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Biobanked human foreskin epithelial cell sheets reduce inflammation and promote wound healing in a nude mouse model

  • Research article
  • Open Access
  • Published:

BMC Biotechnologyvolume 21, Article number: 11 (2021) Cite this article

Abstract

Background

Human epithelial cell sheets (ECSs) are used to clinically treat epithelial conditions such as burns, corneal blindness, middle ear cholesteatoma and vitiligo. As a widely used material in clinic, there is little information on the biobanking of ECSs and its repair effect after storage.

Results

Two methods for biobanking foreskin ECSs were compared in a short term (7 days): 4-degree storage and programmed cryopreservation. Cell sheet integrity, viability, apoptosis, immunogenicity, mechanical properties and function were evaluated. In vivo, ECSs were directly transplanted to skin defect models and histological examination was performed at 1 week postoperatively. We successfully extracted human foreskin-derived primary epithelial cells and fabricated them into ECSs. Compared with 4-degree storage, programmed cryopreservation preserved the ECS structural integrity, enhanced the mechanical properties, decreased HLA-I expression, and increased cell viability and survival. An increased proportion of melanocytes with proliferative capacity remained in the cryopreserved sheets, and the undifferentiated epithelial cells were comparable to those of the fresh sheets. In vivo, cryopreserved ECSs could reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and promote connective tissue remodeling, epithelial cell proliferation and vascular regeneration.

Conclusions

Programmed cryopreservation of ECSs was superior and more feasible than 4-degree storage and the cryopreserved ECSs achieved satisfying skin wound healing in vivo. We anticipate that the off-the-shelf ECSs could be quickly used, such as, to repair human epithelial defect in future.

Graphical abstract

Background

Epithelial cell sheets (ECSs), as a scaffold-less material, are widely used to repair various epithelial tissue defects, including those in the skin [1, 2], cornea [3], middle ear mucosa [4], urethra and bladder mucosa [5, 6]. Many advantages of ECSs in transplantation are highly beneficial and include the densely arranged epithelial cells that can completely cover the wound surface and the well-preserved extracellular microenvironment that can reduce apoptosis. However, even though ESCs seem to be promising for clinical epithelial cell regenerative therapy, the engineering of cell sheets is time consuming, with several weeks required to generate a transplantable graft. In this process, the tissue was first obtained from the donor, and the primary cells were extracted. After 2 weeks, the cell sheets are generally ready to be harvested and transported from the production center to the surgery center for transplantation. In some cases, 007 DVD Creator 2.2 crack serial keygen would be delayed due to various unexpected changes in the scheduled date of transplantation. If the prepared cell sheets cannot be banked, great amounts of time and financial resources are wasted. Therefore, it is necessary to stock enough engineered cell sheets to ensure that a supply is available to deal with unpredictable factors [7]. This would require an efficient preservation technique that can store engineered grafts for several weeks or months and be ready for use immediately. At present, 4 °C is the commonly used storage temperature during transportation, which can maintain most cell vitality within a few hours after harvest. However, the cell viability would decrease rapidly over time that ECSs couldn’t meet the quality control requirements of transplantation.

Programmed cryopreservation usually includes phase cooling and liquid nitrogen storage and is widely used for organ, tissue, and cell preservation. It has the advantages of ready access, long-term storage, and convenient transport. As many studies have confirmed, the influence of the freezing time on cell viability is negligible, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. In our previous studies, short-term cryopreserved ovaries [8, 9] and bladder mucosa [10] survived in the transplanted subjects. Moreover, various tissues, such as cartilage [11] and heart valves [12, 13], have been successfully cryopreserved and banked for more than 6 months and achieved transplantation effects that Nba Live 2005 crack serial keygen equivalent to those of fresh controls. Thus, it seems more feasible to store and transport the cell sheets by cryopreservation techniques.

Although numerous protocols have been developed for cryopreserving different cell sheets [14,15,16,17], there is little information on the cryopreservation of ECSs. The ECSs are usually composed of 3–5 layers of cells and extracellular matrix. Its cryopreservation requires the maintenance of cell activity and the cell sheet integrity. This is distinctly different from the cryopreservation of a single-cell suspension or an intact organ. Based on modified cryopreservation techniques of bladder mucosa and ovaries, we evaluated the cell viability, integrity, mechanical properties, immunogenicity and in vivo transplantation after storing ECSs for 1 week.

Results

Integrity and surface of the preserved ECSs

HFKs were successfully isolated and fabricated into ECSs, and the morphologies of P0, P1 and ECSs under a light microscope are shown in Fig. 1a-c. HFKs originating from foreskin show typical characteristics, including colony formation and a cobblestone-like shape. By the two-pump perfusion system (Fig. 1d), Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, cryoprotectant DMSO was introduced with a linear gradient (Fig. 1e). The cooling program was accurately running as pre-set (Fig. 1f). After storage at 4 degrees for 1 week, ECSs in the refrigerated-1 group showed visible damage, suggesting that ECSs were severely degraded (Fig. 1g). No visible damage was observed on ECSs in the refrigerated-2 group. Cracks of ECSs in the frozen-1 group were observed. The ECSs in the frozen-2 group were similar in appearance to the fresh group, and no obvious structural damage was seen. Compared to those of fresh controls, SEM images of ECSs (Fig. 1g) revealed that the cell membrane Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen intercellular microstructure Far Cry 5 Crack Activation Key Download Free [Updated] severely damaged after storage at 4 degrees but were well protected in cryopreservation groups.

Epithelial cell culture and storage of ECSs. Primary epithelial cells (P0) (a) extracted from adult foreskin tissue. P1 epithelial cells Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen a typical paving stone-like morphology (b). Another 7 days, the epithelial cells were more compact (c) and continuous ECSs could be harvested. In the two-pump system (d), CPAs were pumped into the perfusion solution for mixing and then pumped into the ECS container. The DMSO concentration in the ECS container was slowly increased (e) until reaching 1.5 M. Subsequently, the ECSs were transferred to a pre-programmed freezer (f) and finally transferred to liquid nitrogen. Compared to the fresh controls, SEM demonstrated that cell membranes and intercellular connections ruptured in refrigerated groups(g). The frozen-2 group maintained an intact appearance and preserved most of the cell microstructure. Scar bar: A-C, 50 μm; Gross view, 1 cm; SEM, 20 μm

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Cell viability and apoptosis of the preserved ECSs

To analyze the effect of low-temperature storage and cryopreservation on cell viability and apoptosis after preservation, we measured the OD value by CCK-8 testing and detected apoptosis by TUNEL staining (Fig. 2). Compared with the fresh ECSs, cells in the refrigerated group had dramatically decreased viability and a significantly increased apoptosis rate. The apoptosis rate also significantly increased in the frozen groups, but it was superior to those of the low-temperature groups. Notably, the cell viability did not significantly decrease in the frozen groups compared with the fresh controls. In addition, we also calculated the cell survival rate by trypan blue staining. The cell survival rate Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen preserved ECSs decreased to a certain degree. The lowest cell survival rate was observed in the refrigerated-2 group at less than 20%. Of the two cryopreservation groups, the frozen-2 group had a higher cell survival rate and lower apoptosis rate than the frozen-1 group.

Cell viability and apoptosis of the preserved ECSs. The optical density value showed that the ECS viabilities of the low-temperature storage groups were significantly lower than those of the control group, especially in the refrigerated-1 group. The ECS viabilities of the cryopreserved groups decreased slightly. The cell survival rate of each group calculated by trypan blue staining was consistent with CCK-8. In the apoptosis detection assay, compared with the control group, all preserving groups had an increased rate of apoptosis, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and the ECSs in the frozen-2 group performed the best in reducing apoptosis. Scar bar: 50 μm

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Mechanical properties of the preserved ECSs

Passive mechanical testing (Fig. 3a-e) revealed that the breaking strength of ECSs decreased and that Young’s modulus increased significantly in the refrigerated-2 group, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen.

Mechanical properties and immunogenicity of the preserved ECSs. ECSs in each group were cut and tested (a and b), scar bar: 1 cm. Compared with the control group, the frozen groups were observed to have an increase in the breaking strength and Young’s modulus (c and e). Compared with the fresh group, the tensile strength in the frozen-2 group was slightly increased (d). HLA-I expression in all groups was reduced compared to fresh control group (f and g)

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Increases in breaking strength and Young’s modulus in the refrigerated-1, frozen-1 and frozen-2 groups were observed, but the differences were not statistically significant. Compared with the fresh group, a slightly increase of tensile strength was found, but there was no significance, except in the frozen-2 group. Thus, the mechanical properties of the preserved ECSs, except in the refrigerated-2 group, were maintained and possibly enhanced.

Immunogenicity of the preserved ECSs

The immunogenicity of the preserved ECSs was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of HLA-I, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. The expression rate of HLA-I, compared to fresh controls (68.4 ± 1.6%), was significantly reduced in both low-temperature storage (refrigerated-1, 56.3 ± 0.6%; refrigerated-2, 55.0 ± 1.7%) and cryopreservation (frozen-1, 52.3 ± 0.9%; frozen-2, 51.3 ± 1.4%) after 7 days (Fig. 3f, g). The results also suggested that the expression rate of HLA-I was not significantly different between the low-temperature storage and cryopreservation groups (P > 0.05).

Melanocyte count in preserved ECSs

The melanocytes in the refrigerated groups stored at 4 degrees were significantly decreased compared with those in the fresh control group (P < 0.05) (Fig. 4). The melanocytes further decreased after 2 days of adherent culture, which indicated poor proliferation. Although melanocytes on ECSs also decreased in the frozen groups, cell proliferation was observed after 2 days of adherent culture. The number of melanocytes on ECSs in the frozen groups was higher than that in the refrigerated groups (P < 0.05). Melanocytes preserved in the frozen-2 group were more abundant than those preserved in the frozen-1 group (P < 0.05).

Melanocytes on fresh ECSs and preserved ECSs were counted by DOPA staining. Compared with the fresh control, melanocytes stored at 4 degrees were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and melanocytes further decreased after 2 days of culture. Melanocytes on ECSs in Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen cryopreservation groups were higher than those in the refrigerated groups (P < 0.05). Notably, melanocytes preserved in the frozen-2 group were more abundant than those preserved in the frozen-1 group (P < 0.05). Scar bar: Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen size image

Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the preserved ECSs

The harvested fresh ECSs were composed of 4–5 layers of basal cells, flattened middle cells, and mature superficial cells (Fig. 5). In the refrigerated-1, frozen-1 and frozen-2 groups, the number of nuclei was sparse, and the cell layers were approximately 2–3 layers. In the frozen-2 group, the nucleus density of ECSs decreased slightly with equivalent cell layers to the control group, and the structure was well preserved. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that ECSs displayed similar AE1/AE3 expression after storage in each Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. As a specific marker for the undifferentiated cell phenotype, P63 was expressed in the basal cells in all groups. The percentage of P63-positive cells in the refrigerated-1 group was lower than that in the fresh control group (P < 0.05). A further decrease in the refrigerated-2 group suggested that the positive rate continued to decline over time (P < 0.05), Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. The positive cells in the frozen-1 group were comparable to those in the control group (P > 0.05). In the frozen-2 group, the percentage of P63-positive cells was higher than that in the frozen-1 group (P < 0.05).

