) IAW Chapter 11 of this instruction and ensure a meeting is conducted at least quarterly. Ensure an effective Flash Blindness Protective Device Maintenance Program is accomplished IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Implement an effective Corrosion Prevention and Control Program IAW TOApplication and Removal of Organic Coatings, Aerospace and Non-Aerospace Equipment; TOCorrosion Prevention and Control, Cleaning, Painting, and Marking of USAF Support Equipment; Lead Command instructions; and MDS-specific TOs. Coordinate requests for naming aircraft through appropriate MAJCOM/CC, and forward to HQ USAF/A4LM for coordination AnyTrans [8.8.3] Crack + License Code Latest Version 2021 Free Download approval by AF/CV. Ensure a compliance-structured self-inspection program is established IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and Lead Command directives. Ensure a nuclear surety program is implemented (if applicable) IAW AFIAir Force Nuclear Weapons Surety Program, and nuclear munitions are maintained, handled and accounted for IAW AFINuclear Weapons Maintenance Procedures and AFINuclear Accountability Procedures.

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AFI 26 JULY For units possessing NCE, ensure personnel are trained in the proper use of nuclear flagwords, mishap and deficiency reporting instructions IAW AFMANWeapons Safety Investigations and Reports and AFI Ensure effective management of the Engine Trending and Diagnostic (ET&D) program IAW Establish Crashed, Damaged, or Disabled Aircraft Recovery (CDDAR) capability IAW applicable MDS technical data and Chapter 14 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Ensure resources and trained personnel are available to perform responsibilities of the CDDAR program. Develop a year facility plan specifying maintenance, upgrade, and replacement projections for the groups facilities. Update and coordinate this plan with the base Civil Engineer annually, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Coordinate and prioritize group maintenance facility work orders monthly (Quarterly for the ARC). Ensure adequate communication devices are available and appoint an OPR for assigned land mobile radios (LMR) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure repair cost evaluations are performed and appropriate levels of review and repair authorization are established in squadrons, flights, and repair sections IAW TOTOUniformed Repair/Replacement Criteria for Selected USAF Support Equipment (SE) and TOEconomic Repair Criteria for Support Equipment (SE). Ensure effective use of the AF Engineering and Technical Services/Contracting Engineering Team Specialists (AFETS/CETS) and use appropriate engineering materials as prescribed in AFMCIEngineering Data Storage, Distribution, and Control, and AFIDeep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management. Establish the group maintenance awards and recognition program to meet AF and MAJCOM requirements IAW AFIUSAF Maintenance Awards Program. Ensure MXG activities serviced by an off-base PMEL establish a TMDE collection point. The collection point coordinator is the single point-of-contact between the MXG work centers and the servicing PMEL and is trained by the servicing PMEL. Designate the collection point primary and alternate coordinator in writing. The TMDE collection point shall perform the applicable responsibilities of this instruction, paragraph Ensure procedures are followed to properly turn in recoverable and consumable items IAW AFMAN Deploy MRTs and equipment to recover aircraft IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and applicable Lead Command guidance. Monitor unusual materiel conditions for investigation, consideration of fleetwide potential, and reporting IAW paragraph of this instruction. Ensure the egress section safes all static display aircraft according to series and weapon system TOs. Approve MXG Key Task List (KTL) and Routine Inspection Lists (RIL).

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Ensure an orientation program is developed and conducted for all personnel newly assigned to all unit maintenance/activities. As a minimum, topics must include unit mission, Air and Space Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Forces (AEF) vulnerability, tasking plans, supply procedures, FOD program, general flightline and work center safety rules, environmental issues, block training, and corrosion control IAW AFI Ensure training requests identified on AF IMTDeep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Training Requirements Scheduling Document, are coordinated and approved. Establish MXG Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Lead the Fleet (Pacer) Program for engine type IAW the following documents: MOUs, MOAs, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, Propulsion Center of Excellence Best Practiceapplemacs.us, and AFISelective Management of Selected Gas Turbine Engines. Establish MXG local manufacture procedures and controls. Ensure the MXG oil analysis program (OAP) complies with AFIOil Analysis Program and Lead Command directives. Chair the Product Improvement Program (PIP) R&M meeting IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Conduct meeting to establish priorities at the beginning of exercises and contingencies. Appoint a Stock Record Account Number (SRAN) engine manager (if a host unit), or a unit engine manager (UEM) (if a tenant unit), to accomplish duties outlined in TO series. Appoint in writing a qualified 2A6X1, minimum7-skill level, (or civilian equivalent) technician to perform Engine Health Management Plus (EHM+) duties IAW AFI (ANG may appoint in writing a qualified 2A6X1 or 2R1X1, minimum7-skill level). Designate the Installation Maintenance Advisor when applicable, to the Aero Club according to AFIAF Aero Club Program. Appoint hot refueling/hot defueling OPRs for the WG, and designate an OPR for hot refuel training (if applicable) IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure maintenance requirements (e.g., aircraft turnaround, alternate fuel cell, hot refueling, end-of-runway (EOR) check area, engine run spots, explosive load (cargo) areas) Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen included in the base parking plan. Ensure WG Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) is established IAW AFIAircraft Structural Integrity Program and Chapter 14 of this instruction. Establish a dedicated crew chief (DCC) program as applicable IAW Chapter 4 of this instruction. Ensure aircraft shelters at bases with permanently assigned aircraft are maintained, unless otherwise stipulated in contracting Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction (If an aircraft shelter is used for other than its designed purpose, the using activity will maintain it).

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AFI 26 JULY Ensure effective management of weight and balance (W&B) program IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Coordinate with Operations and establish Functional Check Flight (FCF), Operational Check Flight (OCF), and High Speed Taxi Check programs. Implement hangar queen program IAW Chapter 14 in this instruction. Develop a MXG impoundment program and ensure compliance with the procedures IAW Chapter 9 of this instruction. Ensure squadrons not possessing 2W1X1 personnel establish a chaff/flare training program. As a minimum, the program will include academic, explosive safety, and load/unload training. The program will be administered Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the following guidance; as a minimum, the academic program will include: Applicable TOs and publications. Applicable safety discipline/practices. Security requirements. Aircraft familiarization. Stray voltage checks (as required). Munitions characteristics. Local requirements. Establish written MXG procedures to review and clear repeat, recurring, and cannot duplicate (CND) discrepancies. Appoint a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)/Radar Threat Warning (RTHW) manager IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure compliance with Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Mode-IV Program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure the Maintenance Operations Flight (MOF) develops procedures to update and ensure Geographical Location (GEOLOC) codes for on/off-station possessed aircraft are updated/ correct in IMDS location subsystem. (G units are exempt as long as a HHQ agency accomplishes this requirement.) Develop procedures for Red Ball maintenance to include parts delivery, maintenance procedures, documentation methods, and follow-on actions IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Develop a wing instruction to control tools, equipment, and electronic devices from all wing agencies dispatching to aircraft parking/runway/taxi areas and aircraft maintenance areas IAW Chapter 1, Chapter 10, and Chapter 14 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Establish written guidance on individual responsibilities and specific procedures for CANN actions (Chapter 5, Chapter 11 & Chapter 14 of this instruction). Ensure aircraft possessed by AFMC for depot maintenance are not cannibalized without approval from the applicable ALC Program Manager and coordinated with the MAJCOM functional manager.

AFI 26 JULY

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Establish local procedures for management and maintenance of assigned ground instructional training aircraft (GITA) to ensure they remain useful and safe within guidelines stated in Chapter 14 of this instruction, AFIU.S. Air Force Heritage Program and AFMAN series. Is responsible for Transient Alert (TA) (if established) and will establish procedures and furnish necessary personnel and facilities for handling transient aerospace vehicles to ensure that servicing, inspection, and maintenance are consistent with the mission of each transient aerospace vehicle. Give special consideration to medical or air evacuation aerospace vehicle, emergency missions, and special missions. Ensure the Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) program is managed effectively IAW Chapter 1 of this AFI. Ensure an effective AFREP program is established IAW AFIThe Air Force Repair FL Studio Crack [v20.8.3.2304] Keygen & Torrent [2021] Program. Deputy MXG/CC will: Chairs the daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to verify aircraft and equipment utilization and scheduled maintenance requirements for the next day, establish work priorities, and coordinate schedule changes. Meeting topics will include: aircraft status, MICAP and Repair Cycle Status, AF IMTWeekly/Daily Flying Schedule Coordination, actions, current day flying and maintenance schedule execution and remaining portion of the current days schedule, review previous days flying and maintenance schedule deviations to the published schedule IAW MAJCOM guidance, supply MICAPs, prioritizing aircraft requiring/competing for shared resources, and review special inspections (SIs), TCIs, TCTOs, depot field team (DFT)/contract field team (CFT) schedules, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Each AMU will brief current aircraft status and repair plans emphasizing high visibility aircraft (impounded aircraft, hangar queens, etc.), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. MXS will brief status and progress of inspections and any problems with projected flow/time line. Include status of back line aircraft and refurbishment aircraft when under MXS control. Discuss engine spare status and requirements. Perform the following reviews weekly: review next weeks Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen and maintenance schedule to de-conflict and prioritize aircraft requiring/competing for shared resources weekly. Review any overdue special inspections and TCIs and planned corrective action. Review status of TCTOs that will ground within 30 days and completion plan. Review DFT/CFT schedule requirements. Review previous weeks deviations to flying and maintenance schedules. Designates mandatory meeting attendees. Develop maintenance capability in conjunction with the production activities. Ensure critical equipment, facilities, and materiel resources are allocated and establish overall priorities.

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AFI 26 JULY

MXG Superintendent Responsibilities, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. In addition to the Group Superintendent responsibilities outlined in AFIThe Enlisted Force Structure, the MXG Chief shall advise and assist the MXG/CC on their responsibilities as outlined in this chapter. The MXG Chief shall advise on personnel, morale, and welfare issues and serve as the groups focal point for maintenance issues and enlisted manning. MXG/CC will determine the scope and responsibilities for MXG Chief regarding meetings and activities. Squadron Commander (SQ/CC) Responsibilities. The SQ/CC will: Ensure manning is distributed between shifts to safely and efficiently accomplish the mission. Ensure there are adequate levels of supervision on all shifts. Ensure compliance with the Environment Safety and Occupational Health Management System (ESOHMS) programs as identified in AFPDthe AFI XX series of ESOH instructions, AFPDOccupational, Safety, and Health, AFIand the AFI XX series environmental instructions. Implement group radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTDRadio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program. Comply with unit Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program IAW AFISolid and Hazardous Waste Compliance. Designate an unit environmental coordinator (UEC). Ensure strict adherence to technical data and all other written management procedures. Enforce sound maintenance and supply discipline. Review Status Of Training (SOT) programs monthly. Ensure upgrade training and maintenance qualification programs emphasize quality and are not primarily focused on meeting minimum upgrade time frames. Monitor all personnel working outside of their primary AFSC to ensure that it does not hamper mission accomplishment. Establish a squadron vehicle management program IAW AFI Administer the squadron safety program IAW AFI and Chapter 2 of this instruction. Ensure personnel are trained and resources are available for CDDAR Program. Manage unit flying crew chief (FCC) program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensure facilities comply with AF industrial environmental standards IAW AFI Ensure intrusion detection systems (IDS) are installed in permanent facilities when required to store munitions IAW DoD M, Physical Security of Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives. When IDS is not available, protect munitions as outlined NetDrive 3.6.571 Crack Archives AFIThe AF Physical Security Program.

AFI 26 JULY

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Appoint custodians to manage the Custodian Authorization and Custody Receipt Listing (CA/ CRL). Support USAF awards program IAW AFI USAF Logistics Awards Program. Recommend personnel for QA duty positions to MXG/CC. Designate Flight Chiefs. Ensure the UMD is consistent with the organizational structure in AFI Maintenance Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. The MOO/MX SUPT is also referred to as Maintenance Operations. As applicable, Maintenance Operations advises the SQ/CC on technical matters, leads a missionfocused maintenance effort, and manages resources necessary to accomplish the mission. They provide necessary administration to manage assigned responsibilities, control maintenance through Production Superintendents, flight chiefs, section, and shop chiefs, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. The MX SUPT is responsible to the MOO. Maintenance Operations will: Ensure manning is distributed between shifts to safely and efficiently accomplish the mission. Ensure there are adequate levels of supervision on all shifts. Implement GP's radiation protection program IAW AFOSHSTDRadio Frequency, Radiation (RFR) Safety Program. Ensure compliance with AFPDthe AFI XX series and AF XX series environmental directives and applicable environmental protection/compliance guidance. Also reference related and series AFOSHSTD. Enforces strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Enforce maintenance and supply discipline. Ensure maintenance is performed by personnel who are trained, qualified, and certified, unless under the direct supervision of a trainer or certifier. Ensure compliance with AFI series safety directives, appropriate AFOSHSTD, and applicable industrial safety publications. Ensure MIS and aircraft forms are documented IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Ensure timely and accurate engine data is provided to the EM element for all applicable engines. Enforce procedures to prevent FOD and dropped objects IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Monitor and recommend updates to local IPI requirements; forward IPI recommendations to QA IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure compliance with LMR Program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Enforce Lead Command standards on location of G-files (hard copy or electronic TO-library carried on aircraft) as applicable.

38

AFI 26 JULY Coordinate with other squadrons to develop and execute a rotation plan for all applicable AFSCs to balance grade, skill level and experience of personnel between AMU/MXS as required. The WWM will perform this function for AFSC 2W1X1 (N/A to ARC). Manage the Special Certification Roster (SCR). (MXG/CC for the ARC) Ensure a sufficient number of personnel are qualified to perform mission critical tasks listed on the SCR Table in Chapter 14 of this instruction. Reviews and approves individuals for addition to the SCR. Ensure aircraft/SE is available to support unit training objectives. Enforces procedures for identifying, recording, and clearing repeat, recurring, and CND discrepancies. Establish a method to distribute maintenance cross-talk/crosstell messages, QA newsletters, policy announcements, technical notifications, and other important maintenance information for which no formal notification process exists. Review and evaluate management and production effectiveness. Analyze personnel and equipment performance history using QA reports. Initiate management actions to meet new workloads or correct reported/perceived deficiencies. Ensure an annual maintenance plan is developed and reconciled with the flying schedule and flying requirements to ensure maintenance can support the annual flying/test program. Participate in the maintenance planning cycle, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Attend the MXG daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. Ensure a squadron SERENE BYTE or PACER WARE response capability exists IAW AFIElectronic Warfare Integrated Reprogramming. Ensure a squadron Corrosion Control Program is implemented and managed IAW TOTOLead Command instructions, and MDS-specific TOs, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Ensure a Refurbishment Program is implemented and managed (as applicable). Ensure OAP is monitored and administered IAW AFI Ensure squadron CDDAR Program responsibilities are established. Ensure squadron ASIP responsibilities Lord Of The Rings - The Return Of The King crack serial keygen accomplished IAW the MXG ASIP OI. Enforce Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen procedures. Review and support the monthly (quarterly for ANG) Weapons Load Training (WLT) schedule. Ensure all personnel performing duties associated with an applicable SEI are entered into the personnel data subsystem within 30 days of assignment; confirm SEI-qualified individuals are matched against proper SEI positions on the Unit Personnel Management Roster (UPMR). (Not applicable to the ARC). Distribute projected gain/loss lists to all work centers and establishes suspenses for updates. Ensures approved personnel actions have been received for all updates then submits consolidated updates to programs.

AFI 26 JULY

39

Ensure deferred maintenance, Pilot Reported Discrepancy (PRD), and back-ordered parts are properly managed. Review on-line supply products to monitor supply discipline. Ensures Special Purpose Recoverables Authorized Maintenance (SPRAM) accounts are established IAW AFIChapter 11 of this instruction, and AFMAN Ensure reporting of materiel deficiencies IAW TO D, USAF Deficiency Reporting, Investigating, and Resolution. Monitor requirements for composite tool kits (CTK), special tools, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and SE and take necessary action to ensure availability, as required IAW Chapter 10 of this instruction. Coordinates with WWM on all issues affecting AFSC 2W1X1 personnel to include: work center/organizational manpower authorization change requests (ACR), AFSC changes, re-training, special duty requests, special assignment actions (SWAP, Palace Chase, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, etc), overseas DEROS extensions/IPCOT requests and physical profile changes. Flight Commander/Flight Chief or AMU Officer (OIC)/Superintendent: These positions are rated on IAW and will: in Charge

Manage shift manpower distribution and make necessary adjustments. Equitably distribute all levels of supervision based on manning and workload to supervise all duty periods. Identify imbalances between authorizations and the number of personnel assigned, or between authorized and assigned skill levels or grades to SQ/CC. Manage additional duties, leaves, ancillary training, and assign personnel to balance workload and minimize negative impacts on the work force. Execute the squadron's Mishap Prevention Program for the Flight/work center IAW AFI and Chapter 2 of this instruction. Albino 3 Free Download Crack VST Plugins all personnel obtain the required safety training, document on AF IMT 55 IAW AFIand applicable AFOSHSTDs. Ensure safety information is available and personnel in hazardous areas are briefed about the dangers. Identify requirements to BE, ensuring facilities meet AF industrial environmental standards IAW AFI Monitor and ensure environmental health physicals and respirator training, initial and recurring requirements, are accomplished when required for assigned personnel IAW applicable series AFOSHSTDs and TOs. Enforce lock-out/tag-out procedures IAW Chapter 2 of this instruction and AFOSHSTD Ensure organizational compliance IAW the installation ESOHMS/EMS program. Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Advocate use of the TO improvement program, and ensure work center TO files are maintained IAW TO Ensure requirements in TO 11A are complied with when certifying items associated with explosives such as: MERS, TERS, pylons, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, launchers, rafts, bomb racks, ejection seats, fire suppression bottles, Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE) and gun systems and components. Ensure they are explosive free prior to being turned-in to LRS or the Defense Reutilization Marketing Office (DRMO).

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AFI 26 JULY Ensure aircraft and equipment forms and MIS documentation are completed, accurate and accomplished for each shift. Ensure aircraft/equipment status is accurately reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS. Ensure MIS and aircraft forms are documented IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Monitor cannibalization actions. Review deferred maintenance weekly for accuracy and determine if appropriate and timely actions are being taken. Use MIS screens/Automated Records Check and coordinate with the Production Superintendent for accomplishment. Review the aircraft automated records check after it has been validated by the section NCOIC IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction. Ensure operator inspections and user servicing requirements are accomplished on all assigned support equipment IAW TO Ensure sections (and elements) maintain records of Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, lubrication, and maintenance of industrial equipment IAW TO on AFTO IMTIndustrial/Support Equipment Record, or AF IMTInspection Document. Comply with TO 33KCD-1, TMDE Calibration Interval Technical Order and Work Unit Code Reference Guide, applicable calibration measurement summaries (CMS), and TOin the use, care, handling, transportation and calibration of TMDE owned by the flight. Evaluate maintenance quality, personnel qualifications, and training of assigned personnel. Review/update flight IPI requirements listing every two years and route through MX MOO/ MX SUPT. Ensure only designated personnel identified in the MIS verify MICAPs/Urgency of Need (UND) 1A and JA requirements. Select personnel to perform Special Certification tasks IAW Chapter 14, Table of this instruction and forward names to MX Operations Officer/MX SUPT for approval. Ensure training requirements are executed to support established training plan and individual AFSC Career Field Education and Training Plans (CFETP) IAW AFI Ensure CUT requirements are identified as required by the unit mission IAW Chapter 1 of this instruction and AFI Ensure CUT does not interfere with upgrade/qualification training. Ensure procedures are followed to identify, record, and clear repeat, recurring, and CND discrepancies. Review Maintenance Management Analysis (MMA), QA, and other management reports to determine Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen management actions to meet new workloads, target deficiencies, and identify and correct root causes. Review current and updated publications and inform personnel of any significant changes.

AFI 26 JULY

41

Provide inputs to maintenance and flying schedules, and execute scheduled maintenance plans. Establish flight/AMU-specific emergency action procedures to respond to disaster control and severe weather and forward to MOC. Review unit responsibilities FrostWire 6.8.10 Build 295 Crack Plus Serial Key Full Latest 2021 to aircraft/SE movement and personnel evacuation IAW AFIAF Emergency Management (EM) Program Planning and Operations; AFIResponding to Severe Weather Events; and Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan Actively solicit inputs and promotes the Product Improvement Program IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Ensure the Corrosion Control Program is properly managed IAW TOTOLead Command instructions, and MDS-specific TOs. Ensure personnel are familiar with the unit CDDAR Program and understand local procedures designed to protect personnel and prevent further damage to aircraft, equipment, and other resources, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Manage the AMU/flights participation in the FOD and DOP program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Oversee the units FCC Program. Establish and enforce a flight Precious Metals Recovery Program, as applicable, IAW AFMAN and TO Conservation and Segregation of Critical Alloys and Precious Metal Bearing Parts and Scrap. Assign section supervisors. Ensure proper asset management by reviewing MIS data records, the D23, and other pertinent products to minimize shortfalls. When applicable, ensure warranty items are loaded in MIS according to applicable directives. Ensure deficiency reports (DR) are accomplished IAW TO D Ensure repairable/non-repairable parts are promptly processed through repair channels within the required time frame IAW this publication, paragraph Approve requirements for bench stocks and provide guidance as to the type, location and use by one or more sections. Spot check bench stocks to evaluate adequacy, supply discipline, and housekeeping. Consolidate Flight inputs for items received in supply requiring functional check, operational programming or calibration. Submit the listing to the LRS Materiel Management flight. Coordinate all AGE requirements through the AGE Flight Chief to ensure support capability and eliminate unnecessary duplication of equipment. Ensure tool/equipment and bench stock storage areas are managed IAW Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of this instruction. Review all AFTO Forms 22 for accuracy and applicability prior to submission to QA.