The structure and marker expression of the preserved ECSs examined by HE and immunohistochemistry. Only in the frozen-2 group was the well-preserved structure of ECSs observed with equivalent nucleus density and cell layers to the control group. The expression of AE1/AE3 after storage was similar to that of the control. The percentage of P63-positive cells in the low-temperature groups was lower than that in the fresh control group (P < 0.05), and the greatest decrease was observed in the refrigerated-1 group (P < 0.05); the greatest preservation was observed in the frozen-2 group (P < 0.05). Scar bar: 50 μm

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Cryopreserved ECSs facilitate the healing of skin wounds

To further evaluate the stored ECSs in vivo, we used fresh ECSs, refrigerated ECSs and frozen ECSs to repair Arquivos Artigo defects in nude mice. As indicated by the representative images of wounds on day 7 and day 14 postwounding and quantification of the wound closure rates, the fresh and cryopreservation groups showed profoundly enhanced wound closure compared with the other two groups (Fig. 6).

Gross images from the front and undersurface of the skin wounds at day 7 and day 14 postwounding. The wound closure rates were calculated. Scale bar: 2 mm

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H&E staining showed that the wounds in fresh and cryopreserved groups were nearly closed, whereas large areas of wounds in the other two groups were not covered with newly formed epidermis at day 7 (Fig. 7). As revealed by Masson’s trichrome staining, the wound tissues of the fresh and cryopreservation groups exhibited more regularly and densely arranged collagen fibers than those of the other two groups (Fig. 7). At day 14, we observed intact epithelium, primary skin structure, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, loose subcutaneous tissue and abundant blood supply in the fresh and cryopreservation groups.

Frozen ECSs facilitated the healing of skin wounds. H&E staining and Masson’s trichrome staining of skin wounds were performed at day 7 and day 14 postwounding. Scale bar: 100 μm

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P63 staining indicated many more proliferating cells around the wound sites in the fresh and cryopreservation groups compared with the other two groups (Figs. 8 and RStudio Crack Plus License Key 2021. To determine angiogenesis in the wound sites, we photographed the skin from the Photomatix Pro 4.1.4 crack serial keygen (Fig. 6) and conducted immunochemical staining for CD31 (Figs. 8 and 9). ECSs in both the fresh and cryopreservation groups enhanced the formation of blood vessels in the skin wounds, and the vascular density was much higher than that of Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen other two groups. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration in the fresh and cryopreservation groups than in the other two groups (Figs. 8 and 9).

Frozen ECSs promoted basal cell proliferation and increased angiogenesis in the wound areas at day 7. As shown by CD31 staining in wound areas, both fresh and frozen ECS regimens enhanced the formation of blood vessels in the skin wounds. The numbers of P63-positive basal cells indicated many more proliferating epithelial cells in the wound sites of fresh and frozen ECS-treated mice (P < 0.05). The percentage of CD68-positive cells showed less infiltration of inflammatory cells (P < 0.05). Scale bar: 50 μm

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Basal cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the wound areas gradually decreased at day 14 compared to day 7. The density of blood vessels in fresh and frozen groups were higher than control and refrigerated groups. More proliferating epithelial cells in the wound sites of fresh and frozen ECS-treated mice were still found (P < 0.05). CD68-positive cells were hardly found in the fresh and frozen groups(P < 0.05). Scale bar: 50 μm

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Discussion

Due to the time-consuming culture procedure of ECSs, there is a pressing need to store shelf-stable ECSs to provide flexibility when planning transplant operations, back-up sheets for reoperations, and longer transportation time. How to maintain the cell viability and phenotype of ECSs in storage or transport is a key issue faced. For the first time, we compared two methods of storing foreskin ECSs in 1 week: 4-degree storage and programmed cryopreservation. We found that the cell viability was significantly improved after adding antioxidant and antiapoptotic components to the preservation solution. Better Encased: A Sci-Fi Post-Apocalyptic RPG Free Download were found in programmed cryopreservation in terms of the integral structure, enhanced mechanical properties, high cell viability and cell survival rate. In addition, melanocytes with proliferative ability were also detected on the cryopreserved ECSs, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. In vivo transformation, the programmed cryopreserved ECSs obtained good repair effect.

After 1 week of storage at 4 degrees, the cell viability of ECSs decreased seriously, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and the cell survival rate was less than 20%, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. Similar to our previous clinical study, it is unfeasible to transfer ECSs stored at low temperatures for more than 1 day [1]. Because it can still metabolize and produce a large number of harmful substances at 4 degrees, resulting in osmotic pressure change and apoptosis. Cell activity would decrease rapidly within a few hours, accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). When the ECM was so seriously degraded as holes were developed, and the mechanical properties were significantly reduced. However, when ascorbic acid and Y-27632 were added to the storage medium, the cell viability, survival rate, nonapoptotic cell rate and mechanical properties of ECSs were improved but inferior to fresh and cryopreserved ECSs. Ascorbic acid is a strong reducing agent that can stabilize cell membranes and reduce oxidative stress damage. Y-27632 inhibits Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) by competing with ATP for binding to the catalytic site [18], thereby preventing apoptosis and increasing cell survival. Jackson et al. Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen the accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased differentiation, DNA damage and cell death after storing human ECSs at 4 degrees for 1 week [19]. Although some protective ingredients can be added, the cell activity of ECSs preserved at low temperature is easy to decrease.

More studies have tried to preserve cell sheet by cryopreservation and have successfully cryopreserved limbal stem cell sheets [14], chondrocyte sheets [15], myoblast cell sheets [16], and mesenchymal Voicemod Pro Crack v2.6.0.7 Method: cell sheets [17], in which 48–97% cell viability was reported. However, cryopreservation of ECSs remains a challenge because the ability to tolerate cryopreservation varies by cell type. The unique cell-cell junctions and the less secreted ECM of the epithelial cells can be easily destroyed by ice tension. In view of our previous studies, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, we continued to use the program-freezing device and two-pump perfusion system. To cryopreserve ECSs, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, frost-resistant clamps and thermally conductive boxes were used during cryopreservation. Supported by the special clamps, ECSs maintained a flat structure and maintained their integrity during the freezing/thawing process. In our exploratory experiment, due to the random accumulation of ECSs without clamps, ECSs were easily cracked into fragments after thawing (data not shown). Miki Maehara et al. have also attempted to envelope chondrocyte sheets in a thin film, and 86% cell viability was achieved after cryopreservation [20]. In addition, a slightly increase of mechanical properties was found after cryopreservation, but there was no significance. It might be explained that the freezing/thawing process including dehydration of the ECM could increase the crosslinking between collagen fibrils and make the tissues tough and tensile [21].

Cryoprotectant agents played the most important role in the successful cryopreservation of ECSs. To date, there are few data focusing on cryopreserving scaffold-free ECSs, but several studies have reported the viability of keratinocytes seeded on tissue-engineered sheets after freezing/thawing [22, 23]. Fanfan Chen et al. studied the cryopreservation of tissue-engineered epithelial sheets constructed by chitosan hydrogel [22]. The cell viability assay showed that 95% of cells were viable in the non-cryopreserved group, while only 30% were viable in the DMSO group. Pankaj Chopra et al. seeded normal keratinocytes on poly (vinyl alcohol)-carrageenan scaffolds [24]. After cryopreservation for 15 days, the cell viability was determined to be greater than 45%. We attempted to cryopreserve ECSs using classical formulations (10% DMSO), but cell viability was severely decreased (data not shown). After we added fructose into CPA, the survival rate of ECSs was significantly improved more than 50%. As a natural component of nonpermeating cryopreservatives, fructose has been widely used in cryopreservation studies and proven to have excellent protective effects. We also added ascorbic acid and Y-27632 to CPA, because the cryopreservation process could lead to cryo-injuries that disrupt the normal biological function of cells, including osmotic stress, oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis [25]. Expected results were achieved by optimized CPA consist of these cryoprotectants.

We did more tests of the Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen to fully understand the effects of cryopreservation on other aspects. For skin grafts, a certain number of surviving melanocytes is also required to maintain the skin color of the transplant area consistent with the surrounding area [1]. When the epithelial cells were extracted, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, a small number of melanocytes were usually mixed with. By adding necessary growth factors, the co-survival of melanocytes and epithelial cells could be achieved. Tyrosinase in melanocytes synthesized exogenous levodopa into pigment granules, which made the cells black under microscope. We carried out secondary culture after preservation and found that Melanocytes Tag: ab bulk mailer review ECSs could proliferate after the freezing/thawing process. In addition, we also found that cryopreservation could significantly reduce the immunogenicity of the ECSs, similar to cryopreserved ovaries [9] and bladder mucosa [10] in our previous studies. As the positive rate of HLA-I dropped by only 16%, allogeneic transplantation of ECSs by cryopreservation or low-temperature storage to avoid an immunological reaction remains a challenge.

Finally, we compared the repair effect of ECSs after low-temperature storage and cryopreservation in a skin wound model. It’s showed that frozen ECSs could reduce the infiltration of CD68-positive inflammatory cells and the collagen deposition. CD68-positive cells were mostly expressed in macrophages and a large amount of macrophages infiltration in the early Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen of transplantation would lead to collagen deposition and scar formation. Many studies have shown that reducing macrophage infiltration or regulating macrophage polarization can reduce inflammatory response and promote tissue repair [26]. On the other hand, we Scania Truck Driving Simulator Extended FL crack serial keygen more P63 positive cells in the cryopreserved ECSs, which was conducive to epithelial regeneration. Generally, the undifferentiated cells expressing p63 in the basal layer of the skin are self-renewing and play a vital role in the development and differentiation of epithelial tissue [27]. Retention of the p63-positive cell phenotype in cultured and stored ECSs can improve the success rate of transplantation in the clinic [19]. During the freezing/thawing process, the differentiated epithelial cells on the surface of ECSs were more likely to die and fall off than undifferentiated epithelial cells, which explained that the proportion of P63-positive cells in the frozen group was slightly higher than that in the fresh control group. The survival cells participated in the regulation of host inflammation and repair process by paracrine, and promoted vascular regeneration until the wound was completely covered by epithelium. An increasing number of studies have shown that the grafted cell sheet is not a direct substitute for the host tissue but activates the regeneration potential of the host tissue through adhesion, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, guidance and secretion [28]. The completely regenerated epithelial layer, high-positive rate of p63 and high-density angiogenesis confirmed that the programmed cryopreserved ECSs had a repair ability comparable to that of fresh ECSs in vivo.