42

AFI 26 JULY Identifies individuals to the MOO/Sq Supt for addition to the SCR IAW Chapter Ensure nuclear weapons-related materiel (NWRM) is controlled IAW AFI

Section NCOIC/Chief. The section NCOIC is responsible to the Flight/CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief for the leadership, supervision, and training of assigned personnel. The section NCOIC is a first-line manager and supervisor of maintenance production and is the technical authority and advisor in that area. When sections are subdivided, element leaders perform the appropriate functional responsibilities. The section NCOIC will: Establish a work center safety program IAW AFOSHSTDs, AFIand other applicable safety directives, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Monitor, track, and ensure occupational safety, fire prevention, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, occupational and environmental health requirements, are accomplished for assigned personnel. Ensure AF IMT 55 is documented IAW AFI Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures. Advocate use of the TO improvement program, and ensure work center TO files are maintained according to TO Establishes procedures and ensures configuration control of all applicable software are both current (latest date) and correct for the application and use for which it is intended. Ensure technicians check Automated Computer Program Identification Number System (ACPINS) for software updates for assigned systems. A software sub-account will be established, allowing the shop/section access to the ACPINS. Software configuration control will be maintained IAW TOManual USAF Automated Computer Program Identification Number System (ACPINS) and TOUsers Manual USAF Computer Program Identification Numbering (CPINS) System. NOTE: AFSOC/AETC CV units will use Authorized Software Configuration Matrix (ASCM) for configuration control instead of ACPINS for aircraft software configuration. Ensure housekeeping, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, safety, security and environmental control standards are followed. Perform production and supervisory inspections. Ensure aircraft forms, equipment forms and MIS documentation are complete, accurate, and accomplished for each shift. Ensure aircraft/SE status is correctly reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS IAW paragraph of this instruction and TO Review and correct, as needed, the work center's events in the MIS on a daily basis to monitor scheduled and deferred events. Close, reschedule, or defer Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen events beyond their scheduled start date and time. (e.g., IMDS-CDB screen #/ and G screen #/A/) Review transcribed AFTO series IMTs/forms, work center MIS data entries for the previous day, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and all preceding non-duty days, for job accuracy and completeness (IMDS-CDB Screen Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen and G Screen #).

AFI 26 JULY

43

Ensure all personnel assigned to nuclear-equipped units annotate the work center event (WCE) with the statement "Two-Person Concept Applies" IAW AFI and applicable series AFIs. Validate aircraft automated records checks and submit to Flight CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief for review IAW Chapter 7 of this instruction for records check procedures. (DELETED) Evaluate maintenance quality, personnel qualifications, and training of assigned personnel. Review and recommend changes for maintenance tasks requiring IPIs. Forward the IPI listing to Flight CC/Chief or AMU OIC/Chief. Ensure TMDE maintenance and calibration requirements are accomplished. Develop and manage workcenter training program. Evaluate personnel, track training requirements and ensure training documentation is accurate. Develop CUT requirements as required by the unit mission IAW Chapter 1 of this instruction and AFI Ensure CUT does not interfere with upgrade/qualification training. Review, evaluate, and take corrective action based on QA and other inspection reports. Ensure personnel follow procedures for identifying, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, recording and clearing repeat/recur and CND discrepancies. Review current and updated publications and inform personnel of any significant changes. Ensures work center publications are current and required publications are available to meet work center needs. Ensure section personnel coordinate all flightline maintenance with the flightline expediter. Ensure personnel and equipment are identified and prepared to deploy for taskings IAW AFIAFIand AFMAN Actively solicit inputs and promote the PIP IAW Chapter 8 of this instruction. Conduct and report self-inspections IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction and local directives. Manage CTK and Supply Programs (e.g., bench stocks, and operating stocks) IAW Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of this instruction. Ensure the Bench Stock Review Listing (M04) is reviewed monthly and all recommendations are adjudicated to most efficiently meet mission needs. Manage the sections Repair Cycle Program. Review the D23 weekly and other pertinent supply products to ensure proper supply discipline. Establish procedures to control, store, and manage alternate mission equipment (AME); maintenance, safety, and protective equipment (MSPE); and Dash equipment according to AFI

44

AFI 26 JULY Identify items requiring calibration or operational check before installation. Provide a list of these items to the Flight Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen or AMU OIC/Chief. Recommends individuals for addition to the SCR. Participate in and enforce the Bad Actor Program IAW TO D Maintain HAZMAT and ESOH items IAW AFI XX-series instructions, and AFPD Ensure HAZMATs are MIL-Spec approved materials. QP/Qualified Product Database (QPD) for changes. Monitor the

The QPL/QPD identifies qualified products (i.e., cleaners, paints, etc.) within a particular Mil-Spec and are the only approved materials for use on AF aircraft, subsystems, and support equipment for Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen specification. Products not listed on the QPL and or QPD are unauthorized and will not be used, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Additional QPL or QPDs can be located at the Defense and Federal specifications and standards available in the official DoD repository web site: applemacs.us If a QPL/QPD for the specification does not exist choice of product used will be determined locally. For units with contracted operations, notify the Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO) of changes to the QPL/QPD. The ACO will notify contractors of changes to the QPL/QPD. QAEs will ensure only approved materials are used. Units assigned Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Certified Equipment (NCE) (applies to both nuclear and non-nuclear tasked units) develop a quick reference list of all assigned NCE. IAW AFINuclear Certification Program, paragraphsurvey and document legibility of identification information (i.e., data plate, information plate, appropriate markings, etc.) and that the information matches the Master Nuclear Certification List (MNCL) applemacs.us Ensure Dull Sword reports are submitted for nuclear deficiencies IAW AFMANAFI and local procedures. Ensure Section is organized with tools, equipment and material as close to the Point of Maintenance (POMx) as possible, as approved by the Flight CC/Chief, without jeopardizing accountability and control procedures. Production Superintendent (Pro Super). The production superintendent directs the overall maintenance effort of their unit. The pro super will be a SNCO or civilian equivalent. The pro super will: Enforce strict adherence to technical data and management procedures IAW TO Ensure aircraft and equipment forms and MIS documentation are completed, accurate and accomplished. Ensure aircraft status is accurately reflected in both the maintenance forms and the MIS.

AFI 26 JULY

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Sign ERs IAW TO when authorized by the MXG/CC IAW Chapter 14, Table of this instruction. Participate in developing and executing the monthly and weekly flying and maintenance schedules/plans. Manage the maintenance production effort by assigning priorities to meet the flying and maintenance schedules. Attend the MXG daily maintenance production/scheduling meeting. Fully understand actions required by the squadron under OPLAN or contingency plans. Develop, ensure currency of, and direct Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen aircraft generation sequence. Fully understand and be prepared to implement specific disaster control duties and squadron responsibilities pertaining to aircraft/SE movement and personnel evacuation IAW AFIAFMANAFIand unit directives. Maintain a current copy of the on-base disaster map with cordon overlay and appropriate functional checklists outlining duties during disaster exercises. Determine/track/report aircraft status, including ETIC, IAW AFI and Lead Command/local directives. Authorize CANN actions when authorized by the MXG/CC. Monitor unit CDDAR Program activities and local procedures designed to protect personnel and prevent further damage to aircraft, equipment, and other resources. Inform MOC of the maintenance effort and coordinate with MOC, Flightline Expediter, and other squadrons for support. Provide aircraft status updates as required. Verify MICAP conditions exist. Ensure flightline munitions are handled, accounted for, and expended IAW AFI and local instructions.

46

AFI 26 JULY

Chapter 4 AIRCRAFT/HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE SQUADRON (AMXS/HMXS) General. AMXS/HMXS services, inspects, maintains, launches, assigned/transient aircraft (if applicable). Organize IAW AFI and recovers

MX Operations Officer (MOO)/Maintenance Superintendent (MX SUPT) Responsibilities. In addition to common responsibilities outlined in Chapter 3 of this instruction, the MOO/MX SUPT: Ensure standardized procedures and organizations among AMUs. Manage the IFF Mode-IV and RWR program IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction. Ensures sufficient personnel, equipment, and facilities are assigned, maintained, and provided to properly perform EOR inspections IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Provide input for development of an annual maintenance plan to MX PS&D Establish hot brake response procedures in coordination with base support agencies. (Fire dept, crash recovery). Monitors the squadron DCC and FCC programs. Ensure personnel use and understand the purpose of the AF IMTGeneration Maintenance Plan, and the AF IMTGeneration Sequence Action Schedule. Ensure an explosive safety and chaff/flare academics and loading program for airlift, helicopter, and tanker units is established. Publish procedures covering the storage, control, and handling of starter cartridges (if applicable). Provide input to MMA for the monthly metrics report to Lead Command. Oversee and coordinate daily hot pit operations. (DELETED) (DELETED) AMU. May include the following sections: Aircraft, Specialist, Weapons, Debrief, Supply, and Support. AMU OIC/SUPERINTENDENT Responsibilities. Allocates personnel and resources to the production effort. In addition to the common responsibilities in Chapter 3 of this instruction, the AMU OIC/Chief will: Review PRDs daily and ensure proper maintenance actions are taken. Review all aborts and ensure proper maintenance actions are taken. Monitor aircraft phase/isochronal/periodic/Home Station Check flow. Ensure sufficient number of personnel are engine run Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen IAW Chapter 14 of this instruction.

AFI 26 JULY Chair a daily AMU maintenance Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen meeting.

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Manual for Style 1 - AF Logistics Management Agency

ManualforStyle 1


Air Force Journal of Logistics

Ward Street

Gunter Annex, Mawell AFB AL

First Edition July


4

Contents

Chapter 1 Manuscript Submission 7

Chapter 2 Word Usage 9

Chapter 3 Punctuation 19

Chapter 4 Numbers 27

Chapter 5 Tables and Figures 31

Chapter 6 Formulas and Symbols 33

Chapter 7 Endnotes and References 37

Chapter 8 Capitalization 39

Chapter 9 Abbreviations and Acronyms 79

Chapter 10 Compounding 95

Index

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Preface

Although our language is fluid, it has certain disciplines that constitute an essential part of that

language. These disciplines—spelling, grammar, and punctuation—are an essential part of our

language, allowing exactness in communication. The imprecise use of words and misplaced

punctuation can alter the meaning of a sentence. While this style guide may not convert

everyone to the AFJL style, it will serve as a base for establishing clarity and consistency, both

of which are key to effective communication.

We have included ten sections to assist both the reader and the contributor. The first section

is on punctuation, which allows a thought to be stated more clearly and tells the reader how to

read a sentence. Punctuation performs the same function as inflection, pauses, and emphasis

do in speaking.

The second section, capitalization, should assist in determining whether to capitalize a word or

not. Words may be capitalized according to use; however, a word incorrectly capitalized can

cause inconsistencies within a publication and confuse the reader. Likewise, when too many

words are capitalized, they lose their importance and no Windows Activators Archives s attract attention. Therefore, we

have chosen specific capitalization requirements for words frequently used in AFJL publications.

A section on compounding is included since Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen seem to be to be three stages in the development

of compounds. At first the components are written separately. Next they are united by

a hyphen, seemingly preparatory for the next stage. When the significance and accent of these

compounds become common, they lose the hyphen and one word is born. We Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen included

examples based on the rules for compounding found in this section.

The section on the use of numerals is based on the principle that numbers in figures are easier

to understand than in words. However, some of the rules are based simply on typographic

appearance.

A section on abbreviations and acronyms is included since they can save space and avoid

distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases. Because acronyms come and go,

they must be spelled out the first time Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the benefit of future readers.

The English language has many words that sound alike and are frequently confused, along

with those that just are incorrectly used. Section 8 includes those that can be hazardous to

communication if incorrectly used.

We have included sections on references, tables, and submitting a manuscript that contain

AFJL idiosyncrasies.

We hope this style guide will assist in establishing consistency without detracting Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the

personal styles of the writer.

5


6

Air Force Journal of Logistics








1

Manuscript Submission

ManualforStyle

Tables, figures, and photographs should be submitted with the

manuscript but not inserted into it. They should be properly titled

and numbered consecutively, from the beginning of the manuscript

to the end.

The place for each illustration should be indicated in the manuscript.

Figures and photographs downloaded from the Internet do not

reproduce satisfactorily.

All Backuptrans 3.2.158 Crack Free License Key [Username & Password] sent to the Journal should be verified and final.

When composing a manuscript, write in a concise, simple, and

direct manner.

Acronyms must be spelled out the first time.

7


8

Air Force Journal of Logistics


a/an

about

above

absolutes

advance

affect/effect

agree to/

agree with

all of

among/

between

amount

ManualforStyle

2

Word Usage

When the word following an article begins with a consonant sound,

a Tag: keygen for mixcraft 9 used; when it begins with a vowel sound, an is used. However,

when a word begins with an aspirated h, correct usage is a—a

history, a hill. Words beginning with vowels that have a consonant

sound, call for an a—a unique.

He will arrive at about 9 o’clock is not correct. Use at or about but

not both.

Should not be used in the sense of more than.

Some words are not subject to comparison by the use of more,

most, or very; for example, eternal or unique.

Used literally to designate a forward position in place or time

(advance party or advance payment. Advanced is used figuratively

to indicate a position beyond the norm (an advanced program).

Advanced planning is redundant; all planning is done in advance.

Has an influence; effect brings a result. Affect can mean to pretend

or feign something. Effect is the only one of these words in common

use as a noun; affect is used as a noun only in psychology.

You agree to a plan and agree with a person.

All is usually sufficient.

Among is used in referring to groups of three or more, and between

is used in referring to two persons or things.

A sum total; you have an amount of money and a number of errors.

9


Chapter 2

10

angry at/

angry with

anticipate

anyone/

anybody

anxious

anyplace

apparently

appear

approximately

around

as

as you know

assure/

ensure

basis

be

because/for/

since/as

One is angry at a situation but angry with a person.

To foresee; don’t use it when you mean expect.

Often mistakenly used with plural pronouns in the predicate.

“Anyone who attempts to cross that river is out of their mind” is

incorrect. His or her should be used in place of their, or the sentence

should be rewritten, “People who attempt to cross that river are out

of their minds.”

Used only when anxiety exists. We are eager to write good letters,

not anxious.

Not good usage; say anywhere.

Should be avoided.

Usually suggests that which is visible. A woman appears to be

young, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, but she seems to be intelligent.

Overworked; say about.

About $10; around is incorrect.

Use as before a phrase. Octoplus/Octopus Shell v1.1.9 Archives not use like, which is used before nouns

or pronouns.

If they know, why tell them?

Assure people; ensure things.

Instead of saying as a basis for, simply say for.

Be sure to, not be sure and.

Because is used as a conjunction introducing a subordinate clause

stating the reason for the action reported in the main or independent

clause. “He claimed victory because the people were fleeing the

towns.” For, since, or as may be used in similar constructions.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


etween

biannual

Bible//bible

bimonthly

can

claim

compare to/

compare

with

continuously/

continually

couple

degreed

demonstrate

desire

desert/

dessert

ManualforStyle

Word Usage

Between 15 and Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen people not between 15 to 20 people.

Between is usually used with two objects; among with more than

two.

Between you and me, not between you and I.

Biannual and semiannual mean twice a year. Biennial means every 2

years.

Bible is preferred when the reference is to the Bible of the Christian

faith, but bible is preferred when referring to Etime keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key standard or highly

respected book.

Bimonthly means every 2 months. Semimonthly is used to express

twice monthly.

Denotes ability; may denotes permission.

Do not use claim as an intransitive verb. Claim ownership but don’t

claim to be efficient.

These are sometimes interchangeable, but when you are stressing

similarities between the items compared, the most common word is

to: “She compared his home-made wine to toxic waste.” If you are

examining both similarities and differences, use with: “The teacher

compared Steve’s exam with Robert’s to see whether they had

cheated.”

Continuously means without interruption; continually means at

frequent intervals.

When used collectively to refer to a man and woman, couple is

usually followed by a plural verb.

Should be rewritten to “He has a degree.”

Shows is a good plain word to substitute for this.

Wish or want is usually better.

Desert means something abandoned or deserted, while dessert

means the last course.

11


Chapter 2

12

die of

differ

different

from

done

due to

during

each other/

one another

eager

either

e.g.

eminent/

imminent

enact

end result

ensure/

assure

equal

essential

event

ever so

often/every

so often

“He died of pneumonia” not “He died from pneumonia.”

Differ with a person; differ from something; differ on an issue.

Not different than.

Done is not interchangeable with finish.

Try “because of” unless it can be replaced with attributed to.

Suggests throughout. In (not during) the meeting, he brought up

the question of pay raises.

Each other is restricted to situations involving two people, while

one another applies to more than two persons.

Means desirous; do not confuse with anxious.

Either, like neither, is used in speaking of two persons and requires

a Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen verb.

For example.

Eminent means outstanding; imminent Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen on the verge of

happening.

To make into law; enact into law is redundant.

End should be deleted.

You ensure things; assure people.

More equitable, not more equal.

An absolute; something is either essential or it is not.

Should not be used for incident, affair, or happening, unless the

occurrence is particularly noteworthy.

Means frequently and repeatedly, every so often means once in a

while.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


everyone/

everybody

fall off of

farther/

further

few/fewer

following

foot/feet

former

gerund

gift

hanged

I

i.e.

I don’t think

illusion

imminent/

eminent

imply/infer

important/

importantly

ManualforStyle

Use a singular verb and a singular pronoun.

Delete of.

Word Usage

Farther indicates distance; further denotes quality or degree. You

go farther away; you hear nothing further.

Use with numbers; less is for quantities or amounts. Write fewer

pages and say less.

He retired after (not following) an outstanding career.

A 6-foot rug, but a man is 6 feet tall.

Used to refer to the first of two things; use first to refer to the first

of more than two things.

The name given a verb form ending in ing when it is used as a noun

and can be used in any way a noun is used—as a subject of a verb,

object of a verb, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, object of a preposition, or a predicate nominative.

Do not say free gift.

A man is hanged; a picture is hung.

Use I only as the subject of a sentence or after is and was.

That is.

How can you express an opinion if you don’t think?

Imaginary; delusion means deceit.

On the verge of happening; eminent means outstanding.

To suggest; infer means to draw a conclusion.

More important, the trucks will arrive before the tanks.

13


Chapter 2

14

incidentally Not incidently.

individual

infinitive

join

last/latest

less

lie/lay

possess

least

less/fewer

like

linking verbs

locate

lots of

mad

material/

materiel

Should not be used indiscriminately for person. Person may be

applied to anyone as a general term; an individual is a particular

being.

An infinitive is split when other words, usually adverbs, are inserted

between the to and the verb; do so cautiously.

Join together is redundant.

Are not interchangeable. Last means final; latest, most recent. The

last page of a book but the latest book on the market.

An adjective or an adverb meaning not so much. Use fewer when

you refer to something that can be counted.

Lie is to be in a lying position; lay means to put something down.

Why not have?

Used when more than two persons or things have Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen mentioned.

Use less when only two persons or things have been mentioned.

He is the less (not least) forceful of the two speakers.

Less is used for quantities that can be measured, and fewer is used

for things that can be counted.

Never use like to introduce a subject and its verb. He wrote as (not

like) he spoke.

Serve to link a subject and its predicate modifier or noun. Usually a

linking verb is followed by an adjective.

You find (not locate) a file.

Use many.

Crazy or frenzied; do not use it when you mean angry.

Material is a very general term used for any matter or substance

from which something is made. Materiel refers to apparatus or

equipment, especially military supplies.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


me

minimal/

minimum

most

mutual/

common

needless to

say

nominal

none

nothing

not only. . .

but also

notorious/

notable

number

number, the/

a

off of

older/elder

on

ManualforStyle

Do not substitute I as the object of a preposition.

Word Usage

Minimal is used as a noun in the field of mathematics; it is an

adjective in all other instances. Minimum may be an adjective or a

noun.

Do not substitute for almost. Most all should be almost all.

Mutual is used when only two persons are involved; common is

something shared by two or more persons.

If it is needless, why say it?

A nominal price is so low as to bear no relation to the real cost or

value.

Can take a singular or plural verb.

Requires a singular verb in all cases.

In sentences with only one main verb, not only should immediately

precede the word or phrase it modifies. Where there are two main

verbs in one sentence, not only falls in front of the first verb and

but also in front of the second verb.

Notorious 1 Click Wallpaper 1.2 crack serial keygen a connotation of unsavoriness; notable has a

connotation of achievement.

Use number to refer to items that can be counted; use amount to

refer to a general quantity.

When number is preceded by the, a singular verb is used; if number

is preceded by a, a plural verb is used.

Delete of.

Elder applies only to persons; older can apply to a person or a

thing.

Superfluous in stating days and date. He arrived Tuesday, not on

Tuesday.

15


Chapter 2

16

oral/verbal Oral refers solely to words spoken; verbal may refer to words spoken

or written.

inside of/

outside of

over

partake

participate

past

persons/

people

plus/also

plus/and

possible/

probable

practicable/

practical

predominantly/

predominately

preposition

at the end of

a sentence

preventive

previous to/

prior to

Whenever outside or inside is used as a preposition, the of is

unnecessary. Outside should not be used in place of except for.

Should be avoided when you mean more than in referring to a

number.

Partake of means to have a meal; partake in means to participate.

Overused; say take part in.

Say last year if you mean the preceding year.

Persons is usually used when speaking of a number of people who

can be counted, and people is used when speaking of a large or

uncounted number of individuals.

Plus cannot be used as a substitute for also as the first word of a

sentence.

When used to introduce a prepositional phrase, plus does not have

the weight of and. “His education, plus his experience, makes him

eligible for the promotion.” His education and his experience make

him eligible for the promotion.”

Possible means capable; probable means likelihood.

Anything cable of being done is practicable; practical depends on

other factors.

Predominantly is an adjective; predominately is an adverb.

It is best not to end a sentence with a preposition.

Better than the irregular doublet preventative.

Why not before?

Air Force Journal of Logistics


principal/

principle

prospective/

perspective

proven

provided/

providing

pupil/

student

quarter of/

quarter to

quick/

quickly

rarely ever/

seldom ever

reason

recurrence/

reoccurrence

regard/

regards to

regardless

secure

somebody/

someone

ManualforStyle

Word Usage

The noun means head or chief as well as capital sum. The adjective

principal means highest or best in rank or importance. Principle

means, truth, belief, policy, or conviction.

Prospective is an adjective meaning anticipated. Perspective is a

noun and usually means an impersonal point of view.

Should Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen be used as the past participle of prove. Use proved.

Proven may be used as an adjective.

Neither should be used if the word if will suffice.

Used to designate a child in the elementary grades or one studying

under the supervision of a master of a particular art, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Student is used

to designate a person enrolled in a secondary school or PhpStorm 2020.3 Crack Archives or

one pursuing an independent study.

A quarter to four; a quarter of a dollar.

Both are adverbs.

Ever is applemacs.us we seldom fail, not we seldom ever fail.

A sentence beginning with “The reason” should be completed

with a noun clause introduced by that. A sentence should not

contain both reason and because. Reason why is redundant; there

is no need for the why.

Recurrence means happening repeatedly; reoccurrence means a

second happening.

Regards is used only in the sense of good wishes, as in “Give my

regards to your sister.” Use in regard to or with regard to elsewhere.

Not irregardless.

Might be better as obtain or get.

Use singular verbs and pronouns.

17


Chapter 2

18

stationery/

stationary

sums

surprise

talk to/talk

with

thankfully/

fortunately

that/which

try to

unique

unknown

utilize

wait for/

wait on

whereabouts

wish I were

yourself

Stationery is a noun meaning paper; stationary, an adjective, means

not moving.

Sums of money; numbers of people.

Indicates a relatively mild reaction to something unexpected;

astonish King pin cd key crack serial keygen being shocked.

If you talk to someone, it is a onesided affair; if you talk with a

person, the other person contributes to the conversation.

Only people can behave thankfully (expressing gratitude).

“Fortunately, the heater did not go out during the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen should be used to introduce restrictive clauses; which should

be used to introduce nonrestrictive clauses.

Not try and.

An absolute.

An unidentified man but an undisclosed destination.

To find use for something already in service or to expand productivity

by finding new uses; do not substitute utilize for use.

Wait for someone to arrive; wait on (serve) the customer.

As a noun usually takes a singular verb.

Not I wish I was.

Not interchangeable with you.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Ampersand



Apostrophe






Brackets



3

Punctuation

The ampersand takes the place of and but is used only in prescribed

forms: abbreviations of organizations and if a part of a proper name.

Use an ampersand in tables and figures.

Use ‘s for Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen possessive of nouns not ending in s.

child’s man’s children’s men’s

Use the apostrophe without an s to form the possessive of nouns

ending in s, x, and z.

Use ‘s to form the possessive of indefinite pronouns.

Anybody’s everyone’s neither’s

Use ‘s with only the last noun for joint possession in a pair or

series.

The pilot and the maintainer’s plan (the two jointly have one

plan).

The pilot’s and the maintainer’s plans (both have plans).

Do not use ‘s to form the plural of numerals, letters, and words

being named.

Use brackets to replace parentheses within parentheses ([ ]).

Use brackets in direct quotes to interpolate material from another

source.

ManualforStyle 19


Chapter 3

Colon

20





Comma





Use a colon before quotations, statements, and series that are

introduced formally.

Logistically, you have hardening of the arteries: no agility, no

flexibility, and no options.

Under his vision, there are two overarching goals: “to shorten

acquisition cycle time and to gain credibility within and outside

the acquisition community.”

Use a colon between two independent clauses when the second

explains the first.

Use a colon between figures used to indicate hours and minutes

and between the city and publisher in bibliographical entries.

pm Boston: Houghton Mifflin,

Do not use a colon after a linking verb or a preposition

Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a

coordinating conjunction.

The logistics group worked tirelessly, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and the task was eventually

accomplished.

Use a comma between words, phrases, or clauses in a series to

include the final connector.

Operations like those in Panama, Grenada, Bosnia, and

Afghanistan are examples of agile combat.

Use a comma between coordinate adjectives but not between

cumulative adjectives. Coordinate adjectives modify the noun

independently (coordinative adjectives are easily reversible).

Cumulative adjectives modify the whole cluster of subsequent

adjectives and the noun.

Use a comma after introductory phrases or clauses.

To understand what logistics officers can provide to the

warfighting commander, a detailed look should be made of the

specific career fields.

Air Force Journal of Logistics








ManualforStyle

Punctuation

If one studies history, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, it becomes obvious lessons concerning

logistics have been learned.

Use commas to set off nonrestrictive appositives, phrases, and

clauses. If it is nonrestrictive (cannot be omitted without altering

the mean of the main clause), it should not be set off with commas.

Further good news is that logisticians already have been

preaching and practicing a basic framework for years, which can

enable success, even in this changed acquisition environment.

Use commas with sentence modifiers, conjunctive adverbs, and

sentence elements out of normal word order. Modifiers like on the

other hand, for example, in fact, in the first place, I believe, in his

opinion, unfortunately, and certainly are set off with commas.

Commas are not used when however is an adverb meaning no

matter how.

Use commas with degrees and titles and with elements in places

and addresses.

Marvin R. Sambur, PhD, wants to usher in a new emphasis on

Reality-Based Acquisition.

Edward Aldridge, Jr, said that the best quality weapon system for

warfighting will have to come from an industry that is competitive

and innovative.

Similar efforts are underway at Hill AFB, Utah.

Write the editor of the Dispatch, LeMay Plaza, Maxwell AFB,

Alabama.

Use commas for contrast or emphasis and with short interrogative

elements.

The pilot used the military airport, not the municipal one.

The landing was smooth, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, wasn’t it?

Use commas with mild interjections and with words like yes and no.

Well, we didn’t think he could accomplish the task.

Yes, he was able to fulfill the mission.

Set off an absolute phrase with commas. It modifies the whole

sentence, not a single element within the sentence.

21


Chapter 3

Dash


Ellipsis

Exclamation

Point

Italics

22









Our mission completed, we returned to our home base.

Use an em dash to introduce summaries and to indicate

interruptions, parenthetical remarks, and special emphasis.

Bug sprays, citronella lamps, and bug bracelets—all were

ineffective that summer.

Three people emerged from the smoke—a fourth had

disappeared—and ran for cover.

Use an en dash in listing dates: –

Use ellipsis to indicate omission in quotations or text.

When an ellipsis is used at the end of a sentence, add a fourth

point as a period or use other terminal punctuation.

Do not use an ellipsis in place of commas or dashes to indicate

pauses, emphasis, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, or apposition.

An exclamation point is used for an emphatic comment.

Be careful!

Close the door!

Do not use other terminal punctuation after an exclamation point.

Italicize titles of books (except for the Bible and Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen divisions),

periodicals, motion pictures, paintings, sculpture, musical

compositions, and plays.

Italicize the names of ships and trains.

Italicize foreign words used in an English context, except words

that have become part of the English language. Words like faux

pas, amigo, and karate have become a part of the English language.

Consult the dictionary.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Parentheses

Period








ManualforStyle

Punctuation

Use parentheses to enclose loosely related comments or

explanations or to enclose figures within a sentence that number

items in a series.

A period is used to mark the end of a declarative or imperative

sentence.

The two girls walked along the seashore.

Stay by the garden.

Use a period after numerals or letters used to enumerate items in a

vertical list.

1. F a. Operation Desert Storm

2. C-5 b. Operation Enduring Freedom

Omit periods after items in a vertical list unless one or more of the

items are complete sentences:

Some examples of incompatibility are:

Flammables and corrosives

Acids and caustics

Reactives and ignitables

Flammables and combustibles

Omit periods at the end of a sentence included within another

sentence.

The pilots (they had taken off at dawn) were finding it difficult to

find a landing field.

The period is omitted in acronyms and after abbreviations, center,

side, and running heads but is used in run-in sideheads.

When a declarative or imperative sentence is enclosed in quotation

marks or quoted words and phrases fall at the end of a sentence,

the period is placed inside the closing quotation mark.

He said, “Today, more than 40 percent of our inventory is at least

20 years old.”

It is defined as being “quick,” “light,” and “sustainable.”

23


Chapter 3

Question Mark

Semicolon

24




Quotation Marks







The question mark is used after a direct question.

What time will the fuel arrive?

When did the troops secure the area?

Question marks may follow separate questions within an

interrogative sentence.

Do you recall the time of the accident? who was driving? when

the commander arrived?

A question mark may be used within parentheses to show that a

date or figure is historically doubtful.

It was on 7 August (?) that the airborne brigade received the

supplies.

Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations and dialogue.

Do not use quotation marks for direct quotations of five lines or

more. These quotations should be single spaced and indented.

Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a

quotation.

Use quotation marks to enclose titles of essays, articles, short

stories, poems, dissertations, episodes in television programs, and

short musical compositions.

Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks. Semicolons

and colons are placed outside closing quotation marks. A question

mark or an exclamation point is placed inside quotation marks only

when the quotation itself is a direct question or an explanation.

Otherwise, these marks are placed outside.

Use a semicolon between independent clauses not joined by

coordinating conjunctions and between coordinate elements with

internal commas.

They are beginning to see results; they should continue to see

results with continued emphasis on these techniques.

Air Force Journal of Logistics





Virgule (Slash)

ManualforStyle

Punctuation

Use a semicolon with a sentence modifier: The Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen was

invaluable; on the other hand, it was costly.

Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that are long and

complex or that have internal punctuation.

Use semicolons in a series between items that have internal

punctuation.

Use the virgule to indicate alternatives (and/or, inside/outside).

25


Chapter 3

26

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Figures





Measurement

and Time


4

Numbers

A figure is used for a single number of 11 or more, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, with the exception

of the first word of a sentence.

When two more like numbers appear in a sentence and one of them

is 11 or more, figures are used for each number.

Measurement, time, or money, always expressed in figures, do not

affect the use of other numerical expressions within the sentence.

Figures are used for serial numbers.

Units of measurement and time are expressed in figures.

Age—5 years old

Clock time—

Dates—4 May If the word from precedes the year or the

word inclusive follows it, the word to is used instead of the dash.

In dates, AD precedes the year (AD ), but BC follows the

year ( BC).

Decimals—In text a cipher should precede a decimal point if there

is no unit, but ciphers should be omitted after a decimal point

unless they indicate an exact measurement.

inch; inches, caliber, silver fine

Degrees—12 degrees, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, degrees Fahrenheit

Within tables and figures—12 o

Longitude and latitude: 77 o 04’06" E

Game scores: 1 up, 9 to 5, 2 all

ManualforStyle 27


Chapter 4

28



Ordinal Numbers





Mathematical expressions: multiplied by 4, divided by 7, a factor

of 2

Measurements—3 meters, about 5 yards, 5 by 7 inches, 6 acres,

1 gallon, 12 gauge shotgun

Money—$, 75 cents, but two nickels, four quarters

Percentage—8 percent, percent, 4 percentage points

Within tables and figures—8%, %

Proportion—1 to 5, ,

Time—8 hours 9 minutes 10 seconds, 3 minutes, 8 days, 4 fiscal

years, but four centuries, three decades, one-half hour

Unit modifiers—4-day week, 9-foot pole, $10 million airfield

Ordinal time precedes day, and day precedes place:

He will speak at noon Friday from the balcony of the hotel.

The time element usually follows the verb or verb phrase but may

precede the verb to avoid awkward construction.

President Bush said yesterday he will veto the bill. President

Bush last night called the Iraqi invasion a victory.

Military units are expressed in figures except for numbered air forces,

armies, fleets, and corps:

First Army, 1st Calvary

Seventh Air Force, 42d Air Base Wing

Seventh Fleet, 9th Naval District

XII Corps

When ordinals appear in juxtaposition and one of them is 11 or

more, figures are used.

Beginning with 11, figures are used in text matter for numbered

streets and avenues, but in tables, leaderwork, and footnotes,

figures are used at all times.

Punctuation—the comma is used in a number containing four or

more digits, except in serial numbers, common and decimal fractions,

and astronomical and military figures.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Numbers Spelled

Out









Fractions



Numerals are spelled out at the beginning of a sentence or head.

Rephrase sentence to avoid beginning with figures.

A spelled out number should not be repeated in figures.

Numbers used as part of proper names or mentioned with serious

subjects such as Executive orders and legal proclamations are

spelled out.

Three Rivers, threescore years and ten

When spelling out numbers larger than 1, use the follow form:

Three thousand and forty

Numbers less than preceding a compound modifier containing

a figure are spelled out.

Twelve 6-inch guns

Indefinite expressions are spelled out.

The seventies, in his eighties, midthirties. Nearly, about, around,

and approximately do not Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen indefinite expressions.

Large numbers are written as follows:

$10B, $9M, $6K

6 million, millions of items

Related numbers appearing at the beginning of a sentence, separated

by no more than three words, are treated alike.

Eighty or ninety people attended the airshow.

Fractions standing alone or followed by of a or of an are generally

spelled out.

Three-fourths of an inch, one-half inch, one tenth

Fractions are in a unit modifier:

½-inch pipe, ¼-mile run

Numbers

ManualforStyle 29


Chapter 4

30

Roman Numerals

A repeated letter repeats its value, a letter placed after one of greater

value adds to it, a letter placed before one of greater value subtracts

from it, a dashline over a letter denotes multiplied by 1,

Air Force Journal of Logistics









5

Tables and Figures

The object of Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen table is to present, in a concise and orderly manner,

information that cannot be presented as clearly in any other way.

Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible so that the

meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the user.

To avoid burdening tabular text, commonly Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen abbreviations

are used in tables. Metric and unit-of-measurement abbreviations

are used with figures.

The names of months when preceded by the day are abbreviated.

The words street, avenue, place, road, square, boulevard, terrace,

drive, court, and building, following name or number, are

abbreviated. For numbered streets, avenues, etc, figures are used.

In columns containing both dollars and cents, ciphers will be supplied

on right of decimal point in the absence of figures.

Where a column consists of single decimal, supply a cipher on the

right, unless the decimal is a cipher.


0




ManualforStyle 31


Chapter 5

32

Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from text

footnotes.


Superior figures are used for footnote references, beginning with 1

in each table.

Air Force Journal of Logistics


6

Formulas and Symbols




Symbols with

Figures




ManualforStyle

The increased use of signs and symbols and their importance in

technical and scientific work necessitate standardization.

Certain symbols are standardized—number symbols (the digits, 0,

1, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9); letter symbols (the letters of the alphabet, a,

b, c, d, etc); and graphic symbols (the mathematical signs +,,x ,).

The signs +,,xand, etc, are closed against accompanying

figures and symbols. When the x is used to indicate “crossed

with” or magnification, it will be separated from the accompanying

words by a space.

The equation A+B The result is 4 x 4

20, Early June x Bright (crossed with)

x 4 (magnification)

In technical publications, the degree mark is used in lieu of the

word degree following a figure denoting measurement.

Following a figure, the spelled form is preferred. The percent

symbol is used in areas where space will not allow the word percent

to be used.

In that period, the price rose 12, 15, and 19 percent.

Not, In that period the price rose 12 percent, 15 percent, and 19

percent.

Any symbol set close up to figures, such as the degree mark,

dollar mark, or cent mark, is used Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen or after each figure in a

group or series.

33


Chapter 6

Letter Symbols


Equations

34







$5 to $8 price range

5'-7' long, not ' long

3 cents to 5 cents (no spaces)

2 to 7; 2 deg.1 deg.

but

Sec. 12 (thin space)

from 15 to 25 percent

45 to 65 deg.F not 45 deg. to 65 deg. F

Letter symbols are set in italic or in roman without periods.

In mathematical equations, use italics for all letter symbols—capitals,

lowercase, small capitals, and superiors and inferiors (exponents

and subscripts); use roman for figures, including superiors and

inferiors.

If an equation or a mathematical expression needs to be divided,

break before +, - =, etc. However, the equal sign is to the left of

other beginning mathematical signs.

A short equation in text should not be broken at the end of a line.

Space out the line so that the equation will begin on the next line; or

better, center the equation on a line by itself.

An equation too long for one line is set flush left, the second half of

the Avg 1.0.134 keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key is set flush right, and the two parts are balanced as

nearly as possible.

Two or more equations in a series are aligned on the equal signs

and centered on the longest equation in the group.

Connecting words of explanation, such as hence, therefore, and

similarly, are set flush left either on the same line with the equation

or on a separate line.

Air Force Journal of Logistics




ManualforStyle

Formulas and Symbols

Parentheses, braces, brackets, integral signs, and summation signs

should be the same height as the mathematical expressions.

Inferiors precede superiors if they appear together; but if either

inferior or superior is too long, the two are aligned on the left.

35


Chapter 6

36

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Endnotes and References 7








ManualforStyle

Avoid footnotes as much as possible as they are a hindrance to

smooth reading. Place explanatory matter in parentheses in the

text.

Articles should list the name of the author, title of article and

periodical, edition, volume, chapter, and page.

Lt Col William Frederick, “Lessons Learned in the Gulf War,” Air

Force Journal of Logistics, XXI, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, No 1,

If no volume or number is listed, list the name of the author (if

available), title of article, periodical or book, organization, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and page.

Maj Samuel Huston, “Countdown to Invasion,” Inside Logistics,

Office of Air Force Journal of Logistics, Maxwell AFB, Gunter

Annex, Alabama, 14 Mar 03,

Material obtained from the Internet should be cited as follows:

“Senator Pumps Up Wartime Benefits Package,” Air Force Times

[Online] Available: applemacs.usforapplemacs.us

applemacs.us?showchan=mon, 5 May

For books, list author, title of book, city, publisher, copyright or

publication year, page.

G. C. Chamberlain, Men of War, New York: McGraw-Hill Book

Company,

For lectures, list lecturer, title and place of lecture, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and date.

Brig Gen L. C. Craven, “Logistics and the Warfighter,” lecture

Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 4 Nov


Unpublished papers should list author, title, type paper, institute,

and date.

37


Chapter 7

38



Col C. E. Roe, “Victory in Iraq,” graduate thesis, Air War College,

Maxwell AFB, Alabama, May

A second reference to a cited work is as follows:

If the work is cited just above, use Ibid.

If the work cited has a different page or there are intervening

citations, use the author’s name or, if no author, the title of the

book:

Chamberlain,

Logistics and the Warfighter,”

Interviews are cited as follows:

Author’s interview with Col R. M. O’Rourke, AETC Deputy

Commander, 16 Mar

Air Force Journal of Logistics












ManualforStyle

8

Capitalization

Use a capital letter to begin a sentence.

Capitalize first, last, and important words in titles, including the

second part of hyphenated words.

Articles, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not

capitalized unless they begin or end a title.

Capitalize titles preceding a name.

President Bush Prince Charles

Capitalize the head of a nation.

The President visited the troops in Iraq.

Titles that are common nouns that name an office are not capitalized.

Capitalize degrees and titles after a name.

Capitalize words of family relationships used as names when not

preceded by a possessive noun.

After Mother left, Father cleaned the house.

My mother and father have gone on vacation.

Capitalize proper nouns but do not capitalize common noun

substitutes.

Statue of Liberty, the statue Hoover Dam, the dam

Panama Canal, the canal Great Lakes, the lake.

Capitalize months, days of the week, and holidays.

39


Chapter 8

40









Do not capitalize seasons and number days of the month unless

they name holidays.

The sixth of May Fourth of July

Capitalize BC, AD, words designating the Deity, religious

denominations, and sacred books. Pronouns referring to the Deity

are usually capitalized.

Capitalize names of specific courses, but do not capitalize studies

other than languages that do no name specific courses.