In this study, cryopreservation and biobanking of ECSs for preserving the intact structure and potential function was proven to be feasible. These banked ECSs will make autologous transplant surgery more flexible. Furthermore, programmed cryopreservation and a two-pump perfusion system combined with optimized cryoprotectants enable automated and mass cryopreservation. We confirmed that cryopreservation of ECSs was better than low-temperature storage for 1 week. For long-term storage, cryopreservation was also believed to be competent. However, cryopreservation in our study did not greatly reduce the immunogenicity of the ECSs, and allogeneic transplantation is still facing the most challenging problem of immune rejection, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. We only compared the short-term repair effect in vivo, and it might be more convincing if a longer time point was set.

Conclusion

In summary, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, we successfully extracted human foreskin-derived primary epithelial cells and fabricated them into ECSs and then used programmed cryopreserved ECSs to repair the skin defects of nude mice. By comparing low-temperature storage with cryopreservation, we thoroughly evaluated the integrity, viability, apoptosis, immunogenicity, mechanical properties and cell function of ECSs. The results show that programmed cryopreservation and storage of ECSs using optimized cryoprotectants was feasible and applicable. Cell sheets stored in liquid nitrogen after programmed cryopreservation could also be able to be transported longer distances, demonstrating that building a complete storage and transportation network is possible in the future.

Methods

Epithelial cell isolation

All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. And all experimental protocols were approved by the ethics committee of Shanghai Jiao Tong University affiliated Shanghai general hospital. Human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) were isolated from young humans undergoing circumcision. The method was described previously [1]. Briefly, most of the fibrous dermal tissue was first removed, leaving a thin dermis and epidermal layer. Then, the layer was cut into 1 mm × 1 mm cube and incubated in 20 ml 0.05% Trypsin-EDTA (Gibco, USA) with 100 μg/ml penicillin and streptomycin antibiotics (Gibco, USA) at 4 °C overnight. The next day, after trypsin-EDTA was quickly neutralized, the tissue cubes were digested with 0.1% collagenase I (Gibco, USA) at 37 °C for 1 h. Finally, primary HFKs were obtained and suspended in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma, USA). KGM was prepared by mixing equal volumes of DMEM and DMEM with Ham’s F-12 medium (Termo Fisher Scientific, USA). KGM supplement was containing 0.3 μM hydrocortisone (SAXIZON, Japan), 140.0 mU/mL insulin (Sigma, USA), 2.0 nM triiodothyronine (Sigma, USA), 0.2 μM epidermal growth factor (Termo Fisher Scientific, USA), 1.0 nM cholera toxin (Wako PureChemical Industries, Japan), 100 μg/mL streptomycin and 0.25 μg/mL amphotericin B (Gibco, USA). HFKs (5 × 104 cells/cm2) were seeded in 60 mm culture dishes in 5 ml complete medium (P0) and cultured at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Second-passage cells (P1) were used for the ECS culture.

Human ECS culture

Second-passage cell suspensions were diluted and seeded in 60 mm dishes at 2 × 104 cells/cm2. ECS cultures were maintained with medium changes every day for 2 weeks. ECSs were then peeled off for preservation experiments.

ECS preservation

Fresh ECSs, not subjected to storage, served as controls (n = 3). After harvesting, each ECS was sealed and randomly selected for storage in KGM Autodesk Civil 3D Crack v2022.0.1 & License Key [2021] 4 degrees (refrigerated-1, n = 3). ECSs were also preserved in KGM supplemented with 0.5 mM ascorbic acid (Sigma, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, USA) and 10 μM Y27632 (Selleck, USA) at 4 degrees (refrigerated-2, n = 3). Following 7 days of storage, new KGM was added to the groups and rewarmed in a 37 °C incubator for 1 h. The ECSs and medium were collected for future analysis.

The programmed cryopreservation was performed as described in our previously published studies [8, 10]. Briefly, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, by a two-pump perfusion system (2132 MicroPerpex, LKB BROMMA, Sweden), cryoprotectant DMSO (Sigma, USA) was introduced with a linear gradient rising from 0 to 1.5 M. Cryoprotectant agents (CPA0) not containing (Frozen-1) or containing (Frozen-2) 0.1 M fructose, 0.5 mM ascorbic acid, and 10 μM Y27632 in KGM were prepared. The ECSs were cryopreserved in triplicate. The ECS was nipped by a designed polytetrafluoroethylene porous clip and then transferred to an Aluminum freezing box (diameter × height, 59 mm × 17 mm) with 15 ml cryopreservation medium. A 5-slot ampoule cryochamber (Planer KRYO 10 Series III Freezer, UK) was run by the pre-set cooling program. The boxes were finally plunged into liquid nitrogen. After 7 days of cryopreservation, thawing was carried out rapidly by holding in air for 1 minute to boil off any liquid nitrogen and swirling in a water bath at 40 degrees. When completely thawed, the ECSs in the frozen groups were washed using the pumps at the same flow rates as before. Interstitial DMSO in the ECSs was Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen eliminated by pumping medium into the TechSmith Camtasia Studio 2021.0.8 Crack + License Key Free Download. The ECSs were replenished with new KGM and rewarmed at 37 degrees, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. After 1 h of incubation, the ECSs and medium were collected for future analysis.

Integrity and mechanical testing of ECSs

Gross observations were made to determine the integrity of preserved ECSs. For mechanical testing, the preserved ECSs in groups were prepared as longitudinal strips (30 mm in length, 10 mm in width). The ECS thickness was measured by dial thickness gauges. Before testing, those cell sheets were maintained in serum-free medium at 37 degrees. The mechanical properties of the ECSs were measured using an FR-108C system (FARUI, Inc. Shanghai, China) at a constant speed of 10 mm/min. According to the manufacturer’s software, the ultimate loads were recorded and analyzed. Each group was tested in triplicate.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Samples were fixed in 1% osmic acid (Sigma, USA) for 30 min at room temperature and dehydrated by an ascending series of ethanol (from 50 to 100%). After air-drying overnight, samples were coated with gold. SEM (VegaII XMU instrument Tescan, Czech-Republic) was used to observe the morphology of ECSs.

Cell viability assay

CCK-8 testing and trypan blue staining were employed to investigate the viability of the preserved ECSs. For CCK-8 testing (Dojindo, Japan), the ECSs were punched out with a biopsy punch (8 mm in diameter) and transferred into a 96-well Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen with 100 μl CCK-8 solution (10 μl CCK-8 in 90 μl medium) in each well. The plate was then incubated at 37 °C with 5% CO2. After 1 h of incubation, the optical density was read on a spectrophotometer (Cytation Hybrid, BioTek, USA) at 450 nm. After incubated in PBS containing 0.05% trypsin-EDTA at 37 °C for 5–10 min, the ECSs were gently pipetted to single cell suspension, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. Cell viability was determined by staining viable cells with trypan blue (0.4% solution) (Sigma, USA) staining. Viability (%) = Live cells/Live and Dead cells × 100.

Flow cytometry analysis of human leukocyte antigen class I

The preserved ECSs were first dissociated using the methods above. The cells were then incubated with a recombinant anti-human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) B8-PE IgG antibody (Miltenyi Biotec, Germany) (dilution: 1:50) for 30 min at room temperature. The expression profiles of HLA-I in groups were determined with a FACScan flow cytometer (BD, USA) using Cell Quest software. Fresh ECSs were used as controls.

Apoptosis analyzed by the TUNEL method

Preserved ECSs were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 30 min, and then 5 μm serial frozen sections were prepared. The TUNEL Apoptosis Detection Kit (Alexa Fluor 488) (YEASON, China) was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After straining with 2 μg/mL DAPI solution (Servicebio, China) at room temperature for 5 min, the slides were observed immediately under a fluorescence microscope. Green fluorescence was observed at 520 ± 20 nm with a standard fluorescent filter, and DAPI fluorescence was observed at 460 nm. Green fluorescent signals localized by Alexa Fluor 488–12-dUTP were only present in the apoptotic nuclei, while DAPI stained both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cells blue.

Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPA) staining

To detect melanocyte viability in preserved ECSs, DOPA staining was performed. When exogenous levodopa is added and taken up, melanin particles were synthesized under the specific tyrosinase in melanocytes to make the cells appear black under the microscope [29]. The preserved ECS was reattached to a 60 mm dish and cultured for another 2 days. After fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde solution, fresh and preserved ECSs were used for this experiment. Following washing with PBS, the ECSs were incubated with 0.1% L-DOPA (Aladdin, China) (dissolved in PBS) at 37 °C for 5 h and counterstained with hematoxylin.

Transplantation in nude mice

Twenty-four female C57BL/6 mice (six weeks old) were divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): 1) control group: mice with skin wounds and received no treatment; 2) fresh group: mice received fresh ECS transplantation; 3) refrigerated group: mice received ECSs stored in KGM supplemented with 0.5 mM ascorbic acid and 10 μM Y27632 at 4 degrees; and 4) frozen group: mice received ECSs cryopreserved in CP0 containing 0.1 M fructose, 0.5 mM ascorbic acid, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and 10 μM Y27632. After the mice were anesthetized with 2% inhaled isoflurane, 10-mm-diameter full-thickness excisional skin wounds were created under sterile conditions. Then, the wounds were closed with transplantation of the ECSs by interrupted suturing. The mice were sacrificed at day 7 and day 14 postwounding. The wound tissues were harvested and then processed for analysis.

Histological and immunohistochemical staining

Frozen sections or paraffin sections in groups were prepared as described above, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. Re-epithelialization and scar formation were assessed by H&E staining (Servicebio, China). Collagen deposition was detected by Masson’s trichrome staining (Servicebio, China). For immunohistochemical staining, the sections were blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin (Servicebio, China) and 0.5% Triton-X100 (Servicebio, China) and then separately treated with AE1/AE3 (Abcam, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, USA, prediluted), CD31(Abcam, USA, 1:500), CD68 (Abcam, USA, 1:500) and P63 (Abcam, USA, 1:500) mouse anti-human IgG antibody at 4 °C overnight. After washing three times with PBS for 5 min, the sections were incubated for 1 h with an HRP goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (Invitrogen, USA, 1:1000) at room temperature. Finally, the sections were stained with 3,3 N-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride and counterstained with hematoxylin. The slides were covered with coverslips and examined under a microscope.