English Chemistry

Auburn is offering night classes in English, sociology, and

chemistry.

Names and initials of persons are capitalized.

John F. Kennedy LBJ

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Academic degrees are not capitalized when the term degree is used.

associate degree, baccalaureate degree, master’s degree, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, doctor

of science degree

Associate in Applied Science in Criminal Justice, Bachelor of

Science in Aeronautical Engineering, Bachelor of Arts in

Education, Doctor of Science

Professional titles, named academic professorships, and fellowships

are capitalized if they are accompanied by a personal name.

the professor Professor James M. Smith

a professor emeritus William Warren Professor Emeritus

Terms of academic years are not capitalized.

Names of academic degrees and Busy Accounting Software 21 B3.8 Crack Patch 2022! should be capitalized when

following a personal name.

Joseph Menlo, Doctor of Law

George Long, PhD

Air Force Journal of Logistics









ManualforStyle

Honorific titles should be capitalized.

His Majesty Your Excellency His Eminence

Capitalization

Names used for fictitious persons or names used as personification

are capitalized.

John Doe Uncle Sam

Names of specific racial, tribal, religious, and other groupings of

people are capitalized.

Arab Asian

Caucasian African American

Hispanic

Terms denoting socioeconomic groups are not capitalized.

Do not capitalize a numerical designation of a period unless it is

part of a proper name.

The twenties Eighteenth Dynasty

A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to denote

time or sequence or for the purpose of reference is not capitalized

room spring

table 6 page 9

group 4 appendix C

Particles in foreign names are capitalized unless preceded by a

foreign name or title. However, individual usage should be followed.

Von Braun Werner von Braun

Cardinal da Ponte Du Pont

41


Chapter 8

42

Capitalization Examples

A-bomb

abstract B, 1, etc

Academy:

Air Force; the academy

Coast Guard; the academy

Military; the academy

National Academy of Sciences; the

Academy of Sciences; the

academy

Naval; Cubase Pro 11 Crack 2021 [Latest] Free Download academy

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accords, Helsinki

Act (Federal, State, or foreign), short or

popular title or Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen number; the act:

Appropriation

Classification

Economy

Lend-Lease Act; but lend-lease

materials, etc

Panama Canal

Pay

Public Act

Revenue

Selective Training and Service

Tariff

act, labor-management relations

activity-based cost management (ABC/

M)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Adjutant General, the

Administration, with name; capitalized

standing alone if Federal unit:

Farmers Home

Food and Drug

Maritime

Veterans’

but Reagan administration;

administration bill, policy, etc

Administrative Law Judge Davis; Judge

Davis; an administrative law judge

A

Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs

Admiralty, British, etc

Admiralty, Lord of the

Adobe Acrobat Portable Document

Format (PDF)

Adobe Acrobat Reader

Adviser, Legal (Department of State)

aerospace expeditionary force (AEF)

Africa:

east

East Coast

north

South

South-West (Territory of)

West Coast

African-American

Agency, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal

unit:

Central Intelligence; the Agency

Chippewa (Indian); the agency

agent orange

Ages:

Age of Discovery

Dark Ages

Elizabethan Age

Golden Age (of Pericles only)

Middle Ages

but atomic age; Cambrian age; copper

age; ice age; missile age; rocket

age; space age; stone age; etc

Agile Combat Support (ACS): concept

Agreement, with name; the agreement:

General Agreement on Tariffs and

Trade; the general agreement

North American Free-Trade

Agreement (NAFTA)

Status of Forces; but status-of-forces

agreements

United States-Canada Free-Trade

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Agreement; the free-trade

agreement

but the Geneva agreement; the

Potsdam agreement; Paris peace

agreement

air expeditionary force (AEF)

Air Force:

Air National Guard

Base (with name); Air Force base

Center for Environmental Excellence

(AFOSH)

Civil Air Patrol; Civil Patrol; the

patrol

Occupational Safety and Health

Stanrard (AFOSH)

One (Presidential plane)

Reserve

Reserve Officer Training Corps

specialty code (AFSC)

WAF

Air Force Contingency Supply Support

Activity (AFCSSA)

air logistics center (ALC)

airborne command post

Airport: La Guardia; Reagan National; the

airport

Alaska Native (collective term for Aleuts,

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Native; but a native of Alaska, Ohio, etc

Alliance for Progress; the alliance

Alliance for Progress Program

alliances and coalitions

Allied Powers; the powers (World

Wars)

Atlantic alliance

Axis, the; Axis Powers; the powers

Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands,

Luxembourg)

Big Four (European); of the Pacific

Big Three

Central Powers; the powers (World

War I)

European Economic Community

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Western Union (powers); the union

Allied (World Wars I and II):

armies

ManualforStyle

Capitalization

Governments

Nations

peoples

Powers; the powers; but European

powers

Supreme Allied Commander

Allies, the (World Wars I and II); also

members of Western bloc political

entity); but our allies; weaker allies, etc

Ambassador:

British, etc; the Ambassador; the

Senior Ambassador; His

Excellency Extraordinary and

Plenipotentiary; the Ambassador;

Ambassador at Large; an

ambassador

amendment:

Social Security Amendments of

; amendments; the

Social Security amendments; the

amendments

Baker amendment

to the Constitution (US); first

amendment, 14 th amendment, etc

American:

Federation of Labor and Congress of

Industrial Organizations (AFL-

CIO); the federation

Legion

National Red Cross; the Red Cross

Veterans of World War II (AMVETS)

American Standard Code for Information

Interchange (ASCII)

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; a

Mason; a Freemason

Annex, if part of name of building; the

annex

Antarctic Ocean

appellations:

Bay State (Massachusetts)

Big Four (powers, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, railroad, etc)

Cold War

Fair Deal

Great Depression

Great Society

Holocaust

Keystone State (Pennsylvania)

43


Chapter 8

New Deal

New Federalism

New Frontier

the Hub (Boston)

Third World

appendix 1, A, II, etc; the appendix; but

Appendix II, when part of title:

Appendix II: \2\ Education Directory

AppleShare

AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol

(AARP)

appropriation bill:

deficiency

Department of Agriculture

for any governmental unit

independent offices

aquaculture; acquiculture

Arab States

Arabic numerals

Arboretum, National; the Arboretum

Archipelago, Philippine, etc; the

archipelago

Arctic:

Circle

Current

Ocean

zone

but subarctic

arctic (descriptive adjective):

clothing

conditions

fox

grass

night

seas

Arctics, the

Area, if part of name; the area:

Cape Hatteras Recreational

White Pass Recreation; etc

but area 2; free trade area;

Metropolitan Washington area;

bay area; nonsmoking area

Arlington:

Memorial Amphitheater; the

Memorial Amphitheater; the

amphitheater

Memorial Bridge

44

National Cemetery

Arm, Cavalry, Infantry, etc (military); the

arm

Armed Forces (synonym for overall

Military Establishment); British Armed

Forces; the Armed Forces of the United

States

armed services

armistice

Armory, Springfield, etc; the armory

Army, American or foreign, if part of

name; capitalized standing alone only if

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Active-Duty

Adjutant General, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, the

All-Volunteer

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Command and General Staff College

Company A; A Company; the

company

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Confederacy); the Confederates

Continental; Continentals

Corps

District of Washington (military); the

district

Division, 1 stetc; the division

Engineers (the Corps of Engineers);

the Engineers; but Army engineer

Establishment

Field Establishment

Field Forces

Finance Department; the department

First, etc

General of the Army; but the general

General Staff; the staff

Headquarters, 1 st Regiment

Headquarters of the; the headquarters

Organized Reserves; the Reserves

Regiment, 1 st, etc; the regiment

Regular Army officer; a Regular

Revolutionary (American, British,

French, etc)

service

Surgeon General, the

Air Force Journal of Logistics


Volunteer; the Volunteers; a

Volunteer

army:

Lee’s army; but Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Fifth Army

mobile

mule, shoe, etc

of occupation; occupation army

Red

Arsenal, Rock Island, etc; the arsenal

article 15; but Article 15 when part of

title: Article Uniform Code of

Military Justice

Articles

of Confederation (US)

of Impeachment; the articles

Assembly of New York; the assembly

Assistant, if part of capitalized title; the

assistant

assistant, Presidential

Assistant Secretary

Associate Justice

Association, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal

unit:

American Association for the

Advancement of Science; the

association

Federal National Mortgage (Fannie

Mae); the Association

Young Women’s Christian; the

association

Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM)

Atlantic:

Badlands (SD and NE)

Balkan States

Baltic States

Band, if part of name; the band:

Army, Marine, Navy

Eastern, etc (of Cherokee Indians)

Bank, if part of name; the bank;

capitalized standing alone if referring to

international bank:

ManualforStyle

B

Capitalization

Charter

coast

community

Coast States

Destroyer Flotilla; the destroyer

flotilla; Sid Meiers Civilization VI Gathering Storm Game Free Download Torrent flotilla

Fleet

mid-Atlantic

North

Pact

seaboard

slope

South

time, standard time

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Attorney General (US or foreign country);

but attorney general of Maine, etc

attorney, US

Authority, capitalized standing alone if

referring to Federal unit:

National Shipping; the Authority

Port of New York; the port authority;

the authority

Tennessee Valley; the authority

Auto Train (Amtrak)

autumn

Avenue, Constitution, etc; the avenue

Award: Academy, Distinguished Service,

Merit, Mother of the Year, etc; the

award

Axis, the

Ayatollah

Export-Import Bank of the United

States; Ex-Im Bank; the bank

Farmers & Mechanics, etc

Federal home loan bank at

Cumberland

Federal Land Bank of Louisville;

Louisville Federal Land Bank;

land bank at Louisville; Federal

land bank

45


Chapter 8

Federal Reserve Bank of New York;

Richmond Federal Reserve Bank;

but Reserve bank at Richmond;

Federal Reserve bank; Reserve

bank;

Reserve city

First National, etc

International World; the Bank

but blood bank, central reserve, soil

bank

Bar, if part of name; Maryland (State) Bar

Association; Maryland (State)

bar; the State bar; the bar association

Barracks, if part of name; the barracks:

Carlisle

Disciplinary (Leavenworth)

Marine (District of Columbia)

but A barracks; barracks A; etc

Base, Andrews Air Force; Air Force base;

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Battery, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, the (New York City)

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of Gettysburg; but battle at

Gettysburg; etc

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Wilderness; of Waterloo; etc

battlefield, Bull Run, etc

battleground, Manassas, etc

Bay, San Francisco Bay area; the bay area

Belt, if part of name; the belt:

Bible

Corn

Cotton

Dairy

Farm

Ice

Oil

Rust

Sun

Wheat

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Beltway, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, capitalized with Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the

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Bible; Biblical; Scriptures; Ten

Commandments; etc

Bible Belt

Bicentennial

46

Commission; the Commission

the Bicentennial

celebration, ceremony

State bicentennial

a bicentennial (general sense)

bill, Kiess; Senate bill ; House bill 31

Bill of Rights (historic document); but GI

bill of rights

Black (synonym for African-American)

Black Caucus

bloc

block (grants)

Bluegrass region, etc

Board, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone only if referring to

Federal or international board:

Employees’ Compensation Appeals

Federal Maritime

Federal Reserve

General (Navy)

Loyalty Review

Military Production and Supply

(NATO)

National Labor Relations of Directors

(Federal unit); but board of

directors (nongovernmental) of

Health of Montgomery County;

Montgomery County Board of

Health; the board of health; the

board of Managers (of the Soldiers’

Home)

of Regents (Smithsonian)

of Visitors (Military and Naval

Academies)

on Geographic Names

Railroad Retirement

Bolshevik; Bolsheviki (collective plural);

Bolshevist; bolshevism

bond:

Government

savings

series EE

Treasury

war

book:

books of the Bible

First Book of Samuel; etc

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Good Book (synonym Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Bible)

book 1, I, etc; but Book 1, when part of

title: Book 1: The Golden Legend

Boolean logic

Boolean operator

Boolean search

Border Patrol (US)

border, United States-Mexican

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Bronx; the borough

Botanic Garden (National); the garden (not

Botanical Gardens)

Bowl, Dust, Ice, Rose, etc; the bowl

Boxer Rebellion

Boy Scouts (the organization); a Boy

Scout; a Scout; Scouting; Eagle Scout;

Explorer Scout

Branch, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone only if referring to a

Federal unit:

Accounts Branch

Public Buildings Branch

but executive, judicial, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, or legislative

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Arlington Memorial; Memorial

Francis Scott Key; Key

M Street

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C-SPAN

Cabinet, American or foreign, if part of

name or standing alone: the Cabinet

the President’s Cabinet; the Cabinet;

Cabinet officer, member

cache

Calendar, if part of name; the calendar

Camp Lejeune; David, etc; the camp

Canal, with name; the canal:

Cross-Florida Barge

Isthmian

Panama

Zone (Isthmian); the zone

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Brother(s) (adherent of religious order)

Budget of the United States

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budget:

department

estimate

Federal

message

performance-type

President’s

Building, if part of name; the building:

Capitol

House (or Senate) Office

Investment

New House (or Senate) Office

Old House Office

Pentagon

the National Archives; the Archives

Treasury; Treasury Annex

bulletin board service

Bureau, if part of name; capitalized

standing alone if referring to Federal or

international unit:

of Customs (name changed to US

Customs Service)

of Engraving and Printing

of Indian Affairs

cannibalilzation (CANN)

Capital, Capital City, National Capital

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Capitol Building (with state name); the

capitol

Capitol, the (Washington, DC):

Architect of

Building

caucus room

Chamber

Cloakroom

dome

Grounds

47


Chapter 8

Halls (House and Senate)

Halls of Congress

Hill

Police

Power Plant

Prayer Room

Press Gallery, etc

rotunda

Senate wing

stationery room

Statuary Hall

the well (House or Senate)

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Census of Agriculture; the

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Center, if part of name; the Center

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Kennedy Center for the Performing

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the Lincoln Center; the center (non-

Federal)

central Asia, etc

Источник: [applemacs.us]
bAA

Bascom Avr Theory

Citation preview

An Introduction to Practical Electronics, Microcontrollers and Software Design

applemacs.us © January This work is copyright. No one but the author may sell or distribute this material.

applemacs.us

Table of Contents 1

2

3

4 5

6

7 8

Introduction to Practical Electronics 12 Your learning in Technology 13 Key Competencies from The NZ Curriculum 13 Where to buy stuff? 13

Making your first circuit 14 Identifying resistors by their colour codes 15 LED's 16 Some LED Specifications 16 LED research task 16 Adding a switch to your circuit 17 Switch Assignment 17 Important circuit concepts 18 Changing the value of resistance 18 Ohms law 19 Adding a transistor to your circuit 20 Circuit theory 21 The LDR input circuit 22 Working darkness detector 23 Diodes 24 Diode Research Task 24 Final darkness detector circuit 25

Eagle Schematic and Layout Editor Tutorial 26 Introduction to PCBs 26 An Introduction to Eagle 27 The Schematic Editor 28 The Board Editor 33 Making Negative Printouts 37

PCB Making 38 Soldering, solder and soldering irons 41 Soldering facts 42 Soldering Safety 42 Soldering wires to switches 43 Codes of practice 44 Good and bad solder joints 45 Soldering wires to LED’s 46

Introductory Electronics Theory 47 Making electricity 47 ESD electrostatic discharge 49 Magnets, wires and motion 50 Group Power Assignment 50 Electricity supply in New Zealand 51 Conductors 52 Insulators 52 Wire Assignment 53 Resistors 54 Resistor Assignment 54 Resistivity 54 Resistor prefixes 55 Resistor Values Exercises 56 Capacitors 58 Component symbols reference 59

Year 10/11 - Typical test questions so far 60 Electronics Theory I 61 Conventional Current 61 Ground 61 Preferred resistor values 61 Resistor Tolerances 62 Combining resistors in series 62

ii



9

Combining resistors in parallel 63 Resistor Combination Circuits 64 Multimeters DriverMax Pro Crack + License Key Full Version Multimeter controls 66 Choosing correct meter settings 67 Voltage & Current Measurements 68 Measuring Resistance 69 Continuity 69 Variable Resistors 70 Capacitors 71 Capacitor Codes and Values 71 Converting Capacitor Values uF, nFDeep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, pF 71 Capacitor action in Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen circuits 72 The Voltage Divider 73 Using semiconductors 74 Calculating current limit resistors for an LED 75 The Transistor 76 Transistor Specifications Assignment 77 Transistor Case styles 77 Transistor amplifier in a microcontroller circuit 77 Transistor Audio Amplifier 78 Speakers 79 Switch types and symbols 80

TDAM Portable Audio Amplifier Project 81 Portfolio Assessment Schedule 82 Initial One Page Brief 83 TDAM specifications 84 Making a PCB for the TDA Amp Project 85 Extra PCB making information 89 Component Forming Codes of Practice 90 TDA wiring diagram 91 SKETCHUP Quick Start Tutorial 92 Creating reusable components in SketchUp 93

10 Introduction to microcontroller electronics 94

What is a computer? 95 What does a computer system do? 95 What exactly is a microcontroller? 96 What does a microcontroller system do? 97 What you do when learning to program 98 AVR microcontroller hardware 99 Power supplies 99 BASCOM and AVR assignment Programming words you need to be able to use correctly

11 Getting started with AVR Programming

Breadboard Breadboard+Prototyping board circuit Alternative ATTiny breadboard circuit Alternative ATMega48 breadboard circuit Alternative ATMega breadboard circuit AVR circuit description Output Circuit - LED AVR programming cable

12 Getting started with Bascom & AVR

The compiler The programmer An introduction to flowcharts Bascom output commands Introducing ‘bugs’ to see what happens Getting started code for the ATMega48 Getting started code for the ATMega

iii

Microcontroller ports: write a Knightrider program using LED’s Commenting your programs What is a piezo Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen how does it make sound? Sounding Off

13 Switch input circuits

Single push button switch Pullup Resistors Switch in a breadboard circuit Checking switches in your program Program Logic – the ‘If-Then’ Switch Test Switch contact bounce Reading multiple switches Different types of switches you can use

14 Year11 typical test questions so far 15 Variables – data disguised as binary numbers

Variables - numbers inside the AVR Pedestrian crossing lights controller Pedestrian Crossing Lights schematic Pedestrian Crossing Lights PCB Layout Algorithm planning example – pedestrian crossing lights Flowchart planning example – pedestrian crossing lights Program example - pedestrian crossing lights Modification exercise for the pedestrian crossing Changing a variable – simple stepping/counting For-next tricks with flashing LEDs For-Next Using variables for data Types of memory Binary and Hexadecimal numbers Learning to count in binary Learning some Hexadecimal PanoramaStudio Pro 3.5.3.318 Crack Full Version Download Rules about variables a few examples of variables in use Random Numbers The Bascom-AVR simulator Variables research assignment Byte variable limitations Electronic dice project Programming using variables – dice Dice layout stage Dice layout stage Dice Layout final First Dice Program flowchart A note about the Bascom Rnd command Modified dice Multiple LEDs - 7 segment displays Programming using variables - sound Make a simple siren Quiz Game Controller Quiz game controller system context diagram Quiz game controller block diagram Quiz game controller Algorithm Quiz game schematic Quiz game board veroboard layout Quiz Controller flowchart 'Quiz Controller program code

16 Programming codes of practice

Three steps to help you write good programs Saving Programs Organisation is everything

iv



Programming template

17 Subroutines

Subroutines – Morse code exercise Traffic lights sequencing exercise

18 The Do-Loop

Don’t delay Modified Knightrider

19 Alarm system development

Simple alarm system – stage 1 Alarm System Schematic A simple alarm system – stage A simple alarm system – stage A Any Video Converter Crack + Key Free Download Full Version – 2019 alarm system – stage More complex alarm system Alarm unit algorithm 5: Alarm 6 algorithm: Algorithm example - multiplication Algorithms for multiplication of very large numbers Algorithm and flowchart exercises

20 Project Planning 21 System Designer

Creating a new project. Toolbars Context Menus Selecting items to copy them Pan diagrams

22 Project mind map

Milestone duration Automatic timeline creation

23 Project timeline

Milestone Planning Stakeholder Consultations Critical review points Copying Timelines to put them into your journal

24 System context diagram

First step is to create a main system device Add attributes to the device External sensors and actuators User interactions with the system (social environment) Physical Environment Clients and stakeholders Conceptual statement and physical attributes Secondary system devices External system connections Export diagram to written documentation

25 Block Diagram 26 Board Layouts

Backgrounds Add Components Add your own pictures to the layout Create your own backgrounds and components

27 Algorithm design 28 Flowcharts

Drag and drop flowchart blocks Beginning template

29 Example system design - hot glue gun timer

System context diagram Hot glue gun timer block diagram Hot glue gun timer algorithm

v



Hot glue gun timer flowchart Hot glue gun timer program

30 Complex interfaces and their programming

Parallel data communications

31 LCDs (liquid crystal displays) Alphanumeric LCDs ATTINY26 Development PCB with LCD Completing the wiring for the LCD LCD Contrast Control Learning to use the LCD Adding more interfaces to the ATTiny26 Development board Ohms law in action – a multicoloured LED Repetition again - the ‘For-Next’ and the LCD Defining your own LCD characters LCD custom character program To CLS or not to CLS that is the question A simple digital clock

32 Example System Design - Time Tracker.

System context diagram and brief Time tracker block diagram Algorithm development Schematic Time tracker flowchart and program version Time Tracker stage 2 Time Tracker stage 3 Time Tracker stage 4

33 String Variables

Strings assignment ASCII Assignment Time in a string Scrolling message assignment Some LCD programming exercises

34 Power interfaces

Microcontroller power limitations Power Power dissipation in resistors Diode characteristics Using Zener diodes How diodes work How does a LED give off light? LCD Backlight Data Transistors as power switches High power loads AVR Power matters Darlington transistors - high power ULN Octal Darlington Driver Connecting a FET backlight control to your microcontroller FET backlight control

35 Power Supply Theory – every micro needs high quality power

Typical PSUs The four stages of a PSU (power supply unit) Stage 1: step down transformer Stage 2: AC to DC Conversion Stage 3: Filtering AC component Stage 4: Voltage Regulation Ripple (decibel & dB) Line Regulation Load Regulation Current Limit Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen vi



Power, temperature and heatsinking Typical PSU circuit designs PSU block diagram PSU Schematic Practical current limit circuit.

36 Year11 typical test questions so far 37 Analog to digital interfaces

ADC - Analog to Digital conversion Light level sensing Voltage dividers review AVR ADC connections Select-Case Reading an LDR’s values Marcus’ Nightlight project Temperature measurement using the LM35 A simple temperature display LM35 temperature display Voltage measurement using a voltage divider Variable power supply voltmeter program Force Sensitive Resistors Piezo sensor Multiple switches and ADC

38 Arrays 39 DC Motor interfacing

H-Bridge H-Bridge Braking LD H-Bridge IC L H-Bridge IC LMD H-Bridge IC LMD program Darlington H-Bridge Stepper Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen PWM - pulse width modulation Typer Shark Deluxe v1.02 by LAXiTY crack serial keygen outputs Uses for PWM ATMEL AVRs PWM pins PWM on any port PWM internals

40 AVR pull-up resistors 41 Keypad interfacing

Keypad program 1 Keypad program 2 Keypad program 3 – cursor control Keypad texter program V1 Keypad texter program 1a ADC keypad interface

42 Do-Loop & While-Wend subtleties

While-Wend or Do-Loop-Until or For-Next?

43 System Example – Alarm Clock

Analogue seconds display on an LCD LCD big digits

44 Resistive touch screen 45 Sounding off - loudly

Attaching a speaker to a microcontroller Audio amplifier subcircuit

46 System Design

Understanding how systems are put together Food Processor system block diagram Subsystems

vii



Food Processor system functional attributes- algorithm Food Processor system flowchart Toaster Design Toaster - system block diagram Toaster Algortihm Keeping control so you dont lose your ‘stack’

47 System Design Example – Temperature Controller 48 State Machine diagrams

Daily routine state machine Truck driving state machine Developing a state machine A state machine for the temperature alarm system Using System Designer software to design state machines State machine to program code The power of state machines over flowcharts Bike light – state machine example Bike light program version1b Bike light program version2

49 Alarm clock project

System Designer to develop a Product Brainstorm Initial block diagram for the alarm clock A first (simple) algorithm is developed A statemachine for the first clock Alarm clock state machine and code version Token game – state machine design example

50 Window controller student project

Window controller state machine # Window controller state machine #3. Window controller state machine # Window controller program

51 Alternative state machine coding techniques 52 Serial communications

Simplex and duplex Synchronous and asynchronous Serial communications, Bascom and the AVR RS serial communications Build your own RS buffer Talking to an AVR from Windows XP Talking to an AVR from Win7 First Bascom RS program Receiving text from a PC BASCOM serial commands Serial IO using Inkey() Creating your own software to communicate with the AVR Microsoft Visual Basic Express Edition Stage 1 – GUI creation Stage 2 – Coding and understanding event programming Microsoft Visual C# commport application Microcontroller with serial IO. PC software (C#) to communicate with the AVR Using excel to capture serial data PLX-DAQ StampPlot Serial to parallel Keyboard interfacing – synchronous serial data Keyboard as asynchronous data

53 Radio Data Communication

An Introduction Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen data over radio HT12E Datasheet, transmission and timing

viii



HT12 test setup HT12E Program HT12D datasheet HT12D Program Replacing the HT12E encoding with software

54 Introduction to I2C

I2C Real Time Clocks Real time clocks Connecting the RTC Connecting the RTC to the board Internal features DS RTC code DS RTC code

55 Plant watering timer student project

System block diagram State machine Program code

56 Amplifier 57 Bike audio amplifier project 58 Graphics LCDs

The T controller Graphics LCD (x64) – KS Generating a negative supply for a graphics LCD

59 GLCD Temperature Tracking Project

Project hardware Project software planning Draw the graph scales Read the values Store the values Plot the values as a graph Full software listing

60 Computer programming – low level detail

Low level languages AVR Internals – how the microcontroller works 1. The 8bit data bus 2. Memory 3. Special Function registers A simple program to demonstrate the AVR in operation

61 Interrupts

Keypad- polling versus interrupt driven Improving the HT12 radio system by using interrupts Magnetic Card Reader Card reader data structure Card reader data timing Card reader data formats Understanding interrupts in Bascom- trialling Planning the program

62 Timer/Counters

Timer2 (16 bit) Program Timer0 (8bit) Program Accurate tones using a timer (Middle C) Timer1 Calculator Program Timer code to make a siren by varying the preload value

63 LED dot matrix scrolling display project – arrays and timers

Scrolling text code Scrolling text – algorithm design Scrolling test - code

64 Medical machine project – timer implementation

Block diagram

ix



Blower - state machine Blower program code

65 Multiple 7-segment clock project – dual timer action

Understanding the complexities of the situation Hardware understanding: Classroom clock – block diagram Classroom clock - schematic Classroom clock - PCB layout Relay Circuit Example Classroom clock – flowcharts Classroom clock – program

66 The MAX / display driver IC’s

AVR clock/oscillator

67 Data transmission across the internet

IP address MAC (physical) address Subnet mask Ping Ports Packets Gateway DNS WIZNET Wiznet Webserver V1 Transmitting data Wiznet Server2 (version1) ‘Main do loop process any messages received from browser Served webpage

68 Assignment – maths in the real world

Math sssignment - part Math assignment - part 2 Math assignment - part 3 Math assignment - part 4 Math assignment - part 5 Math assignment - part 6 Extension exercise

69 SSD based colour graphics LCD

System block diagram TFT LCDs System memory requirements System speed SSD and HX ICs Colour capability SSD and HX control requirements SSD Software SSD microcontroller hardware interface Accessing SSD control registers SSD_Register_applemacs.us Accessing the HX SSD_GPIO_applemacs.us LCD timing signals HX setups SSD setups SSD line / HSync timing SSD row / VSync/ frame timing HX and SSD setup routine 'SSD_HardwareSetup_applemacs.us SSD_Window_Control_applemacs.us Colour data in the SSD memory

x



70 71 72 73

Accessing the SSD colour memory 'SSD_Memory_applemacs.us Drawing simple graphics 'SSD_Simple_Graphics_applemacs.us SSD_text_routines

Traffic Light help and solution USB programmer - USBASP USBTinyISP programmer Various AVR development board schematics and layouts AVR Development Board 2 Dev board version 2 circuit diagram Dev board pcb layout version 2 ATMEGA V4b development board circuit – 12TCE V4b devboard layout 12TCE ATMega Dev PCB V5DSchematic () ATMega Dev PCB V5DLayout () ATMega Dev PCB V5D Copper ()

74 ATTiny26 V6d development board

ATTiny26 V6d development board layouts ATTiny26 V6b development board images

75 ATMEGA Protoyping board

x64 GLCD Schematic – VerC -data on portB x64 GLCD Layout – VerC –data on portB x64 GLCD Schematic – VerD -data on portB x64 GLCD Layout –VerD -data on portB

76 GLCD x64 schematic

GLCD x64 layout

77 ATMEGA microcontroller pin connections

ATMEGA/16/32/ 40pin DIP package– pin connections

78 Materials

Eagle - creating your own library MDF Plywood Acrylic Electrogalv

79 Practical Techniques

PCB Mounting Countersink holes and joining MDF/wood Autorouting PCBS Choosing fasteners Workshop Machinery Glues/Adhesives Wood Joining techniques Codes of Practice for student projects Fitness for purpose definitions and NZ legislation

80 CNC

Machine overview CamBam CamBam options Drawing shapes in CamBam Machining commands CNC Simulator

81 Index

xi

1 Introduction to Practical Electronics This book has a number of focus areas.              

Electronic component recognition and correct handling Developing a solid set of conceptual understandings in basic electronics. Electronic breadboard use Hand soldering skills Use of Ohm's law for current limiting resistors The voltage divider CAD PCB design and manufacture Microcontroller programming and interfacing The transistor as a switch Power supply theory Motor driving principles and circuits Modelling solutions through testing and trialing Following codes of practice Safe workshop practices

12

Your learning in Technology Technology Achievement Objectives from the NZ Curriculum Technological Practice Brief –develop clear specifications for your technology projects. Planning – thinking about things before you start making them and using drawings such as flowcharts, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, circuit diagrams, pcb layouts, statecharts and sketchup plans while working. Outcome Development – building electronic circuits, designing and making PCBs and programming microcontrollers. Technological Knowledge Technological Modelling – before building an electronic device, it is important to find out how well it works first Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Download Grand Theft Auto V v1.41 + Crack [PT-BR] and/or trialling its hardware and software. Technological Products – getting to know about components and their characteristics. Technological Systems - an electronic device is more than a collection of components it is a functioning system with inputs, outputs and a controlling process. Nature of Technology Characteristics of Technological Outcomes – knowing about electronic components especially microcontrollers as the basis for modern technologies. Characteristics of Technology – electronic devices now play a central role in the infrastructure of our modern society; are we their masters or do they rule our lives?

Key Competencies from The NZ Curriculum Thinking – to me the subject of technology is all about thinking. My goal is to have students understand the technologies embedded within electronic devices. To achieve this students must actively enage with their work at the earliest stage so that they can construct their own understandings and go on to become good problem solvers. In the beginning of their learning in electronics this requires students to make sense of the instructions they have been given and search for clarity when they do not understand them. After that there are many new and different pieces of knowledge introduced in class and students are given problem solving exercises to help them think logically. The copying of someone elses answer is flawed and students are encouraged not to do it as they must understand the material to eventually master it. At the core of this is learning to build correct conceptual models and relationships between things, to have things in the context of the ‘big picture’. Relating to others – working together in pairs and groups is as essential in the classroom as it is in any other situation in life; we all have to share and negotiate resources and equipment with others; it is essential therefore to actively communicate with each other and assist one other. Using language symbols and texts – At the core of our subject is the language we use for communicating electronic circuits, concepts, algorithms and computer programming syntax; so the ability to recognise and using symbols and diagrams correctly for the work we do is vital. Managing self – This is about students taking personal responsibility for their own learning; it is about challenging students who expect to read answers in a book or have a teacher tell them what to do. It means that students need to engage with the material in front of them. Sometimes the answers will come easily, sometimes they will not; often our subject involves a lot of trial and error (mostly error). Students should know that it is in the tough times that the most is learnt. And not to give up keep searching for understanding. Participating and contributing – We live in a world that is incredibly dependent upon technology especially electronics, students need to develop an awareness of the importance of this area of human creativity to our daily lives and to recognise that our projects have a social function as well as a technical one.

Where to buy stuff? In New Zealand there are a number of reasonably priced and excellent suppliers for components including applemacs.us and applemacs.us Overseas suppliers I use include applemacs.us applemacs.us & applemacs.us for specialist components. 13

2 Making your first circuit A breadboard is a plastic block with holes and metal connection strips inside it to make circuits. The holes are arranged so that components can be connected together to form circuits. The top and bottom rows are usually used for power, top for positive which is red and the bottom for negative which is black.

This circuit could be built like this, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, note that the LED must go around the correct way. If you have the LED and resistor connected in a closed circuit the LED should light up.

Schematic or circuit diagram

Layout

The LED requires 2V the battery is 9V, if you put the LED across the battery it would stop working! So a 1k (ohm) resistor is used to reduce the voltage to the LED and the current through it, get a multimeter and measure the voltage across the resistor, is it close to 7V? If you disconnect any wire within the circuit it stops working, a circuit needs to be complete before electrons can flow.

14

Identifying resistors by their colour codes

1M ‘1 Meg’ 1 Million Ohms 1M Ω 1, ohms

10k 10 thousand ohms 10, ohms 10k Ω

1k 1 thousand ohms 1, ohms 1k Ω

R ohms Ω

When getting a resistor check its value! In our circuits each resistor has a special pupose, and the value is chosen depending on whether we want more or less current in that part of the circuit, The higher the value of the resistor the lower the current The lower the value of the resistor the higher the current. 15

LED's Light Emitting Diodes are currently used in indicators and displays on equipment, however they are becoming used more and more as replacements for halogen and incandescent bulbs in many different applications. These include vehicle lights, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, traffic signals, outdoor large TV screens. Compared to incandescent bulbs (wires inside glass bulbs that glow), LEDs give almost no heat and are therefore highly efficient. They also have much longer lives e.g. 10 years compared to 10 months. So in some situations e.g. traffic signals, once LEDs are installed there can be significant cost savings made on both power and maintenance. There is a small problem with LED traffic lights though – they don’t melt snow that collects on them!!!

Some LED Specifications     

Intensity: measured in mcd (millicandela) Viewing Angle: The angle from centre where intensity drops to 50% Forward Voltage: Voltage needed to get full brightness from the the LED Forward Current: Current that Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen give maximum brightness, Peak Wavelength: the brightest colour of light emitted

LED research task From a supplier in New Zealand (e.g. Surplustronics, DSE, Jaycar, SICOM) find the information and the specifications for two LEDs, a normal RED 5mm LED and a 5mm high intensity LED.

LED Supplier Part number Cost ($) Brightness (mcd) Forward voltage (Vf) Wavelength (nm) Forward current (If)

RED 5mm

High intensity 5mm

16

Adding a switch to your circuit Schematic or circuit diagram

Layout

A switch is the way a user can manually control a circuit

Switch Assignment Find a small switch and carefully disassemble it (take it apart) draw how it works and explain its operation. Make sure you explain the purpose of the spring(s). Here are simplified drawings of a small slide switch when it is in both positions. When the switch is on electricity can flow, when it is open the circuit is broken.

17

Important circuit concepts A circuit consists of a number of components and a power supply linked by wires. Electrons (often called charges) flow in a circuit; Jogos de Plataforma com Quebra-cabeças de Graça para Baixar unless there is a complete circuit (a closed loop) no electrons can flow. Voltage is the measure of energy in a circuit, it is used as a measure of the energy supplied from a battery or the energy (voltage) across a part of a circuit. Current (I) is the flow of electrons from the battery around the circuit and back to the battery again. Current is measured in Amps (usually we will use milliamps or mA), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Note that current doesn't flow electrons or charges flow. Just like in a river the current doesn't flow the water flows. Resistance works to reduce currentthe resistors in the circuit offer resistance to the current. Conductors such as the wires connecting components together have (theoretically) no resistance to current. A really important concept to get clear in your mind is that: Voltage is across components and current is through components.

Changing the value of resistance What is the effect of different resistor values on Windows 8 keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key circuit? The resistor controls the current flow, the higher the resistor value the lower the current. (what would a 10K resistor look like?

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Ohms law This is the most important formula in electronics. You must be able to use it correctly and develop a comprehensive understanding of its meaning. In a circuit one volt will drive one ampere of current through a one ohm resistor (or when one amp is flowing in a one ohm resistor one volt will be developed across the resistor) The formula is Voltage = Current times Resistance or V

=IxR

If A is flowing through a 10 ohm resistor then what is the voltage across the resistor? Answer: V=I*R, V=*10, V=5Volts. If the voltage is 10volts and the resistance is 2ohms then what current through the circuit? Answer:I=V/R, I=10/2, I=5A. At 9V, if A is flowing through the circuit what is the value of R? Answer: R=V/I, R=9/, R=4, ohms

1.

I= A, V= 16V

R =V/I, R=16/, R= ohms

2.

V= 12V, I= A

R=

3.

V= 9V, I= 2A

R=

4.

I= A, V= 5V

R=

5.

R=V= 6V

I=

6.

V= 50V, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, R= 10,

I=

7.

V= 3V, R= ,

I=

8.

R= 47, V= 20V

I=

9.

I= A, R= ohms

V=

I=R= ohms

V=

R= 20R, I=

V=

I=R= R

V=

19



Adding a transistor to your circuit

Schematic ( circuit diagram) BC

A transistor is a control component that amplifies small signals. It has three legs or leads: E – Emitter B – Base C – Collector Only a small signal is required through the base to control a larger current through the emitter to the collector. Breadboard layout diagram The collector current is the same current which lights the LED The 1k limits this current to an acceptable value for the LED.

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Circuit theory

Electronics is all Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen controlling the physical world. Physical objects have properties such as temperature, force, motion, sound/radio/light waves associated with them

Electronic devices have input circuits to convert the physical world (light sound etc) to different voltage levels. They have process circuits that transform, manipulate and modify information (the information is coded as different voltages). They have output circuits to convert differen coltgae levels back to the physical world where we can sense the outcome of the process ( light, sound etc)

Take an example such as a television, the physical world radio signal on the input is converted to an voltage level, this is processed by the electronic circuit and converted to light which we see and sound which we can hear.

21



The LDR input circuit

The LDR or Light Dependant Resistor is a common component used in circuits to sense light level. An LDR varies resistance with the level of light falling on it. LDRs are made from semiconductors such as Selenium, Thalliumoxid and Cadmiumsulfide. As photons of light hit the atoms within the LDR, electrons can flow through the circuit. This means that as light level increases, resistance decreases. Find an LDR and measure its resistance: in full daylight the LDRs resistance is approximately ____________ Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen darkness the LDRs resistance is approximately ______________

LDRs can only with stand a small current flow e.g. 5mA, if too much current flows they may overheat and burn out. They are used in voltage divider circuits with a series resistor.

The components are a 1M (1,) ohm resistor, an LDR, a 9V battery and the circuit is a series one.

When it is dark the LDR has a high resistance and the output voltage is high.

When it is bright the LDR has a low resistance and the voltage is low.

22



Working darkness detector

NOTE the 1k has been changed for a ohm resistor so that the current will be higher

23



Diodes

Diodes are very common components, they come in all shapes and sizes.

The key characteristic of a diode is that there is current in only one direction so you cannot reverse it in the circuit and expect it to work. In this modified circuit the power is supplied from the battery. The circuit is protected by a diode, this means if the battery is connected in reverse then there is no current because the diode blocks it Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen is commonly used in the workshop to protect our circuits from a reverse polarity situation). Of course no diode is perfect and should the voltage of the power supply exceed the voltage rating of the diode then the diode would breakdown, this Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the current would increase rapidly and it would burn up. The 1N has a V rating. Diodes can only take a certain current in the forward direction before they overheat and burn up. The 1N has a maximum forward current of 1Amp.



Diode Research Task

Research the specifications for these two common diodes (ones we use often in class) and find out what each specification means. Description 1N 1N Peak reverse voltage Maximum forward current

24



Final darkness detector circuit

The function of the input part of the circuit is to detect light level. The function of the process part of the circuit (the transistor) is to amplify the small change in voltage due to light changes. The function of the output part of the circuit is to indicate something to the end user. The function Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the power supply is to safely provide the energy for the circuit to work When it is dark the LED is switched on, when there is light present the LED is switched off. This circuit could be used to help a younger child orientate themselves at night and to find the door in a darkened room. The DIODE, LED and TRANSISTOR are polarised, have positive and negative ends and therefore require wiring into the circuit the right way round or it will not work You can identify the DIODE polarity by the line on the cathode (negative) You can identify the LED polarity by the flat on the LED body(negative-cathide) or by the longer lead (positive or anode) You can identify the TRANSISTOR polarity by the shape of the bidy and the layout of the three leads Draw lines from the components to the symbols to help you remember them. Remember the resistor in the output circuit was made a lower value (changed from 1k to ohms) to make the LED brighter in the final circuit.

25

3 Eagle Schematic and Layout Editor Tutorial Introduction to PCBs

The darkeness detector is no good to us on a breadboard it needs a permanent solution and so we will build it Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen a PCB ( printed circuit board).

26

An Introduction to Eagle Eagle is a program from applemacs.us that enables users to draw the circuit diagram for an electronic circuit and then layout the printed circuit board. This is a very quick start tutorial, where you will be led step by step through creating a PCB for a TDA circuit. The version used is the freeware version which has the following limitations; the PCB size is limited to mm x 80mm Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the board must be not for profit

Open Eagle Control Panel

Start - Programs - Eagle - Eagle

Create a new schematic On the menu go to FILE then NEW then Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen You will see the schematic editor

Saving your schematic     

It is always best to save your data before you start work Eagle creates many temporary files so you need to keep your folders tidy. If this is the first time you have used Eagle create an Eagle folder within your folder on the server. Within the Eagle folder create a folder for the name of this project e.g. DarkDetector Save the schematic as DarkDetector applemacs.us within the DarkDetector folder.