Statistical analysis

Data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 software (IBM Corporation, NY, USA). The data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. Multiple comparisons were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. A two-tailed t-test was adopted to evaluate the significance of the differences between two comparisons. The level of statistical significance was defined as P values < 0.05.

Availability of data and materials

Abbreviations

Epithelial cell sheets

Keratinocyte growth medium

Cryoprotectant agents

Dimethyl sulfoxide

Human foreskin keratinocytes

Hematoxylin and eosin

Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

Extracellular matrix

Scanning electron microscopy

Human leukocyte antigen class I

TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling

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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

ThinkPad

Business computers and tablets series by Lenovo

"Lenovo laptop" redirects here. For consumer-oriented laptops, see IdeaPad.

ThinkPad is a line of business-oriented laptop computers and tablets designed, developed and marketed by Lenovo. It was initially sold by IBM until 2005. ThinkPads have a distinct black, boxy design language, inspired by a Japanese bento lunchbox, which originated in 1990 and is still used in some models.[5]

The ThinkPad line was first developed at the IBM Yamato Facility in Japan, and the first ThinkPads were released in October 1992.

ThinkPads have seen significant success in the business market, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. ThinkPad laptops have been used in outer space and for many years were the only laptops certified for use on the International Space Station.[6]

ThinkPads have for several years been one Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen the preferred laptops used by the United Nations.[7]

History[edit]

The ThinkPad was developed to compete with Toshiba and Compaq, who had created the first two portable notebooks, with an emphasis on sales to the Harvard Business School. The task of creating a notebook was given to the Yamato Facility in Japan, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, headed by Arimasa Naitoh (内藤在正, Naitō Arimasa, now Lenovo Fellow and vice president of Lenovo's PC and Smart Devices business unit),[8] a Japanese engineer and product designer who had joined IBM in the 1970s, now known as the "Father of ThinkPad".[9][10][11][12]

An original IBM THINK notepad (above), which inspired the laptop name, and the notepad refill information (below)

The name Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen was a product of Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen corporate history and culture. Thomas J. Watson, Sr., first introduced "THINK" as an IBM slogan in the 1920s. With every minicomputer and mainframe, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, IBM installed (almost all were leased – not sold), a blue plastic sign was placed atop the operator's console, with the text "Think" printed on an aluminium plate.

For decades IBM had also distributed small notepads with the word "THINK" emblazoned on a brown leatherette cover to customers and employees.[13] The name "ThinkPad" was suggested by IBM employee Denny Wainwright, who Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen one such notepad in his pocket.[14][15] The name was opposed by the IBM corporate naming committee as all the names for IBM computers were numeric at that time, but "ThinkPad" was kept due to praise from journalists and the public.[16]

Early models[edit]

In April 1992, IBM announced the first ThinkPad model, the 700, later renamed the 700T after the release of three newer models, the 300, (new) 700 and 700C in October 1992.[15] The 700T was a tablet computer.[17][18]

This machine was the first product produced under IBM's new "differentiated product personality" strategy, a collaboration between Sapper and Tom Hardy, head Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen the corporate IBM Design Program.[19][20][21] Development of the 700C also involved a close working relationship between Sapper and Kazuhiko Yamazaki, lead notebook designer at IBM's Yamato Design Center in Japan and liaison between Sapper and Yamato engineering.[19][21]

This 1990–1992 "pre-Internet" collaboration between Italy and Japan was facilitated by a special Sony digital communications system that transmitted high-res images over telephone lines. This system was established in several key global Design Centers by Hardy so IBM designers could visually communicate more effectively and interact directly with Sapper for advice on their projects.[19][20][21] For his innovative design management leadership during ThinkPad development, Hardy was named "innovator of the Year 1992" by PC Magazine.[22]

The first ThinkPad tablet, a PenPoint-based device formally known as the IBM 2521 ThinkPad, was positioned as a developer's release. The ThinkPad tablet became available for purchase by the general public in October of the same year.[when?][citation needed]

IBM marketed the ThinkPad creatively, through methods such as early customer pilot programs, numerous pre-launch announcements, and an extensive loaner program designed to showcase the product's strengths and weaknesses, including loaning a machine to archaeologists excavating the ancient Egyptian city of Leontopolis. The resulting report documented the ThinkPad's excellent performance under difficult conditions; "The ThinkPad is an impressive machine, rugged enough to be used without special care in the worst conditions Egypt Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen to offer."[14]

The first ThinkPads were very successful, collecting more than 300+ awards for design and quality.[23][24][25]

Acquisition by Lenovo[edit]

IBM/Lenovo's Yamato Lab where the think line of products are developed
Old ThinkPad logo used before Lenovo partnership
The ThinkPad logo used by Lenovo since 2007 (left) and the original IBM ThinkPad logo (right)

In 2005, technology company Lenovo purchased the IBM personal computer business and the ThinkPad as a flagship brand along with it. Speaking about the purchase of IBM's personal computer division, Liu Chuanzhi said, "We benefited in three ways from the IBM acquisition. We got the ThinkPad brand, IBM's more advanced PC manufacturing technology and the company's international resources, such as its global sales channels and operation teams. These three elements have shored up our sales revenue in the past several years."[14]

Although Lenovo acquired the right to use the IBM brand name for five years after its acquisition of IBM's personal computer business, Lenovo only used it for three years. Today Lenovo manufactures and markets Think-branded products while IBM is mostly responsible for overseeing servicing and repairs for the Think line of products produced by Lenovo. Both IBM and Lenovo play a key role in the design of their "Think" branded products.[26]

Most of the think line of products are designed at the Yamato labs in Japan.

Manufacturing[edit]

The majority of ThinkPad computers since the 2005 acquisition of the brand by Lenovo have been made in Mexico, Slovakia, India and China. Lenovo also employs ~300 people at a combined manufacturing and distribution centre near its American headquarters. Each device made in this facility is labelled with a red-white-and-blue sticker proclaiming "Whitsett, North Carolina."[27]

In 2012, Lenovo produced a short run of special edition anniversary ThinkPads in Yonezawa, Yamagata, in partnership with NEC,[28] as part of a larger goal to move manufacturing from away from China and in to Japan.[29]

In 2014, although sales rose 5.6 percent from the previous year, Lenovo lost its position as the top commercial notebook maker.[27] However, the company celebrated a milestone in 2015 with the shipment of the 100 millionth unit of its ThinkPad line.[30]

Design[edit]

A closed ThinkPad's typical boxy black exterior

The design language of the ThinkPad has remained very Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen throughout the entire lifetime of the brand. Almost all models are solid black inside and out, with a boxy, right-angled external case design. Some newer Lenovo models incorporate more curved surfaces in their design. Many ThinkPads have incorporated magnesium, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or titanium into their chassis.

The industrial design concept was created in 1990 by Italy-based designer Richard Sapper, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, a corporate design consultant of IBM and, since 2005, Lenovo.[19][31][20][32][33] The design was based on the concept of a traditional Japanese bento lunchbox, which revealed its nature only after being opened.[14][19][20] According to later interviews with Sapper, he also characterized the simple ThinkPad form to be as elementary as a simple, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, black cigar box and with similar proportions, with the same observation that it offers a 'surprise' when opened.[32][34]

Since 1992, the ThinkPad design has been regularly updated, developed and refined over the years by Sapper[32][35] and the respective teams at IBM and later Lenovo. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of ThinkPad's introduction, David Hill authored and designed a commemorative book about ThinkPad design titled ThinkPad Design: Spirit & Essence, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen.

This ThinkPad compact keyboard features a wired device, blue ThinkVantage button and Enter key, TrackPoint pointer and has no touchpad.

Features and technologies[edit]

Several unique features have appeared in the ThinkPad line, like drive protection, pointing stick or TPM chips.

While few features remain unique to the series, several laptop technologies originated on ThinkPads:[14]

Current[edit]

Main article: ThinkVantage Technologies

Early known as "IBM Access", later "ThinkVantage", the Lenovo Vantage is a suite of computer management applications. This software can give additional support for system management (backup, encrypting, system drivers installation and upgrade, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, system monitoring and other). Currently some old features replaced by internal Windows 10 features.

IBM was the first company that supported a TPM module.[36] Modern ThinkPads still have this feature.

ThinkShutter is the branding of a webcam privacy shutter present in some ThinkPad notebook computers. It is a simple mechanical sliding cover that allows the user to obstruct the webcam's view.[37] Some add-on webcams and other laptop brands provide a similar feature. IdeaPad notebooks carry the TrueBlock branding for their privacy shutters.[38]

  • Spill-resistant keyboards

Some ThinkPad models have a keyboard membrane and drain holes (P series, classic T series and T###p models), and some have a solid rubber or plastic membrane (like X1 series and current T and X series), without draining holes.

Touchpad + TrackPoint combination; modern keyboard

The first ThinkPad 700 was equipped with the signature TrackPoint red dot pointing stick invented by Ted Selker. By 2000 the TouchPad pointer had become more popular for laptops due to innovations by Synaptics so IBM introduced UltraNav as a complementary combination of TrackPoint and TouchPad designed by Dave Sawin, Hiroaki Yasuda, Fusanobo Nakamura, and Mitsuo Horiuchi to please all users.[30]

  • A roll cage frame and stainless steel hinges with 180° or 360° opening angle

The "roll cage" is a internal frame, designed to minimize motherboard flex (current P series and T##p Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen or magnesium composite case (all other hi-end models). The display modules lacks a magnesium frames, and some 2012-2016 models have a common issue with a cracked plastic lid. The 180° hinges is typical, the 360° hinges is Yoga line basic feature.

Introduced in 2018 as hi-end display option for some models.

  • The Active Protection System

Option for some ThinkPad that still uses the 2.5" drive bay; These system uses an accelerometer sensor to detect when a ThinkPad is falling and shut down the hard disk drive to prevent damage.

  • Biometric fingerprint reader and NFC Smart card reader options

The fingerprint reader was introduced as an option by IBM in 2004.ThinkPads were one of the first laptops to include this feature

  • Internal WWAN modules and Wi-Fi 3x3 MIMO

The Mobile broadband support is a common feature for most of actual ThinkPad models after 2006; the support of 3x3 MIMO is a common feature for most of hi-end models.

The some additional features (dock stations, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, UltraBay, accessories support) were listed in Accessories section.

Past[edit]

External keyboard light, replaced by internal backlight; is an LED light located at the top of the LCD screen which illuminates the keyboard from above.

Only T, W and X series ThinkPad's feature (for some 2013-2018 models) — internal secondary battery (as succession of secondary UltraBay battery) that support a hot-swapping of primary battery, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen.

IBM ThinkPad 701 TrackWrite keyboard in mid fold (also known as the "Butterfly" keyboard)
ThinkPad 7-row keyboard, replaced with a newer 'island' design in 2012. The touch pad noticeably has buttons both above and below the touchable surface. Which to use is left to RPG Maker VX Ace - Product Key crack serial keygen preference.
Original IBM keyboard design (1992-2012) — The original keyboard offered in the ThinkPad line until 2012, when it was swapped out for the chiclet style keyboard now used today.
IBM TrackWrite keyboard design — A unique keyboard designed by John Karidis introduced by Lenovo in 1995, used in the ThinkPad 701 series. When the machine is closed the keyboard is folded inwards, making the machine more compact. However when the machine is open and in use, it slides out, giving the user a normal sized Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. That keyboard, referred to as a butterfly keyboard, which is widely considered a design masterpiece and is in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.[39][40]
The ThinkPad 760 series also included an unusual keyboard design; the keyboard was elevated by two arms riding on small rails on the side of the screen, tilting the keyboard to achieve a more ergonomic design.

The keyboard design was replaced by the Chiclet style keyboard (2012-current) — The keyboard adopted by Lenovo in 2012 over the original IBM keyboard design. And does not support the ThinkLight to illuminate the keyboard, instead using a keyboard backlight. (Some ThinkPad models during the intermission period between the classic IBM design and the Lenovo chiclet design could be outfitted with both the backlit chiclet style keyboard and the ThinkLight.)

The introduced in 2004 line of hi-end displays with wide view angles[41] and optional high resolution (up to 15" 1600x1200[42] or (rarely) 2048x1536 pixels). Partially dropped in 2008 (after partial defunct of BOE-Hydis display supplier), and reintroduced as ordinary IPS screen option in 2013.

Batteries[edit]

Some Lenovo laptops (such as the X230, W530 and T430) block third-party batteries. Lenovo calls this feature "Battery Safeguard". It was first introduced on some models in May 2012. Laptops with this feature scan for security chips that only ThinkPad-branded batteries contain. Affected Thinkpads flash a message stating "Genuine Lenovo Battery Not Attached" when third-party batteries are used.[43][44]

Operating systems[edit]

The ThinkPad has shipped with Microsoft Windows from its inception until present day. Alongside MS-DOS, Windows 3.1x was the default operating system on the original ThinkPad 700.

IBM and Microsoft's joint operating system, known as OS/2, although not as popular, was also made available as an option from the ThinkPad 700 in 1992, and was officially supported until the T43 in 2005.

IBM took its first steps toward ThinkPads with an alternative operating system, when they quietly certified the 390 model for SUSE Linux in November 1998.[45] The company released its first Linux-based unit with the ThinkPad A20m in July 2000. This model, along with the closely-released A21m, T21 and T22 models, came preinstalled with Caldera OpenLinux.[46] IBM shifted away from preinstalled Linux on the ThinkPad after 2002, but continued to support other distributions such as Red Hat Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise, and Turbolinux by means of customer installations on A30, A30p, A31p models. This continued through the Lenovo transition with the T60p, until September 2007.[47]

The following year, ThinkPads began shipping with Linux again, when the R61 and T61 were released with SUSE Linux Enterprise as an option.[48] This was shortlived, as Lenovo discontinued that practice in 2009. ThinkPad hardware continued to be certified for Linux.

In 2020, Lenovo shifted into much Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen support of Linux when they announced the ThinkPad X1 Carbon Gen 8, the P1 Gen 2, and the P53 would come with Fedora Linux as an option.[49] This was the first time that Fedora Linux was made available as a preinstalled option from a major hardware vendor. Following that, Lenovo then began making Ubuntu available as a preinstalled option across nearly thirty different notebook and desktop models,[50] and Fedora Linux on all of its P series lineup.[51]

Use in space[edit]

ThinkPads in use aboard the International Space Station, including 760, 770, and A21p models

ThinkPads have been used heavily in space programs. NASA purchased more than 500 ThinkPad 750 laptops for flight qualification, software development, and crew training, and astronaut (and senator) John Glenn used ThinkPad laptops on his spaceflight mission STS-95 in 1998.[52]

An array of ISS laptops in the US lab

ThinkPad models used on Shuttle missions include:[52]

  • ThinkPad 750 (first use in December 1993 supporting the Hubble repair mission)
  • ThinkPad 750C
  • ThinkPad 755C
  • ThinkPad 760ED[53]
  • ThinkPad 760XD (ISS Portable Computing System)
  • ThinkPad 770
  • ThinkPad A31p (ISS Portable Computing System)
  • ThinkPad T61p
  • ThinkPad P52[citation needed]
  • ThinkPad T490[citation needed]
  • ThinkPad P15[citation needed]

The ThinkPad 750 flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour during a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope on 2 December 1993, running a NASA test program which checked if radiation in the space environment caused memory anomalies or other unexpected problems.[54] ThinkPads were also used in conjunction with a joystick for the Portable In-Flight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT).[55]

ThinkPads have also been used on space stations. At least three ThinkPad 750C were left in the Spektr module of Mir when it depressurized,[52] and the 755C and 760ED were used as part of the Shuttle–Mir Program, the 760ED without modifications.[53] Additionally, for several decades ThinkPads were the only laptops certified for use on the International Space Station.[56]

ThinkPads used aboard the space shuttle and International Space Station feature safety and operational improvements for the environment they must operate in. Modifications include Velcro tape to attach to surfaces, upgrades to the CPU and video card cooling fans to accommodate for microgravity (in which warmer air does not rise) and lower density of the cabin air, and an adapter for the Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen 28 volt DC power.[57]

Throughout 2006, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen ThinkPad A31p was being used in the Service Module Central Post of the International Space Station and seven ThinkPad A31p laptops were in service in orbit aboard the International Space Station.[56] As of 2010, the Space Station was equipped with ThinkPad A31 computers and 32 ThinkPad T61p laptops.[58] All laptops aboard the ISS are connected to Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen station's LAN via Wi-Fi and are connected to the ground at 3 Mbit/s up and 10 Mbit/s down, comparable to home DSL connection speeds.[58][59]

Since a new contract with HP in 2016 provided a small Nero Video 2021 v23.0 Full Crack + Content Packs of modified ZBook laptops for ISS use, ThinkPads are no longer the only laptops flown on the ISS but are the predominant laptop present there.[60][61]

ThinkPads in the United Nations[edit]

For several years ThinkPads have been one of the preferred laptop brands used by the United Nations.

ThinkPad T480s
Permanent Representative of the Philippines to the UN, Enrique Manalo Using a Thinkpad T480s

The models found in the UN today include

  • L480
  • T480
  • T480s
  • T14
  • X1 carbon gen 6, gen 7 and gen 8
  • X380 Yoga
  • X390 Yoga

Certain ThinkVision monitors (T24v) are also used with ThinkPad docking stations [1]

Popularity[edit]

ThinkPads have enjoyed cult popularity for many years,[62][63][64] with older ThinkPad models remaining popular with enthusiasts and collectors, who see them as durable, highly usable machines.[65] Aftermarket parts have been developed for some models, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, such as the X60 and X200, for which custom motherboards with more modern processors have been created.[66]

Reviews and awards[edit]

Laptop Magazine in 2006 called the ThinkPad the highest-quality laptop computer keyboard available.[67] It was ranked first in reliability and support in PC Magazine's 2007 Survey.[68]

The ThinkPad was the PC Magazine 2006 Reader's Choice for Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen based laptops, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and ranked number 1 in Support for PC based laptops.[69] The ThinkPad Series was the first product to receive PC World's Hall of Fame award.[70]

The Enderle Group's Rob Enderle said that the Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen thing about ThinkPad is that the "brand stands for quality" and that "they build the best keyboard in the business."[27]

The ThinkPad X Tablet-series was PC Magazine Editor's Choice for tablet PCs.[71] The 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) ThinkPad X60s was ranked number one in ultraportable laptops by PC World. It lasted 8 hours and 21 minutes on a single charge with its 8-cell battery.[72] The Lenovo ThinkPad X60s Series is on PC World's Top 100 Products of 2006.[73] The 2005 PC Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen Reliability and Service survey ranked ThinkPad products ahead of all other brands for reliability.[74]

In the 2004 survey, they were ranked second (behind eMachines).[75] Lenovo was named the most environment-friendly company in the electronics industry by Greenpeace in 2007[76] but has since dropped to place 14 of 17 as of October 2010.[77]

The IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad T60p received the Editor's Choice award for Mobile Graphic Workstation from PC Magazine.[78] Lenovo ThinkPad X60 is the PC Magazine Editor's Choice amtong ultra-portable laptops.[79] The Lenovo ThinkPad T400-Series was on PC World's Top 100 Products of 2009.[80]

Current model lines[edit]

11.6" 13" 13.3" 14" 15.6" 17.3"
Entry Compact Basic Intel E14 Gen1 (Intel)E15 Gen1 (Intel)
Subcompact Basic AMD E14 Gen2 (AMD)E15 Gen2 (AMD)
Minimal Convertible11e Yoga Gen6
Mid Transitional Basic Intel L14 (Intel)L15 (Intel)
Modern Basic AMD L14 (AMD)L15 (AMD)
SuperslimBasicL13
ConvertibleL13 Yoga
Convertible ChromebookC13 Yoga  

Chromebook
Enterprise

Premium Modular PerformanceT15g
Value RegularT15p
Subcompact Basic Intel T14 (Intel) or "T14i" T15 (Intel) or "T15i"
AMD T14 (AMD)T15 (AMD)
Superslim BasicIntelX13 (Intel)T14s (Intel)
AMDX13 (AMD)T14s (AMD)
Superslim ConvertibleX13 Yoga
Top Slim RegularX1 Extreme Gen3
Superslim Basic X1 Carbon Gen9
ConvertibleX1 Yoga Gen5
Ultraslim BasicX1 Nano
Ultraminimal FoldableX1 Fold
Mobile Workstation Modular Performance P15 P17 Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen colspan="2">Slim RegularP1 Gen3
Value RegularP15v
Subcompact BasicP14s P15s
Current global lineup
Current non-global offered models (or not distributed anymore in some major markets); old models with local availability.
11.6" 12.5" 13" 13.3" 14" 15.6" 17.3"
Entry Versatile Basic Intel E480 E580
E490 E590
AMD E485
E495 E595
Modern BasicE490s
Slim Basic13 Gen1
13 Gen2
Chromebook13 Chromebook
Leaner Basic11e Gen4
Minimal Convertible Chromebook11e Yoga Chromebook Gen4
Mid Classic BasicL470 L570
Transitional Basic L480 L580
L490 L590
SlimBasicL380
L390
ConvertibleL380 Yoga
L390 Yoga
Premium Classic BasicIntelT480 T580
AMDA485
Subcompact Basic Intel T480s
T490 T590
T490  