27

The Schematic Editor

The first part of the process in creating a PCB is drawing the schematic. 1. Parts will be added from libraries 2. and joined together using ‘nets’ to make the circuit

The Toolbox As you point to the tools in the TOOLBOX their names will appear in a popup and also their description will appear in the status bar at the bottom of the window Find the following tools 

ADD A PART



MOVE AN OBJECT



DELETE AN OBJECT



DEFINE THE NAME OF AN OBJECT



DEFINE THE VALUE OF AN OBJECT



Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen NETS (connections)



ERC (electrical rule check)

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Using parts libraries Selecting parts libraries to use. Parts are stored within libraries and there are a large number of libraries in Eagle. It is not hard to create your own library and modify the parts within it. The applemacs.us has many already modified components within it. If Eagle is not setup to use the cls library you will need to do it now. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

From your internet browser save the file applemacs.us into your Eagle folder. In Eagle's control panel from the menu select options then directories In the new window that appears make sure the directories for the libraries are highlighted Click on browse and find your applemacs.usory Next highlight the directories for Projects Click on browse and find your Eagle directory again. Choose OK. You might need to close EAGLE and restart it to make sure it reads the libraries ok. To use a library right click on it from within the Control Panel Make sure Use is highlighted. It will have a green dot next to it if it is selected At this time right click on the other lbr folder and select Use none.

NOTE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GREEN DOT NEXT TO THE LIBRARY, if its not there you will not see the library in the schematic editor!

29

Using Components from within libraries. From your schematic Click the ADD button in the toolbox A new window Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen open (it may take a while)     

Find the CLS library Open it by double clicking on it or by clicking the + sign Open the R-EU_ section (ResistorEuropean) Here you will find the /7 resistor. Select it and then click OK

Add 3 more resistors of the same type. Add all of the following parts LIBRARY PART Qty cls REU/7 4 cls 2,54/0,8 (wirepads) 2 cls led 5MM 1 cls 1N D 1 cls RTRIMMECP10S 2 cls GND 3 A wirepad allows us to connect wires to the PCB (such as wires to switches and batteries)

Different component packages There Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen several different types of resistors; they all have the same symbol however resistors come in different physicalpackages so we must choose an appropriate applemacs.us /7 is suitable for us but any of the 4 smallest ones would be OK.

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Moving parts Move the parts around within the schematic editor so that they are arranged as per the schematic below. Keep the component identifiers (numbers like R1, R2, R3) in the same places as those below.

Wiring parts together

These form the electrical connections that makeup the circuit. Select the net button from the toolbox. Left click on the very end of a component and draw in a straight line either up, down, left or right. Left click again to stop at a point and draw before drawing in another direction. Double left click at another component to finish the wire.

31

Zoom Controls There are a number of zoom controls that can be used to help you work in your circuit.

Find these on the toolbar and identify what each does. Nets Nets ibm spss 24 the wire connections between the components, each has a unique name. Find the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen button in the toolbox and check the names and details of the components and nets/wires. When you want to connect a new net to an existing net, Eagle will prompt you as to which name to give the combined net. If one of the nets has a proper name i.e. VCC, V+,V- ground use that name, otherwise choose the net with the smallest number

Junctions Junctions are the dots at joins in the circuit, they are there to make sure that the wires are electrically connected. Generally you will NOT need to add these to your circuit as the net tool puts them in place automatically

32

ERC The ERC button causes Eagle to test the schematic for electrical errors. Errors such as pins overlapping, and components unconnected are very common. The ERC gives a position on the circuit as to where the error is; often zooming in on that point and moving components around will help identify the error. You must correct all errors before going on.

The Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Editor The board editor is opened using a button in the toolbar, find this button and answer yes to the question about creating the board. The new window has a pile of parts and an area upon which to place them. WARNING: once you have started to create a board always have both the board and schematic open at the same time, never work on one without the other open or you will get horrible errors which will require you to delete the .brd file and restart the board from scratch.

33

Airwires The wires from the schematic have become connections called airwires, these wires will shortly become tracks on the PCB. These connections can look very messy at times and at this stage it is called a RATSNEST.

Moving Components

Move the components into the highlighted area. In the demo version you cannot place parts outside this area. Keep the components in the lower left corner near the origin (cross). Reduce the size of the highlighted area you are using for the components. Then zoom to fit. Progressively arrange the components so that there is the minimum number of crossovers. As you place components press the Ratsnest button often to reorganize the Airwires. Eventually your picture will look like the one on the right. Good PCB design is more about placement of components than routing, so spending most of your time (80%) doing this step is crucial to success. You want to make track lengths as short as possible

34

Hiding/Showing Layers The DISPLAY button in the TOOLBOX is used to turn on and off different sets of screen information. Turn off the names, and values while you are placing components. This will keep the screen easier to read. Turn off the layer by selecting the display button and in the popup window pressing the number of the layer you no longer want to see.

35

Routing Tracks Now is the time to Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the airwires with actual PCB tracks. Tracks need to connect all the correct parts of the circuit together without connecting together other parts. This means that tracks cannot go over the top of one another, nor can they go through the middle of components! Go to the Toolbar, Select the ROUTE button On the Toolbar make sure the Bottom layer is selected (blue) and that the track width is Left click on a component. Note that around your circuit all of the pads on the same net will be highlighted. Route the track by moving the mouse and left clicking on corner points for your track as you go. YOU ONLY WANT Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen CONNECT THE PADS ON THE SAME NET, DON'T CONNECT ANY OTHERS OR YOUR CIRCUIT WILL NOT WORK. Double click on a pad to finish laying down the track.

Track layout Rules 1.

2. 3.

Place tracks so that no track touches the leg of a component that it is not connected to on the schematic No track may touch another track that it is not connected to on the schematic Tracks may go underneath the body of a component as long as they meet the above rules

Ripping up Tracks Ripping up a track is removing the track you have laid down and putting the airwire back in place. This will be necessary as you go to solve problems where it is not possible to route the tracks. You may even want to rip up all the tracks and move components around as you go.

36

Making Negative Printouts Eagle is straight forward at producing printouts for a positive photographic pcb making process. (NOTE THE TEXT ON THE PCB APPEARS REVERSED THIS IS CORRECT)

However if your photosensitive board requires a negative image such as this, another stage on the process is FL Studio 20.6.2.1544 Crack Crack & Key, License key 2020 Other software required The following software is required to manipulate the special CAM (computer aided manufacturing) files created by Eagle (and other pcb CAD software) into the printed image you require. All this software is shareware with no fees attached for its use by students. * Install GhostScript - from applemacs.us * Install GSView - from applemacs.us Conversion process This process creates a '.ps' (postscript file), it is the best output from Eagle to use. It will keep the board exactly the same and correct size for printing. * Open applemacs.us in Eagle * From within the Eagle Board Editor start the CAM Processor * select device as PS_INVERTED * Scale = 1 * file = .ps * make sure fill pads is NOT selected this makes small drill holes in the acetate which we use to line up the drill with when drilling * for layers select only 16,17,18 and 20, * make sure ALL other layers are NOT selected. * Select process job * if you will use this process a lot save this cam setup as so that you can reuse it again Open the applemacs.us file with Ghostview for printing and print it onto an over head transparency. Make sure you can see the drill holes!

37

4 PCB Making PCB Board Layers

Measure, Cut: Photosensitive board is expensive, so it is important not to waste it and cut it to the right size. It is also sensitive to ordinary light so when cutting it don’t leave it lying around.

Expose: This over head projector is a great source of UV – ultra violet light, it takes three minutes on the OHP in my classroom. The overhead transparency produced earlier must have some text on it. The text acts as a cue or indication of which way around the acetate and board should be. We want the text on the board to be around the right way.

Develop: The developer chemical we use is sodium metasillicate which is a clear base or alkali. It will ruin your clothes so do not splash it around, it is a strong cleaning agent! It should be heated to speed up the process. The development process takes anywhere from 20 seconds to 2 minutes. The reason being that the chemical dilutes over time making the reaction slower. The board should be removed twice during the process and washed gently in water to check the progress.

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Rinse: The developer must becompletely removed from the board. At this stage if there is not time to etch the board, dry it and store it in a dark place.

Etch: The etching chemical we use if ferric chloride, it is an acid and will stain your clothes. The tank heats the etching solution and there is a pump to blow bubbles through the liquid, this speeds the process up radically so always use the pump. Etching may take from 10 to 30 minutes depending upon the strength of the solution.

Rinse: Thorughly clean the board.

Remove Photosensitve Resist: The photosensitive layer left on the tracks after etching is complete must be removed, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Thee asiest way to do this is to put the board back Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the developer again. This may take about 15 minutes.

39

Laquer: The copper tracks on the board will oxidise very quickly (within minutes the board may be ruined), so the tracks must be protected straight away, they can be sprayed with a special solder through laquer (or tinned).

Drilling & Safety: Generally we use a mm drill in class. This suits almost all the components we use. Take you time with drilling as the drill bit is very small and breaks easily. As always wear safety glasses!

Use a third hand: When soldering use something to support the board. Also bend the wires just a little to hold the component in place (do not bend them flat onto the track as this makes them very hard to remove if you make a mistake).

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5 Soldering, solder and soldering irons Soldering is a process of forming an electrical connection between two metals. The most important point is GOOD THINGS TAKE TIME, SO TAKE YOUR TIME! Quick soldering jobs can become really big headaches in the future, and people learning to solder tend to be quick because either they believe the temperatures will damage the components or they think of the solder as glue. Soldering is best described Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen as a graceful process. So approach it from that way, always slowwwwing down to get a good soldering joint. Follow these simple steps to get the best results. 1. The materials must be clean, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. 2. Wipe clean the iron on a moist sponge (the splnge must not be dripping wet!) 3. The iron must be tinned with a small amount of solder. 4. Put the tinned iron onto the joint to heat the joint first. 5, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. The joint must be heated (be aware that excessive heat can ruin boards and components) 6. Apply the solder to the joint near the soldering iron but not onto the iron itself. 7. Use enough solder so the solder flows thoroughly around the joint- it takes time for the solder to siphon or capillary around all the gaps. Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Remove the solder. 9. Keep the iron on the joint after the solder for an instant. Remove the soldering iron last – do not clean the iron, the solder left on it will protect it from oxidising Support the joint while it cools (do not cool it by blowing on it) DO NOT - DO NOT - DO NOT - DO NOT repeatedly touch and remove the soldering Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen on a joint this will never heat the joint properly, HOLD the iron onto the joint until both parts of it COMPLETELY heat through .s

When you are soldering properly you are following a code of practice

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Soldering facts   

     

   

Currently the solder we use is a mix of tin and lead with as many as 5 cores of flux. Don’t use solder whichis too thick. When the solder flows smoothly onto surfaces it is know as "WETTING". Flux is a crucial element in soldering it cleans removing oxidisation and prevents Kaspersky Internet Security 21.0.13.648 serial key Archives of components by sealing the area of the joint as solder begins to flow. It also reduces surface tension so improves viscosity and wettability. Our use of lead solder may change in the future with the trend to Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen to non lead based materials in electronics. If a solder joint is not heated properly before applying more solder or the solder is applied to the iron not the joint then the flux will all burn away or evaporate before it can do its proper job of cleaning and sealing the materials. A new alloy of tin and copper must be formed for soldering to have taken place, it is not gluing! The new alloy must have time to form, it will only be around um thick As solder goes from a solid to a liquid it goes through a plastic state. This is the state of risk for your joint, if something moves during that time the solder will crack. It is for this reason that we don't dab at a joint with a hot iron, the joint never really becomes hot enough to melt the solder hence no wetting takes place and the joint is going to be unreliable. If Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen apply the solder to the joint not the iron you will know the joint is hot enough because the solder will melt. Flux is useful for only about 5 seconds. Reheating joints without fresh solder often doesn't do much good, in fact it could even damage them. Too much heat on components during soldering can destroy the component or lift the tracks from the PCB. If components get very hot while your circuit is on, then they can deteriorate your solder joint Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen cause it to fracture. Soldering provides a certain amount of mechanical support to a joint, however be careful as to how much support you expect it to give. Very small components through the holes in a PCB are fine, some larger components may need other support, often just bending the legs slightly before soldering is enough.

Soldering Safety  

Lead is a poison so don’t eat solder! Solder in a well ventilated area as the fumes coming form the solder are the burning flux and are a nuisance in that they can lead to asthma.  The soldering iron needs to be hot to be useful around degrees Celsius - it will burn you! Good solder joints

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Soldering wires to switches LED's and Switches are most often attached to the circuit board with wires. These must be correctly measured, cut, stripped and soldered.

Step 1:

Step 2:

GET YOUR SOLDERING CHECKED Step 3:

The solder should cover the joint fully, and after the joint has cooled the wire should not be able to move in the switch contact.

Ztep 4:

Follow these recommended codes of practice with your work

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Codes of practice Codes of practice are industry recognized ways of carrying out work on your project, so that it is safe for users and provides reliable operation. But how important are they?

This metal strip is a “wear strip”, it should have been made from stainless steel but was however made from titanium which is much stronger. A “wear strip” is a sacrificial metal strip that protects an edge on an aircraft; it is designed to be worn away with friction. This titanium strip was a replacement part on a Continental Airways DC aircraft. It was also not properly installed. The strip fell off the DC10 onto the runway at Charles de Gaulle airport, north of Paris on July 25,

The next aircraft to take off was an Air France Concorde. Before a Concord takes off the runway was supposed to be inspected and cleared of all foreign objects, this was also not done. The aircraft picked up the strip with one of its tires. The titanium strip caused the Topaz A.I. Gigapixel 5.6.0 Crack Full Version Free Download (2021) to burst, sending rubber debris up into the wing of aircraft. The aircraft stores its fuel in tanks in the wing. The wing is not very thick material and the tank burst open, the aircraft leaked fuel which ignited, sparking a bigger fuel leak and fire that brought the plane down. The Air France Concorde crashed in a ball of flames 10km passed the runway, killing all people aboard and four people at a hotel in an outer suburb of Paris. Since the incident all Concorde aircraft have been retired from service, and in July it was determined that 5 people would stand trial for the crash. So how important are codes of practice? How important is your soldering?

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Good and bad solder joints

The finished solder joint should be cone shaped and bright in colour When a solder joint is correct there will be a new alloy od Sn-Cu formed between the solder and the track or component lead.

Too little solder, not enough heat

Too much solder

Heated only the pcb track

Too much solder, it has flowed onto another trac k

Too little solder

Heated only the leg of the component

Only soldered on one side of the leg

A whisker of solder is touching another track

45

Forgot to solder it!!

Soldering wires to LED’s LED's and Switches are most often attached to the circuit board with wires. These must be correctly measured, cut, stripped and soldered. To begin improving your accuracy practically keep to these measurements

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5: Step 6:

GET YOUR SOLDERING CHECKED CHECK THAT YOU GOT YOUR SOLDERING CHECKED!!!

Step 7:

Heatshrink needs to provide BOTH Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen and electrical cover!

46

6 Introductory Electronics Theory Making electricity Electronic circuits need energy, this energy is in the form of moving charges

There are a number of ways that we can get charges moving around circuits, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen.      

from chemical reactions (cells, batteries and the newer fuel cells), from magnets, wires and motion (generators and alternators), from light (photovoltaic cells), from friction (electrostatics e.g. the Van de Graaff generator), from heat (a thermocouple), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, from pressure (piezoelectric).

Cells A cell is a single chemical container, and can produce a voltage of volts to 2 volts depending on its type. In the diagram on the copper side there are plenty of electrons(-), on the zinc side (+) there is an absence of electrons.

Here is a tomato cell powering an LCD clock.

Lemons make good cells too!

Batteries A battery is a collection of cells in series e.g. a 12 volt car battery is six 2 volt lead-acid cells in series.

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Different types of cells 



Primary cells (not rechargeable) o Zinc-carbon - inexpensive AAA, AA, C and D dry-cells and batteries. The electrodes are zinc and carbon, with an acidic paste between them that serves as the electrolyte. o Alkaline - Used in common Duracell and Energizer batteries, the electrodes are zinc and manganese-oxide, with an alkaline electrolyte. o Lithium photo - Lithium, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, lithium-iodide and lead-iodide are used in cameras because of their ability to supply high currents for short periods of time. o Zinc-mercury oxide - This is often used in hearing-aids. o Silver-zinc - This is used in aeronautical applications because the power-to-weight ratio is good. Secondary Cells (Rechargeable) o Lead-acid - Used in automobiles, the electrodes are made of lead and lead-oxide with a strong acidic electrolyte. o Zinc-air - lightweight, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. o Nickel-cadmium - The electrodes are nickel-hydroxide and cadmium, with potassiumhydroxide as the electrolyte. o Nickel-metal hydride (NiMh). o Lithium-ion - Excellent power-to-weight ratio. o Metal-chloride

Electrostatics When certain materials such as wool and a plastic ruler are rubbed against each other an electric charge is generated. This is the principle of electrostatics. The rubbing process causes electrons to be pulled from the surface of one material and relocated on the surface of the other material. As the charged plastic moves over a piece of paper the electrons within the paper will be repelled (The paper is an insulator so the electrons cannot move far). This causes a slight positive charge on the paper. This will mean that the negatively charged plastic will attract and pick up the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen charged paper (because opposite charges attract). The positive side effects of Static Electricity Smoke stack pollution control, Air fresheners, Photocopiers, Laser Printers, Car Painting, The negative side effects of static electricity Lightning Sparks from car – they hurt, Damage/reduce life of electronic components Danger around any flammable material (like at petrol stations)

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ESD electrostatic discharge

Many components can be damaged by the high voltages of static electricity that we produce (we can easily generate several thousand volts). A large industry exists to provide anti-static devices to prevent this from damaging electronic components.

49

Magnets, wires and motion When a wire moves in a magnetic field electricity is produced. This picture shows the process of generating electricity from motion.

This mechanical torch has no batteries, this means that it will only generate electricity while the lever is being worked. Turning the hand crack on the front of this radio will charge the internal rechargeable batteries. A one minute crank will give 30 minutes of listening; 30minutes of cranking Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen fully charge the batteries for 15 hours of listening

Group Power Assignment In groups of six, choose one of the following each: A. Power stations: Geothermal, Gas Fired, Hydro, Wind, Solar, VSO Downloader Ultimate Crack 5.0.1.64 Full [New] Describe in detail its operation, typical uses, hazards, advantages and disadvantages, where it is used (if used) In New Zealand B. Cells and Batteries Zinc Carbon, Alkaline, Lithium, Lead Acid, NiCad, NiMh Describe in detail its operation, typical uses, hazards, advantages, disadvantages Achieved Diagram, location(s), some attempt at description of operation in own words Diagram, location(s), some attempt at description of operation in own words

Merit Pictures and Diagrams with clear descriptions of operation. Pictures and Diagrams with clear descriptions of operation.

Excellence Power Station Thorough explanations and technology clear diagrams and pictures of working, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, sources are referenced. Battery / Cell Thorough explanations and Technology clear diagrams and pictures of working, sourc, explains mAH ratings, energy to weight ratio, sources are referenced In your group you will need to agree on a common format for presentation: A2, A3 or Web, fonts, colours, layout. You will have 2 periods in class to work on this together. Please do not copy information straight from wikipedia or some other source, write the information in your own words.

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Electricity supply in New Zealand

In Auckland the mains power comes up from power stations in the south via over head lines that carry voltages ofVolts (kV) at thousands of amps.

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Conductors When a difference in energy exists in a circuit electrons (charges) want to flow from the negative to the positive. Materials that allow charges to flow freely are called conductors. Insulators are materials that do not allow charges to move freely. Materials that have high conductivity are silver, gold, copper, aluminium, steel and iron. To understand why these are good conductors some knowledge about atoms is required. Everything is made up of atoms or structures of atoms. Atoms themselves are made of a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by numbers of electrons. The electrons spin around the nucleus. Electrons have a negative charge, protons a positive charge, neutrons no charge. The sum of all Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen in a normal atom is zero making the atom electrically neutral.

The numbers of different neutrons, protons and electrons determine what type of material something is. With larger atoms the nucleus contains more protons and neutrons, and the electrons are arranged in layers or shells.

Less electrons in the outer shell means that a material is better at conducting. A single electron in an outer shell on its own tends to be held weakly or loosely bound by the nucleus and is very free to move. This is shown in the copper atom. The atoms in the outer shell are known as Valence electrons

Insulators When the outer shell of an atom is full there are no free electrons, these tightly bound valence electrons make the material better at insulating, i.e. no current can flow. Insulators are used in electronics just as much as conductors to control where current flows and where it doesn't. An insulating material can break down however if enough voltage is applied.

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Wire Assignment Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen use different types of wire for different jobs. Wires can be categorised by the number and diameter of the strands and whether they are tinned or not. Collect samples of the different types of wire used in class, label each with the wires by its characteristics: e.g. single or multi-stranded, tinned or un-tinned and number and thickness of the strands.