Secure Access /
Healthcare Edition

AMD T495
Lean BasicIntelX270
AMDA275
Superslim BasicIntelX280 X390 T490s
AMDA285 X395 T495s
Superslim ConvertibleX380 Yoga
X390 Yoga
Top Slim RegularX1 Extreme Gen1
X1 Extreme Gen2
Superslim Basic X1 Carbon Gen6
X1 Carbon Gen7
ConvertibleX1 Yoga Gen3
X1 Yoga Gen4
Ultraslim DetachableX1 Tablet Gen3
Mobile Workstation Performance UltraversatileP50
P52
Superversatile P72
P53 P73
Slim RegularP1 Gen1
P1 Gen2
Subcompact BasicP43s P53s
Slim Lean ConvertibleP40 Yoga
Legacy and local market lineup

Starting Weight

0.9 kg (2.0 lb) Up to 0.91 kg
1.0 kg (2.2 lb) 0.92–1.0 kg
1.1 kg (2.4 lb) 1.01–1.1 kg
1.2 kg (2.6 lb) 1.11–1.2 kg
1.3 kg (2.9 lb) 1.21–1.3 kg
1.4 kg (3.1 lb) 1.31–1.4 kg
1.5 kg (3.3 lb) 1.41–1.5 kg
1.6 kg (3.5 lb) 1.51–1.6 kg
1.7 kg (3.7 lb) 1.61–1.7 kg
1.8 kg (4.0 lb) 1.71–1.81 kg
1.9 kg (4.2 lb) 1.81–1.91 kg
2.0 kg (4.4 lb) 1.91–2.03 kg
2.1 kg (4.6 lb) 2.04–2.14 kg
2.3 kg (5.1 lb) 2.15–2.4 kg
2.5 kg (5.5 lb) 2.41–2.75 kg
2.8 kg (6.2 lb) 2.76–3.05 kg
3.1 kg (6.8 lb) 3.06–3.42 kg
3.5 kg (7.7 lb) 3.43–3.99 kg
4.0 kg (8.8 lb) 4.0–4.99 kg
5.5 kg (12 lb) 5.0–6.49 kg
7.2 kg (16 lb) 6.5–7.99 kg
9.1 kg (20 lb) 8.0–9.99 kg
10.7 kg (24 lb) 10–11.99 kg
12.7 kg (28 lb) 12–14.49 kg
14.5 kg (32 lb) 14.5–17.99 kg
18.1 kg (40 lb) 18–20.99 kg
21.7 kg (48 lb) 21–23.99 kg
24 kg (53 lb) 24–28.99 kg
29.5 kg (65 lb) 29 kg and above

ThinkPad Yoga (2013–current)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad Yoga

Lenovo's ThinkPad Yoga in tent mode

The ThinkPad Yoga is an Ultrabook-class convertible device that functions as both a laptop and tablet computer. The Yoga gets its name from the consumer-oriented IdeaPad Yoga line of computers with the same form factor. The ThinkPad Yoga has a backlit keyboard that flattens when flipped into tablet mode. This was accomplished on 1st generation X1 Yoga with a platform surrounding the keys that rises until level with the keyboard buttons, a locking mechanism that prevents key presses, and feet that pop out to prevent the keyboard from directly resting on flat surfaces. On later X1 Yoga generations, the keys themselves retract in the chassis, so the computer rests on fixed small pads. Touchpad is disabled in this configuration. Lenovo implemented this design in response to complaints about its earlier Yoga 13 and 11 models being awkward to use in tablet mode. A reinforced hinge was required to implement this design. Other than its convertible form factor, the ThinkPad Yoga retains standard ThinkPad features such as a black magnesium-reinforced chassis, island keyboard, a red TrackPoint, and a large touchpad.[81]

Tablets[edit]

ThinkPad Tablet[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad Tablet

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Released in August 2011,[82] the ThinkPad Tablet is the first in Lenovo's line of business-oriented Tablets with the ThinkPad brand. The tablet has been described by Gadget Mix as a premium business tablet.[83] Since the Tablet is primarily business-oriented, it includes features for security, such as anti-theft software, the ability to remotely disable the tablet, SD card encryption, layered data encryption, and Cisco Virtual Private Network (VPN).[84]

Additionally, the ThinkPad Tablet is able to run software such as IBM's Lotus Notes Traveler.[85] The stylus could be used to write notes on the Tablet, which also included software to convert this handwritten content to text.[85] Another feature on the Tablet was a drag-and-drop utility designed to take advantage of the Tablet's touch capabilities.[85] This feature could be used to transfer data between USB devices, internal storage, or an SD card.[85]

Slashgear summarized the ThinkPad Tablet by saying, "The stylus and the styling add up to a distinctive slate that doesn't merely attempt to ape Apple's iPad."[86]

ThinkPad Tablet 2[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad Tablet 2

In order to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the ThinkPad, Lenovo held a large party in New York where it announced several products, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, including the Tablet 2. Lenovo says that the ThinkPad Tablet 2 will be available on 28 October 2012 when Windows 8 is released.[87] The ThinkPad Tablet 2 runs the Windows 8 Professional operating system, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. It will be able to run any desktop software compatible with this version of Windows.[87][88]

The Tablet 2 is based on the Clover Trail version of the Intel Atom processor that has been customized for tablets. The Tablet 2 has 2 gigabytes of RAM and a 64 GB SSD. The Tablet 2 has a 10.1-inch IPS display with a 16:9 aspect ratio and a resolution of 1366 × 768. In a preview, CNET wrote, "Windows 8 looked readable and functional, both in Metro and standard Windows-based interfaces." A mini-HDMI port is included for video output. An 8-megapixel rear camera and a 2-megapixel front camera are included along with a noise-canceling microphone in order to facilitate video conferencing.[87][88]

ThinkPad 8[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad 8

Announced and released in January 2014, the ThinkPad 8 is based on Intel's Bay Trail Atom Z3770 processor, with 2 GB of RAM and up to 128 GB of built-in storage. ThinkPad 8 has an 8.3-inch IPS display with a 16:10 aspect ratio and a resolution of 1920 × 1200 pixels. Other features include an aluminum chassis, micro-HDMI port, 8-megapixel back camera (with flash), and optional 4G connectivity, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. It runs Windows 8 as an operating system.[89]

ThinkPad 10[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad 10

Announced in May 2014, Lenovo ThinkPad 10 is a successor to the ThinkPad Tablet 2 and was scheduled to launch in the summer of 2014 along with accessories such as a docking station and external detachable magnetic keyboards. It used Windows 8.1 Pro as its operating system. It was available in 64 and 128 GB variants with 1.6 GHz quad-core Intel Atom Baytrail processor and 2 GB or 4 GB of RAM. It optionally supported both 3G and 4G (LTE). Display resolution was announced to be vocalign mac crack Archives, paired with a stylus pen.[90]

ThinkPad X1 Tablet[edit]

The ThinkPad X1 Tablet is a fanless tablet powered by Core M CPUs. It is available with 4, 8 or 16 GB of LPDDR3 RAM and SATA or a PCIe NVMe SSDs with up to 1 TB. It has a 2160 × 1440 Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen screen and supports touch and pen input.[91]

ThinkPad 11e (2014–current)[edit]

The ThinkPad 11e is a "budget" laptop computer for schools and students with an 11-inch screen and without trackpoint. 11e Yoga is a convertible version of 11e.

E Series (2011–current)[edit]

Two E series ThinkPad's Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen article: ThinkPad E Series

The E Series is a low-cost ThinkPad line, designed for small business mass-market requirements, and currently contains only a 14" and 15" sub-lines. The E Series line of laptops replaced Lenovo's Edge Series, but somewhere (in some countries) currently (May 2019) offered as both of "Thinkpad Edge/E series" names. The E series also lack metals like magnesium and carbon fibre in their construction which other members of the ThinkPad family enjoy.[92]

L Series (2010–current)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad L series

The L Series replaced the former R Series, and is positioned as a mid-range ThinkPad offering with mainstream Intel Core i3/i5/i7 CPUs. The L Series have 3 sub-lines, the long-running 14" and 15.6" (and as launched this line had two models, L412 and the L512 in 2010); and as of 2018 there is also a 13" L380 available, which replaces the ThinkPad 13.

T series (2000–current)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad T series

The T series historically had high-end features, such as magnesium alloy roll-cages, high-density IPS screens known as FlexView (discontinued after the T60 series), 7-row keyboards, screen latches, the Lenovo UltraBay, and ThinkLight. Models included both 14.1-inch and 15.4-inch displays available in 4:3 and 16:10 aspect ratios.

Since 2012, the entire ThinkPad line was given a complete overhaul, with modifications such as the removal of separate buttons for use with the TrackPoint (xx40 series – 2014, then reintroduced xx50 series – 2015), removal of separate audio control buttons, removal of screen latch, and the removal of LED indicator lights. Models starting from the xx40 series featured a Power Bridge battery system, which had a combination of a lower capacity built-in battery and a higher capacity external battery, enabling the user to switch the external without putting the computer into hibernation. However, beginning with the 2019 xx90 series models, the external battery was removed in favor of a single internal battery. Also, non-widescreen displays are no longer available, with 16:9 aspect ratio as the only remaining choice.

The Tx20 series ThinkPads came in two editions: 15" (T520) or a 14" (T420). These are the last ThinkPads to use the classic 7-row keyboard.

Over time, The T series ThinkPad's purpose has changed. Initially, the T series ThinkPad was meant to have high-end business features and carry a 10–20% markup over the other ThinkPads. Starting with the T400, The ThinkPad T series became a less of a high-end business laptop and became more suited as a mobile workstation, becoming similar to the W-series or P-series ThinkPads. Achieving similar performance to the W-series, but with a 5–10% smaller profile than the W-series ThinkPads. In 2013, the T440 introduced another major shift in The ThinkPad T series. The ThinkPad became more of an overall office machine than a mobile workstation. By today's standards, The ThinkPad T series is thicker than most of its competitors.

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(July 2021)

X Series (2000–current)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad X series

Main article: ThinkPad X1 series

Two X60 units (Tablet and regular non-Tablet versions) running Libreboot

The X Series is the main high-end ultraportable ThinkPad line, offering a lightweight, highly portable laptop with moderate performance. The current sub-lines for the X series includes:

  • 13" X13 (mainstream);
    • X13 Yoga (convertible sub-line),
  • 14" X1 Carbon (premium sub-line),
    • X1 Yoga (premium convertible sub-line), and
  • 15" X1 Extreme (premium sub-line).

The daughter line includes the X1 Tablet (not to be confused with the 2005-2013 X Series tablets).

The mainstream current "workhorse" models is a X13 and X13 Yoga, the 13" successors of the classic discontinued 12" line of Lenovo X Series ThinkPads.

The premium 14"/15" thin-and-light line were the 13.3" ThinkPad models (the X300/X301) with ultrabay CD-ROM and removable battery, but are now replaced by the modern premium X1-series ultrabook line, such as the X1 Carbon, X1 Yoga, and X1 Extreme sub-series.

IBM ThinkPad X61t, the classic "Tablet" laptop

More recent Lenovo ThinkPad x220 Tablet in laptop and tablet mode

Discontinued mainstream lines such as the 12" X200(s), Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, X201(s), and X220 models could be ordered with Avast Antivirus Pro 2021 Crack + License Key [LATEST] of the high-end ThinkPad features (like Trackpoint, ThinkLight, a 7-row keyboard, a docking port, hot-swappable HDD, solid magnesium case and optional slice battery). The discontinued 12.5" X220 and X230 still featured a roll cage, a ThinkLight, and an optional premium IPS display (the first IPS display on a non-tablet ThinkPad since the T60p), but the 7-row keyboard was offered only with the X220. However, it lacked the lid latch mechanism which was present on the previous X200 and X201 versions. The discontinued slim 12" line contained only X200s and X201s with low power CPUs and high resolution displays, and X230s with low power Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. The 12.5" X series ThinkPads (such as X240 and later) had a more simplified design, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and last 12" X280 model had only the Trackpoint feature, partially magnesium case and simplified docking port.

The obsolete low-cost 11.6" (netbook line) X100e and X120e were are all plastic, lacking both the latch and the Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, and using a variant of the island keyboard (known as chiclet keyboard) found on the Edge series. The X100e was also offered in red in addition to blue, and white in some countries.[93] Those were more like high-end netbooks, whereas the X200 series were more like full ultraportables, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, featuring Intel Core (previously Core 2 and Celeron) series CPUs rather than AMD netbook CPUs.

The X Series with "tablet" suffixes is an outdated variant of the 12" X Series models, with low voltage CPUs and a flip-screen tablet resistive touchscreen. These include the traditional ThinkPad features, and have been noted for using a higher quality AFFS-type screen with better viewing angles compared to the screens used on other ThinkPads. TypingMaster Pro 10 Crack + Product Key Full Download Free {2021} Series (2015–current)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad P series

The P Series line of laptops replaced Lenovo's W Series and reintroduced 17" screens to the ThinkPad line. The P Series (excluding models with 's' suffix) is designed for engineers, architects, animators, etc. and comes with a variety of "high-end" options. All P Series models come included with fingerprint readers. The ThinkPad P Series includes features such as dedicated magnesium roll cages, more indicator LED lights, and high-resolution displays.

Accessories[edit]

ThinkPad Stack (2015–current)[edit]

The ThinkPad Stack line of products includes accessories designed for portability and interoperability. This line includes external hard drives, a wireless router, a power bank, and a Bluetooth 4.0 speaker. Each Stack device includes rubber feet, magnets, and pogo-pin power connections that allow the use of a single cable. The combined weight of all the Stack devices is slightly less than two pounds. The Stack series was announced in January 2015 at the International CES.[94] The Stack series of accessories was expanded at the 2016 International CES to include a 720p resolution projector with 150 lumens of brightness and a Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen charging station.[95]

The Stack has a "blocky, black, and rectangular" look with the ThinkPad logo. It shares a common design language with ThinkPad laptop computers.[96]

Dock Stations (1993–current)[edit]

Docking station for a T60, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, T61 and T400/T500 laptops
[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2018)

Current docking stations (or docks) add much of the functional abilities of a desktop computer, including multiple display outputs, additional USB ports, and occasionally other features. This allows the ThinkPads to be connected and disconnected from various peripherals quickly and easily.

Recent docks connect via a proprietary connector located on the underside of the laptops; or via USB C.[97]

UltraBay (1995–2014)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad UltraBay

The internal replaceable (hot-swappable) CD-drive bay that supports a list of optional components, such as a CD-/DVD/Blu-ray drives, hard drive caddies, additional batteries, or device cradles.

Slice batteries (2000-2012)[edit]

Some classic models (IBM and early Lenovo T and X series) can support an additional slice battery instead of the UltraBay additional battery.

UltraPort (2000–2002)[edit]

Main article: IBM ThinkPad UltraPort

Lenovo ThinkPad USB 3.0 Secure Hard Drive

ThinkPad USB 3.0 Secure Hard Drive[edit]

A hard drive was designed by Lenovo in 2009. It requires the input of a 4 digit PIN to access data and this can be set by the user. These drives are manufactured by Apricorn, Inc.

[98]

Thinkpad Keyboards (external)[edit]

Classic 7-row UltraNav keyboard
With original IBM keyboard design (1992-2012)
The original external ThinkPad-like keyboard offered as a IBM UltraNav keyboard as successor of IBM Model M13 keyboard.
Chiclet style keyboard (2012-current)
The keyboard adopted by Lenovo in 2012 over the original IBM keyboard 7-Row design. This was done to enable the design of more thinner and lighter devices

ThinkPad Mice[edit]

Thinkpad mice come in several different varieties ranging from Bluetooth ones to wired ones to even ones with a trackpoint built-in and labelled as a scroll point

ThinkPad Stands[edit]

[icon]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. (August 2020)

ThinkPlus charger[edit]

GAN chargers with a type c output. They are mostly sold under the thinkplus branding in south-east Asia

Historical models[edit]

ThinkPad 235[edit]

The Japan-only ThinkPad 235 (or Type 2607) was the progeny of the IBM/Ricoh RIOS project. Also known as Clavius or Chandra2,[99] it contains unusual features like the presence of three PCMCIA slots and the use of dual camcorder batteries as a source of power. Features an IntelPentium MMX 233 MHz CPU, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, support for up to 160 MB of EDO memory, and a built-in 2.5 in (64 mm) hard drive with UDMA support. Hitachi marketed Chandra2 as the Prius Note 210.

ThinkPad 240[edit]

Main article: IBM ThinkPad 240

The ultraportable ThinkPad 240 (X, Z) started with an Intel Celeron processor and went up to the 600 MHz Intel Pentium III. In models using the Intel 440BX chipset, the RAM was expandable to 320 MB max with a BIOS update. Models had a 10.4 in (260 mm) screen and an 18 mm (0.71 in) key pitch (a standard key pitch is 19 mm (0.75 in)). They were also one of the first ThinkPad series to contain a built-in Mini PCI card slot (form factor 3b). The 240s have no optical disc drives and an external floppy drive. An optional extended battery sticks out the bottom like a bar and props up the back of the laptop. Weighing in at 2.9 lb (1.3 kg), these were the smallest and lightest ThinkPads ever made.

300 Series[edit]

The 300-series (300, 310, 340, 345, 350, 360, 365, 370, 380, 385, 390 (all with various sub-series)) was a long-running value series starting at the 386SL/25 processor, all the way to the Pentium III 450. The 300 series was offered as a slightly lower-price alternative from the 700 series,[100] with a few exceptions.

The ThinkPad 360P and 360PE was a low-end version of ThinkPad 750P,[101] and was unique model in the 300 series in that it could be used as a regular laptop, or transform into a tablet by flipping the monitor on top of itself. Retailing Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen $3,699 in 1995, the 360PE featured a touch sensitive monitor that operated with the stylus; the machine could run operating systems that supported the touch screen such as PenDOS 2.2.[102]

  • An IBM ThinkPad 310ED and a 760ED, both from the 1996–97 era. The 760ED boasts the unique flip-up keyboard that was standard on all 760 ThinkPads

  • The 360PE opened in its 'natural' mode

  • The 360PE in mid-fold showing how the monitor rotates over the unit

  • The 360PE folded in its 'tablet' mode allowing the laptop to be held as a tablet would

  • The 360PE's keyboard opens up on hinges for easy serviceability

  • An IBM ThinkPad 390 running Windows 98 SE

  • An IBM ThinkPad 390 with the lid closed

  • IBM ThinkPad 390 charging/standby indication lights

  • Back view of an IBM ThinkPad 390, showing the PS/2 mouse, DB25f printer, DE9m serial, DE15f, VGA and charger ports

  • IBM ThinkPad 365XD w/External Floppy Drive running Windows 95

500 Series[edit]

The 500-series (500, 510, 560 (E, X, Z), 570 (E)) were the main line of the ultraportable ThinkPads. Starting with the 486SLC2-50 Blue Lightning to the Pentium III 500, these machines had only a hard disk on board. Any other drives were external (or in the 570's case in the UltraBase). They weighed in at around 4 lb (1.8 kg).

600 Series[edit]

Main article: IBM ThinkPad 600

The 600-series (600, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, 600E, and 600X) are the direct predecessors of the T series. The 600-series packed a 12.1 in (310 mm) Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen or a 13.3 in (340 mm) XGA TFT LCD, Pentium MMX, Pentium II or III processor, full-sized keyboard, and optical bay into a package weighing roughly 5 lb (2.3 kg). IBM was able to create this light, fully featured machine by using lightweight but strong carbon fiber composite plastics. The battery shipped with some 600-series models had a manufacturing defect that left it vulnerable to memory effect and resulted in poor battery life, but this problem can be avoided by use of a third-party battery.

700 Series[edit]

The 700-series was a hi-end ThinkPad line; The released models (700T, 710T and 730T tablets; 700, 701, 720, 730, 750, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, 755, 760, 765, 770 laptops with various sub-models) can be configured with the best screens, largest hard drives and fastest processors available in the ThinkPad range;[103][104] some features can be found only on a 700 series models,[105] and was the first successful ThinkPad introduced in 1992 (that was a tablet PC 700T model without a keyboard and a mouse).[106][107]

800 Series[edit]

Main article: IBM ThinkPad 800 series

The ThinkPad 800-series (800/820/821/822/823/850/851/860) were unique as they were based on the PowerPC architecture rather than the Intel x86 architecture. Most of the 800 Series laptops used the PowerPC 603e CPU, at speeds of 100 MHz, or 166 MHz in the 860 model. The PowerPC ThinkPad line was considerably more expensive than the standard x86 ThinkPads — even a modestly Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen 850 cost upwards of $12,000.[108] All of the PowerPC ThinkPads could run Windows NT 3.51 and 4.0,[109]AIX 4.1.x, and Solaris Desktop 2.5.1 PowerPC Edition.