Tinned single strand mm

In groups work on the following questions and record the answers in your exercise book.  What are some advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of each type of wire?  What is tinning, and why are wires tinned?  When would you prefer single over multi-stranded wire?  When would you prefer multi-stranded over tinned wire?

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Resistors Resistors reduce the current (flow of electrons/charges) in a circuit. The unit of resistance is ohms and the symbol is the Greek symbol omega. (Note that we often use the letter R on computers because an omega is harder to insert.) Resistors can be variable in value (used in Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen controls, light dimmers, etc) or fixed in value. Common fixed resistor types are Metal Film and Carbon Film.



Resistor Assignment

Write a description of how a metal film resistor is constructed. Write description of how a carbon film resistor is constructed. Include pictures with both.



Resistivity

Resisitivity is the measure of how a material opposes electrical current, it is measured in ohm-meters. Silver

x 10 -8 Ω/m

Gold

x

Copper



Aluminium

x

Tungsten Iron Tin Lead Mercury

x 1 x x x x

Nichrome Carbon Germanium Seawater Silicon

1 x x x 2 x x

pure water Glass & porcelain Rubber Quartz (SiO4) PTFE (Teflon)

x 1 x

Ω-m

Silver cadmium oxide is used in high voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing, resists oxidation Used in sliding contacts on circuit boards, more corrosion resistant than silver, resists oxidation Electrical hookup wire, house wiring, printed circuit boards Used in high voltage power cables, it has 65% of the conductivity by volume of copper but % by weight High melting point so good for lightbulbs Used to make steel Used in Solder Used in solder Used in Any DVD Converter Professional Crack 6.3.6 License key switches, because it is liquid at room temperature Used in heating elements Used in resistors Was used in making diodes and transistors

Ω-m

Used as the main material for semiconductors Doesn’t conduct! Used in power line insulators

1 x x

Insulating boots for Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen workers silicon–oxygen tetrahedral -used for its piexo electric properties Polytetrafluoroethylene, insulation for wires

1 x

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Resistor prefixes

Some common resistor values are 1k (1,) 10k (10,) 1M (1,) 2k2 (2,) 47k (47,). Conversions between, ohms, kilo and Mega are very important in electronics. So how do you remember that 1 kOhm = Ohms or 22, Ohms = 22k? First know that the prefixes are normally in groups of thousands and secondly writing them into a table helps. Giga

Mega

kilo

G

M

k

1

0 0 0 2 2

R

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 8

milli

micro

nano

pica

m

u

n

p

2 0 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1Mohm = 1, ohms 22k ohms = 22, ohms

ohm = 2R2 ohms 4, = 4k7 ohms

Every conversion in in groups of three or thousands so decimal points and commas can only go when lines are shown on the table Note the special case in electronics where we use 2k2 not K. The reason for this is that when a schematic or circuit diagram is photocopied a number of times then the decimal point may disappear leaving as This cannot happen when using 2k2 (2,), 2R2 () or 2M2 (2,). Convert the following: Ohms

Correctly formatted



1K5

5,

5M6

3,

3k3



12R5

9, 22, 4, 10, 22,k 4, 3,K 91, k 55



Resistor Values Exercises

Resistor values are normally shown on the body of the resistor using colour codes There are 2 schemes, one with 4 bands of colour and one with 5 bands of colour

The colour code is

You will need some practice at using this table.

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Here are some common values 1st band, Bn = 1 2nd band, R = 2 3rd band, BK = 0 4th band, Y = (4 zero’s)

5th band, Bn = 1% Answer: 1, ohm, +/-1% = 1M2

1st band: Y_____ 2nd band: Pu_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: Bk_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: BN_____ 2nd band: Bk_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: Bk_____

1st band: BN_____ 2nd band: Bk_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: BN_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: Or_____ 2nd band: Or_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: R_____

1st band: BN_____ 2nd band: Bk_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: R_____ 5th band: Bn Answer:

1st band: Or_____ 2nd band: Wh_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen band: Bk_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: Gn_____ 2nd band: Bu_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: Bk_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: Bn_____ 2nd band: Bk_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: Gold_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: BN_____ 2nd band: Bk_____ 3rd band: Bk_____ 4th band: Silver_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

1st band: Y_____ 2nd band: Pu_____ 3rd band: BK_____ 4th band: Gold_____ 5th band: Bn_____ Answer:

5th band: Bn_____ Answer

5th band: Bn_____ Answer

Find the colour codes for the following resistors (5 band) 1K2 1% (1, ohms = Bk – Rd – Bk – Bn __ Bn) 18k 1% 4M7 1% 8K2 1%

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Capacitors

There are two different symbols for the two main categories of capacitors and many several types within each category Polarised non polarised

such as an electrolytic

such as ceramic disc

and tantalum And polyester

Note the 50V voltage rating on the electrolytic, all capacitors are rated up to a particular voltage, exceeding this may cause the capacitor to overheat leak and even explode!

Values will be written on these capacitors, generally in microfarads

Values will be written on these capacitors, generally in picofarads and in code =pF (mans 10 + 4 more zeros) The main one of these we use in the workshop will be the uF = nF = ,pF

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Component symbols reference

Get to know the first 11 of these straight away Resistor

Diode

NPN Transistor

Battery

LDR Light Dependent Resistor

LED - Light Emitting Diode

Wires – joined (junctions used)

Wires – unjoined (no junction)

Switch

Capacitor (non polarised type)

Ground, Earth or 0V Capacitor

Capacitor (polarised type applemacs.usolytic)

Zener Diode

Motor

PNP Transistor

Variable Resistor ( or Potentiometer)

Speaker

MOSFET (enhancement mode)

Thermistor (senses temperature)

Piezo or crystal

Relay

Transformer

Microphone

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7 Year 10/11 - Typical test questions so far Here are some questions to help you prepare for your test Darkness Detector 1. What are the color codes for all the resistors used in the darkness detector? 2. Draw the circuit for the darkness detector 3. What is the diode for? 4. Draw a breadboard with a resistor, LED, switch and battery connected so that the LED lights up? 5. What is the device with three legs called? 6. How can you tell the right way to put in an LED? 7. What is your electronics teachers favourite flavour of chocolate? 8. Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen does LED stand for? 9. What does LDR stand for? When a switch is turning a circuit on and off what is it actually doing? What is the LDR for? What components make up the input part of the circuit? What components make up the output part of the circuit? What components make up the process part of the circuit? What components make up the power supply part of the circuit? Eagle What is the difference Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen the various different resistor packages? What is an airwire? Explain the three layout rules PCB Making What is the length of time for Exposing a PCB What comes after exposing and before etching? What chemical do we use for etching PCBs? Why do we use a lacquer on the PCB? What safety precautions should be taken when making PCBs? What safety precastons should be taken when drilling PCBs? Soldering What is solder made of? What is flux for? What temperature is a soldering iron? What is a code of practice? Think of at least one terrible thing that could go wrong due to poor soldering Why must the sponge be damp but not wet? Describe three types of bad solder joints Describe a good solder joint Why do we put heatshrink over wires? General Electronic What is current? Where does electricity come from in NZ? What is the voltage of a AA cell? When is static electricity bad? Does current flow in a circuit? (trick question!) Why do some things conduct and others not? Name three conductors used in electronics, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. What are some different types of wire and where do we use each one? Use a resistor colour code table to find the values of 3 different resistors used in the workshop. Draw and name the first 11 symbols in the symbol table. 60

8 Electronics Theory I Conventional Current Before the electron was discovered it was thought that the movement of charge was Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen positive to negative. It is common when current is being discussed for conventional current to be meant, that is current will be from positive to negative. If we want to make the difference clear we will say conventional current (positive to negative) or electron current flow (negative to positive)



Ground

In a circuit we need a reference point for all Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen voltage measurements, we often refer to this point as ground. At the ground point in the circuit the voltage potential is zero. In a battery powered circuit the negative side of the battery is often referred to as ground. These are the symbols you will see for a ground connection.

Preferred resistor values Not every resistor value is made, there are ranges called the E series (Exponent?) This is useful because then not all values have to be held in stock by a company for manufacturing purposes. E6 series E12 series

E24 series In the E6 series there are 6 values per decade, so the following values are made:,1,,10, 15, 22, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, 47, 68,,,,…. 61

Resistor Tolerances Resistors are not perfect values they are made by machine and therefore have a NOMINAL value which is correct to a reasonable accuracy. Usually we buy 1% resistors for the workshop so they are guaranteed to be close in value. Calculate these tolerances: Nominal Value Tolerance Min value R 1% - 1% = - = R 1K 4k7 10K 33K

Max value + 1% = + = R

Combining resistors in series Sometimes it is necessary to put resistors in series to get the value we need. In circuit diagrams we use names for components such as R1, R2, R3, R4 and Rt means the total resistance. (Wherever you see ohms you can replace it with the symbol Ω in your work) 1. R1= R R2=R

Rt =

R1= 10k R2=30k

Rt =

R1= 1k8 R2=10k

Rt =

R1 = 4k7 R2 = 1K8 R3 = 9K2

Rt = Rt = Rt =

2.

3.

4.

5. R1 = 2M6 Rt = R2 = K Rt = R3 = K Rt =

R1 = 1M8 R2 = K Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen = R3 = K R4 = K

6.

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Combining resistors in parallel When two resistors are put in parallel the current has 2 paths it can take. The current will split between the two resistors, the current in each split will be related to the values of each resistor. The overall effect is the same as if a smaller value of resistance was used.

The formula for calculating the total resistance is: 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 or Rt = 1 / ( 1/R1 + 1/R2) On a calculator this can be entered directly using the inverse function the 1/x button. Enter value of R1 press 1/x press + enter value of R2 press 1/x press = press 1/x

1.

R1 = R2 =

2.

R1 = 1K R2 = 2K2

3.

R1 = 2K2 R2 = 3K3 R3 = 2K R4 = 4K7

Rt =

Rt = Rt = Rt =

Rt =

You need R, you have the following resistors choose 2 in parallel that would give the value closest to the desired value: 4.

R, 4k7, R 2k2

63

Resistor Combination Circuits When solving these circuits you have to look for the least complicated thing to solve first. This can be thought of as which resistors are in a very simple combination, one that I could replace with a single resistor and not affect the current flow and voltage in another part of the circuit (its not easy and takes a lot of understanding to be able to do this, the yellow colours are hints to help with the first few) 1. R2 and R3 can be replaced by a single resistor that would not affect the current through or voltage across R1

Rt= R1 = 10k R2 = 2k R3 = 3k

2. R1 and R3 can be replaced.

Rt= R1 = 4k7 R2 = 8k2 R3 = 1k5

Rt=

3. R1 = 16k R2 = 12k R3 = 18k R4 = 15k

Rt=

4. R1 = 1k1 R2 = 1k5 R3 = R R4 = R

Rt= 5. R1 = 4k7 R2 = 1k8 R3 = 33R R4 = R R5 = R

64

Multimeters To understand how circuits function and to find faults with them when they are not working it is necessary to know how to use a multimeter.

There is a rotary switch to select the correct measurement scale.

If you are measuring voltage in a circuit with a 9V battery you would put the meter scale onto 20V. As the range gets closer Virtual DJ Pro 2021 Crack Download Keygen With Serial Number + Torrent the actual value the accuracy gets better.

65

Multimeter controls This multimeter is a common type. The display has ______ digits. It can display numbers from to There are ________ different positions on the rotary switch. V is for ______ and the ranges are ______________________________ A is for ______ and the ranges are ______________________________ The ohms scale has an ______ symbol. Its ranges are ____________________ _______________________________ There are 3 different sockets for the probes to avid pro tools torrent Archives into these are labelled

___________________________________

The hFE selection is for testing ___________________________

COM stands for ___________ and the black/red probe goes into it.

The black/red probe goes into one of the other sockets.

What is the power source for the meter itself? ________________________

66



Choosing correct meter settings

Selecting the switch position is very important to making accurate measurements. Know what Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen want to measure voltage, current or resistance.

The second step is selecting the range of the measurement. If an approximate value is known then choose the next higher setting on the range switch. Generally we use 9 volt batteries in our circuits, if you want to measure voltages around a 9 volt circuit then what range would you choose for the meter? ________ If you did not know the voltage in the circuit which range would you choose? __________ Many of the resistors we use are 5 band, very small size and hard to read. What range would be best to choose first on the meter? ___________ What range would you choose to measure a resistor you thought was 91Kohms.________ What range would you choose to measure a resistor with colours red, red, orange, brown? ____________

What is the highest resistance value that can be read on the meter? ________

What is the lowest resistance that could be measured on the meter? ________

Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen measuring current where would you put the probes and what range would you choose to start with? __________________________________________________________

If no current readings are being shown on the meter it is possible that the ______________________________.

When making a measurement and its value is greater than the scale used the display shows ______________

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Voltage & Current Measurements

Measuring Voltage      

Calculate the voltage across each resistor Circuit current first. I = V/R =____________ V(1k1) = IxR = ___________________ V(R) = IxR = _________________ Setup the multimeter correctly and measure the voltages in this

circuit. 

What was the voltage measured across the 1k1 ________across the R _______________



Measuring Current

To measure current in a circuit the circuit must be broken and the meter inserted into it.        

Calculate the current through each resistor. IA = V/RA; IA = _______________________ IB = V/RB; IB = _______________________ IC = V/RC; IC = _______________________ Measured Values IA = ______________, IB = ______________, IC = ______________

There are at least two reasons for differences between calculated and measured values in this circuit what could they be? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

    

The meter is a delicate instrument handle it with care. Estimate what your measuring first and set the meter range to a larger value( or even to the maximum value), Do not measure resistance in a circuit when the circuit is on, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Check the internal fuse is correct before measuring current. Turn the meter off after use.

 

Circuit Safety

Using the meter on a current setting when wanting to measure voltage can easily damage components and even the circuit board. Take care not to short parts of the circuit with the probes.



Meter Safety

Battery Life

Switch the meter off when finished using it.

68



Measuring Resistance

Continuity

One range on the meter will beep when the probes are shorted together, or a very low value of resistor is connected. It is very useful for  checking cables are not broken  

checking that tracks between parts of a PCB are not broken checking that tracks are not shorted together on a PCB

Find 6 items that are good conductors __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ and 6 items that are poor conductors __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________



In-circuit measurements

When a resistor is unknown or suspected faulty its resistance can be measured using the multimeter on ohms range. When measuring resistors "in circuit" you must disconnect the power. To measure resistance the meter puts current through the resistor and measures the voltage across it so current from within the circuit will confuse the readings and the meter or the circuit could be damaged. Measure the resistors in the following circuits.

Can you explain your readings for the second circuit. all three resistors are measured at once so the meter reads only the parallel combined resistance

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Variable Resistors

Variable resistors or potentiometers, are used to change the input to an electronic circuit.

They come in different shapes, sizes and values as well ‘dual-gang’ (what use is a dual one?)

Some are designed to be varied by the user of the circuit, and are fitted with knobs to turn them, such as those used as volume controls. Others are called trimpots and are meant to be varied only by service people when working on the inside of equipment, these are turned 4D (4th Dimension) 6.0.5J crack serial keygen a screwdriver. Most pots vary over degrees not the full degrees. The resistance between the two outer terminals does not change, only the resistance between the centre terminal and both VLC Media Player 3.0.16 Final (x86/x64) + Portable Crack Full Version outer terminals.

For this 10k pot, fill in the missing values from the table

angle 0 to centre 0 30

0R 1, R 4, R 5, R 7, R 10, R

centre to 10k 10, R

5, R 1, 0R

If a lever was attached to the control of a pot what sort of things could be sensed by the circuit?

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Capacitors

A capacitor is made from 2 conductors separated by an insulator. Electrons do not flow through a capacitor, they flow onto one plate causing electrons to flow away from the other plate. Once the capacitor is full no more electrons can flow. A capacitors action is to store charges.



Capacitor Codes and Values

Capacitors not only come in a variety of packages but there are also a number of different ways that their values can be printed onto them. Some values are in uF, some in nF and some in pF, and it can be confusing until you learn the few simple rules. 1. learn the prefixes first, micro uF, nano nF, and pico pF micro is the biggest, nano in the middle and pico the smallest and learn how to convert between them. 2. Look at the capacitor to see what is written on it. If it has 10uF or 22n the it is obvious what value it is. However when it is written with 3 digits such asthen it will be in pF even though it it not stated, and Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen last digit will be the number of zeros ( a bit like resistor colour codes) so means 33, pF.

Convert the following = 33,pF = pF = = =



33 = = = 68 = =

33pF

Converting Capacitor Values uF, nFpF

farads

micro

nano

pico

units

u

n

p

1 1 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

1uF = 1,nF = 1,pF

0

1 1 1

0 0 0 0

0

0

0

uf = nF = ,pF

10nf to pf 82nF to uF pf to nF ,nF to uF pF to nF

A B C D E 71



Capacitor action in DC circuits

In this circuit when the switch is in the upper position the capacitor will store the charges on its plates; when moved to the lower position the stored charges will be released back to ground through the LED and resistor. The higher the value of the capacitor and the lower the value of the resistor the longer the capacitor will take to discharge and the longer the LED will glow. The value of capacitance is the amount of charge that can be stored; it is related to the size of the plates and the thinness of the insulator. A Capacitor is fully charged when the voltage across it equals the supply voltage. This ability to store charge is absolutely crucial in circuits that need quality power. In a computer circuit that switches signals at megahertz or gigahertz a lot of power can be required for tiny periods of time e.g. 1 nanoseconds ( second). If there is no capacitor close to the IC, it pulls the extra charges it needs from the power supply wires close to the chip, this appears as rapid changes in voltage level or ‘spikes’ in the voltage, these spikes transfer along the power lines Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen a pcb and upset nearby ICs as well.

A common practice in electronics is to have a uF cap next to the power pins of every IC to minimise this effect.

Another common practice nowadays is to have large areas of copper on the circuit board connected to ground (0V). This acts as a large store of charges. Many circuit boards have multiple layers of copper tracks inside the board, one of which is ground and another of which may be the power (e.g. 5V).

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The Voltage Divider

The voltage divider is is one of the most important circuits in electronics, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. It is used extensively in input circuits. To understand its operation you must know about ohms law. Below is a 2 resistor voltage divider circuit. The output voltage is the voltage across R 2, Step 1. Voltage and total resistance are known, so I = Vin/Rt Step 2: R2 and Current through R2 are known, so Vout = I*R2 With 9 volts across both resistors then: I = Vin/Rt I = 9/( + ) I = 9/ I = A across the 5k resistor Vout = I*R2 Vout = * Vout = 5V

Work out the solution to the following. R2 = 1K

I= Vin/Rt I = 9/ (+ ________) I = ___________ Vout = I * R2 Vout = ________ * Vout =

R2 = 8K I= Vin/Rt I = _____________________ I = ___________ Vout = I * R2 Vout = ________ * Vout =

R2 = 4K I= I= I= Vout= Vout =

Vout =

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Using semiconductors

Semiconductors are the group Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen electronic components responsible for everything smart that electronic circuits do. Made mostly from the semiconductor silicon, which is itself a very poor conductor, they take on fantastic features when mixed with other material.

Since the first transistor was developed in they have come a long way.

They now come in all shapes and sizes. from miniature surface mount packages to large high power packages.

They amplify, switch, and control every conceivable process

all over the world

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Calculating current limit resistors for an LED

In the amplifier circuit there is an LED to indicate that power is on. The resistor in series with the LED functions to limit the current through the LED.  AN LED requires a small forward voltage e.g. _____V across it to operate, however the circuit is powered by a 9V battery. The rest of the battery voltage must be dropped across the resistor.  Ohms law will assist with this calculation.  The resistor will have 9V - ____V = ____V across it.  An led draws about _____mA of current, this current goes through the resistor so  the resistor will need to be R = V/ I = ______ / ______ = ______ ohms.  Choose the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen value from the available values of resistors. If two LEDS were placed in series what value of resistor would be required?

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The Transistor

There are thousands (millions?) of different types of transistors made by different manufacturers all over the world, and they come in all shapes and sizes. The correct name for the transistor we are using here is Bipolar Junction Transistor.

Transistors are semiconductor devices with three leads: an emitter, a base and a collector.

The BC transistor is just one of the many different types of transistor. The BC is an NPN transistor, there are also PNP transistors the BC is an equivalent PNP transistor .

Transistors are amplifiers, a small voltage across the base-emitter junction (the small arrow in the transistor symbol) will control the current (the large arrow) from the emitter through to the collector.

The small voltage across the base is called Vbethe current through the base caused by this voltage is called Ib. And the current through the collector is called Ic. Small variations in the base voltage Vbe can create large changes in the collector current Ic. The voltage required across the base of the transistor (Vbe) is normally around V to V when it is fully conducting.

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Transistor Specifications Assignment

Transistors have current gain (hFE), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, this is the ratio of base current (Ib) to collector current (Ic). If Ib is 2mA and Ice is mA then the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen is said to be /2 = Transistors have limits to the voltages and currents applied to them in circuits. They should not be exceeded. If the voltages across the base or collector are too high then the transistor will most likely blow up internally; if you try to draw too much current from the collector then it will most likely overheat and burn up Look up the specifications for the following transistors in a catalogue BC Type NPN Case T IC (mA) mA Vce MAX 45 V hFE (gain) PTOT mW (power)

BC

BC

T0_________

BC

BD

BD

TIP41C TIP42C

2N

Transistor Case styles

T0_________

T0_________

T0_________

Transistor amplifier in Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen microcontroller circuit We often use a NPN transistor in our circuits so that the microcontroller can control low to medium power devices such as small motors or lots of LEDs

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Transistor Audio Amplifier

Audio signals are not DC like that in a microcontroller circuit they are Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen current (AC) signals. AC is measured in frequency (number of cycles per second) and amplitude (size).

Audio signals such as voices are not single waves but complex waves of many frequencies each of differing amplitude as in the picture below.

When amplifying audio through a transistor amplifier the frequency should not change but the amplitude will. (In a single transitor circuit the signal is inverted, but that doesn’t really make any difference to what we hear)

This transistor circuit is setup to amplify small audio signals (it is not a very high gain/amplification circuit) A lot of components are required to control the transistor circuit so that it doesn’t distort the audio signal.

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Speakers

Sound is vibrations of air particles; a speaker will change the audio signal from an amplifier by moving the cone of the speaker rapidly back and forth vibrating the surrounding air.

Speakers come in various types each with specific frequency ranges they can reproduce: subwoofers (very low frequencies), woofers (low frequencies), mid-range speakers (middle frequencies), and tweeters (high frequencies). Speakers have a resistance and typical values are 4 or 8 ohms. They also have a power rating e.g. W, 20W or oW. If you connect a speaker directly to a battery you will destroy it (no smoke or explosion just a dead speaker).

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Symbol

Switch types and symbols

Switch description

Example

Example name

Toggle switch SPST Switch Single pole single throw

Mecury Switch Rocker switch

Push Button Switch

push to make

Push Button Switch

push to break DPST switch Double pole single throw

Rocker switch

SPDT switch Single pole double throw

Toggle switch Or Microswitch

DPDT Switch Double pole double throw

Toggle Switch or slide switch

Rotary Switch

4 way (or more)

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9

TDAM Portable Audio Amplifier Project

This project is based around the TDAM IC (integrated circuit) from a company called SGS Thompson Microelectronics. The project involves making a portable (battery powered) audio amplifier that can be used with an MP3 player and keeping a portfolio of the processes used. You may design and make or modify something else fro your case

You will design and make the printed circuit board and case for the amplifier. You may use the provided speakers (50mm, 8 ohm W) or find your own.

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Portfolio Assessment Schedule Achieved Workbook content Printed Datasheet Component Price List Schematic Diagram from Eagle Layout Diagram from Eagle OHT of PCB

Merit

Excellence

Printed Datasheet Component Price List Schematic Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen from Eagle Layout Diagram from Eagle OHT of PCB

Printed Datasheet Component Price List Schematic Diagram from Eagle

Board works

All solder joins reliable, heat shrink used correctly to strengthen joints, stress relief on all wires CAD Design drawing for At least two design case drawings for case With changes made Photo of case Photos of case + some description of process of making Final Outcome Quality outcome, (refer to codes of practice)

Layout Diagram from Eagle OHT of PCB All solder joins reliable, heat shrink used correctly to strengthen joints, stress relief on all wires AT least two design drawings for case With detailed explanation for changes Photos of case With detailed explanations of process of making Final product shows some flair, elegance, innovation or creativity, and explanation is given of these elements

Workbook Presentation Material is readable All materials are clear, Overall presentation is easy to follow labelled, named and follow and all materials are very well a logical sequence presented, a table of contents is given and page numbers are used. Key Competencies Interacts with others Works cooperatively, Helps others and seeks others help in occasionally or when relates easily and shares the workshop often asked to work in groups workshop resources freely with others. Cleans up after self Works cooperatively with Takes initiative in keeping the others to clean up the workshop clean and tidy, puts tools workshop and materials away for others regularly Generally uses Efficient use of workshop Disciplined, optimised and efficient workshop time well time use of workshop time

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Initial One Page Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen Project: TDA Portable Audio Amp Date: _____ Client, customer or end-user: ME! Description of the problem, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, issue, need or opportunity(diagrams may be required): MP3 players are useful personal items however the music cannot be shared with others Conceptual Statement: Design and construct a portable audio amplifier to allow music to be played when with a group of friends

System Block Diagram: (include all input and output devices)

Further written specifications: Need to make or find a case for it all

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TDAM specifications Electronic components are complex (especially IC’s) and manufacturers provide detailed specifications called datasheets for their products. Find and print the datasheet for your portfolio of the TDAM, it is easily available on the WEB. It contains things such as the pin connections, a simplified internal schematic diagram, recommended circuits and voltage, current and power specifications.

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Making a PCB for the TDA Amp Project Open eagle and create a new schematic. From your schematic Click the ADD button in the toolbox and the ADD dialog box will open (it may take a while) Open the CLS library Add all of the following parts LIBRARY cls cls cls Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen cls cls cls cls cls

PART REU/7 2,54/0,8 C-EUx C-POLBA C-POLE,5 led 5MM TDA RTRIMMECP10S GND

Qty 6 10 2 5 2 1 1 2 3

Moving parts Move the parts around within the schematic editor so that arranged as per the schematic below.

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they are

Wiring parts together Select the net button from the toolbox. Remember to left click on the very end of a component and draw in a straight line either up, down, left or right. Left click again to stop at a point and draw before drawing in another direction. Click at another component or net to finish the connection.

ERC The ERC tests the schematic for electrical errors. Errors such as pins overlapping, and components unconnected are very common. The ERC gives a position on the circuit as to where the error is; often zooming in on that point and moving components around will help identify the error. You must correct all errors before going on.

Laying out the board Open the board editor Remember: once you have started to create a board always have both the board and schematic open at the same time, never work on one without the other open or you will get horrible errors which will require you to delete the .brd file and restart the board from scratch.

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Minimise airwire length Move the components into the highlighted Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Keep the components in the lower left corner near the origin (cross). Reduce the size of the highlighted area you are using for the components. Then zoom to fit. Progressively arrange the components so that there is the minimum number of crossovers. As you place components press the Ratsnest button often to reorganize the Airwires. Eventually your picture will look like the one here. Good PCB design is more about placement of components than routing, so spending most of your time (90%) doing this step is crucial to success. You want to make track lengths as short as possible

Hiding layersto help you see the airwire paths clearly The DISPLAY button in the TOOLBOX is used to turn on and off different sets of screen information. Turn off the names, and values while you are placing components. This will keep the Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen easier to read. Turn off the layer by selecting the display button and in the popup window pressing the number of the layer you no longer want to see. Turn off tnames and tvalues now

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Routing Tracks Now is the time to replace the airwires with actual PCB tracks. Tracks need to connect all the correct pads of the components together without connecting together other pads or tracks, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. This means that tracks cannot go over the top of one another! Select the ROUTE button and on the Toolbar make sure the Bottom layer is selected (blue) and that the track width is Left click on a component. Note that around your circuit all of the pads on the same net will be highlighted, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Route the track by moving the mouse and left clicking on corner points for your track as you go. YOU ONLY WANT TO CONNECT THE PADS ON THE SAME NET, DON'T CONNECT ANY OTHERS OR YOUR CIRCUIT WILL NOT WORK.

Track layout Rules 1. Route tracks so that no track touches the leg of a component that it is not connected to by an airwire 2. No track may touch another track that it is not connected to by an airwire 3. Tracks may go underneath the body of a component as long Ableton Live Serial Key Archives - Malik Softs they meet the above rules

After track routing add holes for mounting the board and any for looping wires through to act as stress relief DO NOT ROUTE TRACKS BETWEEN THE PINS OF IC’S Make the Negative Printout (Remember the text on the PCB appears reversed)

* Open applemacs.us in Eagle * From within the Eagle Board Editor start the CAM Processor * select device as PS_INVERTED * Scale = 1 * file = .ps * make sure fill pads is NOT selected this makes small drill holes in the acetate which we use to line up the drill with when drilling * for layers select Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen 16,17,18 and 20, * make sure ALL other layers are NOT selected. * Select process job Open the applemacs.us file with Ghostview. Double check that you can see the drill holes and then print it on to an OHT (transparency) 88

Extra PCB making information Grids An important point to note is that the rulers and grids in Eagle are generally in inches, this is because IC’s (such as the TDA) and other components have legs that are inch between centres. The current grid spacing is shown in the layout window most likely as 0,05 inch, if you want to see the actual grid, type grid on. For all layouts we will use inches because that is the spacing of component legs. Although when we specify a drill size wew ill use mm, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Also never change the grid size, we will use inch (50 thou). If you want ot start squeezing things together – well don’t especially in your first few boards. it just makes the boards hard to etch and to solder. Track width, copper thickness and current ratings The board we buy is 2oz (ounces), that means the amount of copper in one square foot of pcb is 2oz, That equals inches thick ( thou – or just to confuse you PCB people often say mils). We generally use or inch tracks on our boards in the classroom as they print and etch easily, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Even though tracks are made of copper and are a conductor, they are not perfect conductors and have some resistance. This means that as charges move through the circuit the tracks get warm! The thinner they are the higher the resistance and the warmer they get. If they get too hot they will burn up (and smoke and possibly flames will appear). A track of inches width on the boards we use is about ohms per inch will when carrying a current of 4 amps will rise in temperature by around 10 degress which is ok, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Our circuits don’t in general need to carry 4 amps but its good to know this sort of thing. If you want to carry 10amps then go to about inch to be on the safe side! Grounding The ground connection is a circuit is the path for current back to the power supply, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, and the bigger and the more of it we can make the better. We almost always make single sided pcbs so its a good idea to put a ground right around the whole circuit board. There is an example of using polygon fill later on. Forwards and Backwards You must always have your schematic and layout open at the same Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, if you have only one open then any changes Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen make to one will not appear on the other. Then when you open them both Eagle will complain and say that no forward-backward annotation will happen, now you are stuffed, it can actually take longer to fix annotation problems tha starting all over again!

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Component Forming Codes of Practice Component leads are bent at least 2 mm away from the component body, not bent close to the body as this would stress the component and reduce its life expectancy.

The component is placed firmly against the PCB. This helps mechanical rigidity. (Components would only be put up off the board if during normal operation they would become warm enough to damage the PCB itself)

If there is Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen enough room to lay the component flat on the PCB then one leg may be bent over.

Under the pcb the component leads are bent over slightly to hold the component in place during soldering, they are not bent flat as then it would be difficult to remove the component later on.

Component leads are cut off after soldering; during soldering they act as a heat sink and keep excess heat away from the component.

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TDA wiring diagram

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SKETCHUP Quick Start Tutorial 1. From the menu select Window then Model Info and then select units, set up units as shown in this picture. 2. Close this dialog box Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Select the Rectangle tool in the toolbox (the set of tools on the left hand side of the SketchUp window). 4. Click the nouse mouse pointer once on the origin and move it right and upwards to start drawing a rectangle (do not click again to stop drawing). 5. In the bottom right hand corner the dimensions of the rectangle are shown; without clicking there just type on the keyboardand press Enter. The rectangle will take on the dimensions you have typed in. 6. Your rectangle may well have disappeared because you are zoomed out too much. From the tool box, identify the zoom extents tool by hovering the mouse pointer over the buttons. Get use to the other zoom controls now and zoom out a little. 7. From the menu select Window then Display Settings and change the Edge Color to By Axis (now you can see whether what you are drawing lines up with the axis you want it in). 8. Under the menu is the tool bar identify the Iso view button (isometric) and click it. 9. In the toolbox identify the Push/Pull tool and then move the mouse pointer over the rectangle, the rectangles surface will change in appearance. Click once on the surface and drag the rectangle upwards along the blue axis into a 3D box; type 75 as a dimension and press enter. Your box should be aligned to the three axes and the edge colours should match the axes colours. Select the Tape Measure from the toolbox and click on the upper front right corner and then move along the green axis, type 30 and press enter, a grey construction point will appear. From the same corner place another construction point 50mm down the blue axis. From the toolbox choose the line tool and draw a line between the two construction points, notice how the cursor snaps to the construction points as it nears them (it also snaps to edges, ends and centre points and each has a different colour). Using the push pull tool push the new surface completely away to change your box to one with a sloping front panel. From the toobox select the Dimension tool, add dimension lines by hovering the mouse over an edge line (it will change to yellow), then click on the line and drag the new dimension away from the edge to place it. 92

Creating reusable components in SketchUp Creating a component Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen you can reuse in other SketchUp drawings is simple if you follow a few simple steps 1. You need a large surface on which to create the component. For example, if we are to make a breadboard, create a flat horizontal surface larger than the breadboard to start with (e.g. x mm). 2. Create the base for the breadboard component (e.g. a rectangle x 55 mm). 3. Extrude the breadboard 10mm. 4. Use the TapeMeasure button to mark out the two points for the groove in the centre of the breadboard 5. Then draw two parallel lines. 6. Extrude downwards 3 mm to make the slot 7. Select all of the entities you want to include in the component. Then right click and in the drop down menu select Make Component. 8. The Create Component dialog box opens: o Name. Type a name for the component. o Description. Optionally enter a description of the component. o Glue to. Select a glue-to alignment. The most flexible choice for components you want to glue is "Any." o Cut opening. Select this if you want the component to cut an opening in the face to which it is being glued. For example, you would typically use this option for a window. 9. You need to view the components in your model. From the menu select Window then click Components. In the Components window click the “In Model” button (little house), In the components window right click the component and save it somewhere you can find it again. Adding a component to another drawing: 1. In the new SketchUp drawing 2. From the menu choose File then Import 3. Select the component you want to import 4. It should ‘glue’ onto faces of your model.

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10 Introduction to microcontroller electronics Microcontrollers are a fundamental electronic building block used for many solutions to needs throughout industry, commerce and everyday life.

They are found inside aircraft instruments.

They are used extensively within cellular phones, modern cars,

domestic appliances such as stereos and washing machines

and in automated processes through out industry

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What is a computer?

A computer system that we are familiar with includes components such as DVD writers, hard drives, a motherboard which has a CPU, RAM and other things on it, and a bunch of I/O devices connected to it.



What does a computer system do?

A computer carries out simple maths on data, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Data is information which is input from I/O devices and stored inside the computers memory devices in the form of binary numbers. But don’t computers do complex things? Yes, but as you will learn, the art of computer science is to break big complex tasks down into a lot of simple tasks.

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What exactly is a microcontroller?

A microcontroller has the same things in it that bigger computers have, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, data and program storage, I/O control circuits and a CPU (cental processing unit) however it is inside a single IC package.

The purpose of the parts of a microcontroller are exactly the same as in a larger computer. Data and programs are stored in memory and a CPU carries out simple maths on the data.

However don't think that because a microcontroller is smaller than a PC that it is the same comparison as between a real car and a toy car. The microcontroller is capable of carrying out millions of instructions every second. And there are billions of these controllers out there in the world doing just that. You will find them inside cars, stereos, calculators, remote controls, airplanes, radios, microwaves, washing machines, industrial equipment and so on.

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What does a microcontroller system do?

As with any electronic circuit the microcontroller circuit is a system with three parts,: INPUT, PROCESS (or CONTROL) and OUTPUT. Input circuits convert physical world properties to electrical signals (current/ voltage) which are processed and converted back to physical properties (heat, light etc)

In a microcontroller there is a second conversion, where the electrical properties of voltage and current are changed to data and stored in memory. The programmer writes programs (program code) which are made up of input instructions (convert electrical signals from input circuits to data), control instructions (which work on data) and output instructions (convert data to electrical signals)

1. Input circuits convert light, heat, sound etc to voltages and currents. 2. Input instructions convert the electronic signals to data (numbers) and store them in its data memory (RAM) – A variable is the name for a RAM location. 3. The processor runs a program which carries out mathematical operations on data or makes decisions about the data 4. The output code converts the data (numbers) to electronic signals (voltage and current). 5. Output circuits convert electronic signals to light, heat, sound etc In a microcontroller circuit that creates light patterns based upon sounds the control process is SOUND to ELECTRICITY to DATA Processing of the DATA (numbers) DATA to ELECTRICITY to LIGHT 97



What you do TechSmith Camtasia Studio 2021.0.8 Crack + License Key Free Download learning to program

1. Develop an understanding of what a computer is and build a correct mental model for one a. Input and output conversion at the voltage level b. Conversion of input and Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen voltages into data c. Processing and manipulating data which is stored in variables 2. Get to know about the hardware you are using a. Get a copy of the datasheet b. Learn about the power supply required c. Learn how to configure pins as either input or output d. Learn how to interface common I/O circuits: LED’s, Switches, Piezo, LDR… e. Find out about the different types of memory and amount of each f. Find out about the speed of processing 3. Get to know the language and the IDE you are using a, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Learn to access the helpfile (e.g. highlight a word and press F1) b, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. The language has syntax (specific grammar/word rules) you must use correctly c. The IDE (Integrated Development Environment) has special commands and built in functions you must know and use: F7, F4, $crystal, $regfile, config, alias, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, const, port, pin d. Learn common I/O functions: set, reset, locate, LCD, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, GetADC e. Understand the limitations of and use variables: byte, word, long, single, double f. Use constants instead of numbers in the code (e.g. waitms timedelay) g. Get to know the control functions: Do-Loop (Until), For-Next, While-Wend, If-Then (Else) h. Get to know about text and math functions (read help file, write a few simple programs using the simulator) 4. Develop Algorithms (written plans for the process the program must carry out) a. Have a goal in mind for the program – use specifications and write a simple brief b. Plan your I/O by drawing a system block diagram c. Determine variables and constants required in the program d. Determine the state of all the I/O when the program begins e, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. Write the algorithm – Identify, order and describe the major processes the micro must do. 5. Draw Flowcharts or Statecharts (visual diagram for the process the program must carry out) a. Identify the blocks/states that will be used b. Use arrows to link the blocks and visualise control processes and program flow 6. Develop code from the flowcharts a. The outer looping line is replaced with a do-loop b. Backwards loops are replaced with do-loop do-loop-until, for-next, while-wend c. Forward loops are generally replaced with If-Then-EndIf d. Replace the blocks with actual commands e. Layout the code with correct indentations(tabs) to improve readability f. Learn to comment code so that it explains what is happening (not just describes) g. Use subroutines to organise complex code so that logic code is separate from I/O code h. Trial different ways of solving the problem and keep records of you experiments This is not a step by step process; as when you get to know about one area you get to know about others at the same time. The key to gaining depth in your knowledge and understanding comes from LOTS OF EXPERIMENTATION! That means making mistakes and above all having fun, you need to know that good decisions come from experience and experience comes from bad decisions!!! So experimenting is ok. In your electronics courses at school the aim is not to make you an expert in all the above (expertise comes after about 10 years working in an area), the aim is to introduce you to microcontroller electronics and programming, and to understand some of what is happening in the world around you and to feel able to see that you can control it and not have it control you. 98



AVR microcontroller hardware

A microcontroller is a general purpose electronic circuit; it is a full computer inside a single integrated circuit (IC or chip). Often ICs have fixed functions e.g. the TDAM amplifier or LM opamp, they only do one job and their input and output pins have fixed roles, so you have limited control over what they do, and therefore limited control over how to connect them. With a microcontroller however you are in control, you decide:  what the function of the IC is  what most of the pins are used for (inputs or outputs)  and what external input/output devices these pins are connected to. If you want an egg timer, a car alarm, an infrared remote control or Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, it can all be done with a microcontroller. A commercial range of microcontrollers called ‘AVR’ is available from ATMEL (applemacs.us), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen. You could start with the ATTiny, it has 4kbytes of Flash for program storage, bytes of Ram and bytes of EEPROM for long term data storage. Or you could start with the ATMega48, it has 4kbytes of Flash, Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen, bytes of RAM and bytes of EEPROM. ATTiny

ATMega48

Important pins:  VCC & GND are dedicated for power, VCC is positive voltage and GND is negative  AVCC and AREF are special pins for measuring analog voltages (connect to VCC), Deep Freeze Standard 8.20/8.21/8.22/8.23 crack serial keygen.  I/O ports are a group of 8 I/O pins which can be controlled together  MOSI, MISO, SCK and RESET are pins used to upload the programs. (You cannot use RESET as an I/O pin, but MOSI, MISO, SCK can be used with care)



Power supplies

Most microcontrollers work off low voltages from V to V, so yours can be run off batteries or a dc power pack, voltages in excess of these will destroy the micro. Check the datasheet to see what the range is for your micro, the ATTINYPI will work from to V, the ATMEGAPU will work from V to V.

99



BASCOM and AVR assignment

Learning goal: Students should become independent learners able to find support to help their own learning

The AVR is a microcontroller from which manufacturer________________ The URL for their website is: ________________________ Download the specific datasheet for our microcontroller (the summary version not the full version) and print the first 2 pages and put them in your journal. The Programmable Memory size is ______ The SRAM size is _______The EEPROM size is _______ The number of I/O lines is __________ and they are arranged in _______ports

BASCOM-AVR is a compiler from _____________________ The URL for their website is: ________________________ Download the latest version of the BASCOM AVR demo and install it on your PC. There are a number of application notes on the website for the AVR Describe what AN is about __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Источник: [applemacs.us]
baS A-->AaA

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