WorkPad[edit]

Based on ThinkPad design although branded WorkPad, the IBM WorkPad z50 was a Handheld PC running Windows CE, released in 1999.[110]

i Series (1998–2002)[edit]

ThinkPad i series 1998-2001
1998 1999 2000 2001
15.0" I1492 i1592
14.1" I1560 I1483
i1472 i1721 i1480 I1482
i1452 i1552 i1400 i1460 I1562 i1800[111]
13.3" i1157
i1450 i1451 i1720 I1260 I1370 I1200 i1300
13.0" i1400 i1420 I1421 I1422 I1230
12.1" i1410 i1411 i1412 i1512 i1540 I1541 I1442 I1542 I1210 I1330 I1200 i1300
I1620 I1250
12.0" I1441
10.4" i1124 S30 S31

The ThinkPad i Series was introduced by IBM in 1999 and was geared towards a multimedia focus with many models featuring independent integrated CD players and multimedia access buttons.[112] The 1400 and 1500 models were designed by Acer for IBM under contract (and are thus nicknamed the AcerPad) and featured similar hardware found in Acer laptops (including ALi chipsets, three way audio jacks and the internal plastics painted with a copper paint).[113] Some of the i Series ThinkPads, particularly the Acer developed models, are prone to broken hinges and stress damage on the chassis.[citation needed]

One notable ThinkPad in the i Series lineup are the S3x (S30/S31) models: featuring a unique keyboard and lid design allowing a standard size keyboard to fit in a chassis that otherwise wouldn't be able to support the protruding keyboard. These models were largely only available in Asia Pacific. IBM offered an optional piano black lid on these models (designed by the Yamato Design lab).[114] This is the only ThinkPad since the 701C to feature a special design to accommodate a keyboard that's physically larger than the laptop and also the only ThinkPad (aside from the Z61) to deviate away from the standard matte lid.[citation needed]

  • The ThinkPad S31 with the piano black finish option sitting on top of a Z61t; both ThinkPads deviate from the usual matte black.

  • The S31 with the lid open showing the unique protruding keyboard; no touchpad was offered, to keep the laptop compact.

  • An IBM ThinkPad 1400 i Series with the integrated CD-Player and customizable multimedia access buttons

A Series (2000–2004)[edit]

IBM ThinkPad A 2000-2004
case screen A2* A3*
14" 12" Low-cost A20m A21m A22m
13" A22e
14"  
Standard
 
A20m A21m A22m A30 A31
15" 15"
Performance A20p A21p A22p A30p A31p

The A-series was developed as an all-around productivity machine, equipped with hardware powerful enough to make it a desktop replacement. Hence it was the biggest and heaviest ThinkPad series of its time, but also had features not even found in a T-series of the same age, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. The A-series was dropped in favor of the G-series and R-series.

The A31 was released in 2002 as a desktop replacement system equipped with: A Pentium 4-M processor clocked at 1.6, 1.8, 1.9, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, or 2.0 GHz (max supported is a 2.6 GHz), An ATI Mobility Radeon 7500, 128 or 256 MB of PC2100 RAM (officially upgradable to 1 GB but can be unofficially upgraded to 2 GB), IBM High Rate Wireless (PRISM 2.5 Based, can be modified to support WPA-TKIP) and equipped with a 20, 30, or 40 GB hard disk drive.

R Series (2001–2010, 2018-2019)[edit]

The R Series was a budget line, beginning with the R30 in 2001 and ending with the R400 and R500 presented in 2008.

An IBM Thinkpad R60 from 2006 (right) next to a T60 from preceding year

The successor of a R400 and R500 models is a ThinkPad L series L412 and L512 models.

A notable model is the R50p with an optional 15" 2048 × 1536 IPS LCD screen (introduced in 2003).[115]

ThinkPad R 2001-2010
R3* R4* R5* R6* R*00
case screen 3:4 screens
14" 13" Low-cost R40e
Standard R30 R31 R40
14" Low-cost R40e R50e R51e
Standard R30 R31 R32 R40 R50 R51 R52 R60
15" Low-cost R50e R51e R60e
R61i
Standard Multi Ftp Sync v2.4.0.0 crack serial keygen R50 R51 R52 R60 R61
Performance R50p
16:10 screens
14,1" Standard R61 R400
15,4" Low-cost R61i
R61e
Standard R61 R500
  • Lenovo ThinkPad R500 (lid closed)

The R series reintroduced in 2018 (for Chinese market only) with the same hardware as E series models, but with aluminum display cover, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, discrete GPU, TPM chip and fingerprint reader.

G Series (2003–2006)[edit]

The G-series consisted of only three models, the G40, G41 and G50. Being large and heavy machines, equipped with powerful desktop processors, this line of ThinkPads consequently served mainly as replacements for desktop computers.

Z Series (2005–2007)[edit]

The Z series was released as a high-end multimedia laptop; as Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen result this was the first ThinkPad to feature a widescreen (16:10 aspect ratio) display.[116][117] The Z-Series was also unique in that certain models featured an (optional) titanium lid.[118] Integrated WWAN and a webcam were also found on some configurations. The series has only ever included the Z60 (Z60m and Z60t) and Z61 (Z61m, Z61t and Z61p); the latter of which is the first Z-Series ThinkPad with Intel "Yonah" Dual-Core Technology. The processor supports Intel VT-x; this is disabled in the BIOS but can be turned on with a BIOS update. Running fully virtualised operating systems via Xen or VMware is therefore possible.[119] Despite the Z61 carrying the Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen number as the T61, the hardware of the Z61 is closer to a T60 (and likewise the Z60 being closer to a T43).

  • The Z61 featuring a titanium lid (note the duality of colors)

  • The ThinkPad Z61t accompanied by a silver ScrollPoint Pro

  • The ThinkPad Z61t opened showing the internal keyboard

ThinkPad Reserve Edition (2007)[edit]

The "15-year anniversary" Thinkpad model (based on a X60s laptop), Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen. This model was initially known inside of Lenovo as the "Scout". This was the name of the horse ridden by Tonto, the sidekick from the 1950s television series The Lone Ranger. Lenovo envisioned the Scout as a very high-end ThinkPad that would be analogous to a luxury car. Each unit was covered in fine leather embossed with its owners initials. Extensive market research was conducted on how consumers would perceive this form factor. It was determined that they appreciated that it emphasised warmth, nature, and human relations over technology. The Scout was soon renamed the ThinkPad Reserve Edition. It came bundled with premium services including a dedicated 24-hour technical support hotline that would be answered immediately. It was released in 2007 and sold for $5,000 in the United States.[120][121]

SL Series (2008–2010)[edit]

The SL Series was launched in 2008 as a low-end ThinkPad targeted mainly geared toward small businesses.[122] These lacked several traditional ThinkPad features, such as the ThinkLight, magnesium alloy roll cage, UltraBay, and lid latch, and use a 6-row keyboard with a different layout than the traditional 7-row ThinkPad keyboard; also, SL-series models have IdeaPad-based firmware. Models offered included 13.3" (SL300), 14" (SL400 and SL410) and 15.6" (SL500 and SL510).

W Series (2008–2015)[edit]

17" W700 compared to a 15" T500 and a compact 12" X200 models

Main article: ThinkPad W Series

The W-series laptops were introduced by Lenovo as workstation-class laptops with their own letter designation, a descendant of prior ThinkPad T series models suffixed with 'p' (e.g. T61p), and are geared towards CAD users, photographers, power users, and others, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, who need a high-performance system for demanding tasks. The W-series laptops were launched in 2008, at the same time as the Intel Centrino 2, marking an overhaul of Lenovo's product lineup. The first two W-series laptops introduced were the W500 and the W700.

Previously available Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen the W7xx series (17" widescreen model), the W500 (15.4" 16:10 ratio model), the W510 (15.6" 16:9 ratio model), and W520 (15.6" 16:9 ratio model). The W700DS and the W701DS both had two displays: a 17" main LCD and a 10" slide-out secondary LCD. The W7xx series were also available with a Wacom digitizer built into the palm rest. These high-performance workstation models offered more high-end components, such as quad core CPUs and higher-end workstation graphics compared to the T-series, and were the most powerful ThinkPad laptops available. Until the W540, they retained the ThinkLight, UltraBay, roll cage, and lid latch found on the T-series. The W540 release marked the end of the lid latch, ThinkLight, and hot-swappable UltraBays found in earlier models.

The ThinkPad W-serieslaptops from Lenovo are described by the manufacturer as being "mobile workstations", and suit that description by being Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen on the larger side of the laptop spectrum, with screens ranging from 15" to 17" in size. Most W-series laptops offer high-end quad-core Intel processors with an integrated GPU as well as an Nvidia Quadro discrete GPU, utilizing Nvidia Optimus to switch between the two GPUs as required. Notable exceptions are the W500, which has ATI FireGL integrated workstation-class graphics, and the W550s, which is an Ultrabook-specification laptop with only a dual-core processor. The W-series laptops offer ISV certifications from various vendors such as Adobe Systems and Autodesk for CAD and 3D modeling software.

The ThinkPad W series has been discontinued and replaced by the P series mobile workstations.

Edge Series (2010)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad E series

The Edge Series was released early in 2010 as small business and consumer-end machines. The design was a radical departure compared to the traditional black boxy ThinkPad design, Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen, with glossy surfaces (optional matte finish on later models), rounded corners, and silver trim. They Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen also offered in red, a first for the traditionally black Freemake Video Converter 4.1.13 Activation Key. Like the SL, this series was targeted towards small businesses and consumers, and lack the roll cage, UltraBay, lid latch, and ThinkLight of traditional ThinkPads (though the 2011 E220s and E420s had ThinkLights).[123] This also introduced an island-style keyboard with a significantly different layout.

Models included 13.3" (Edge 13), 14" (Edge 14), and 15.6" (Edge 15) sizes. An 11.6" (Edge 11) model was offered, but not available in the United States.[124] The latest models of E series can be offered with Edge branding,[125] but this naming is optional and uncommon.

S Series (2012–2014)[edit]

The S Series is positioned as a mid-range ThinkPad offering, containing ultrabooks derived from the Edge Series. As of August 2013, the S Series includes S531 and S440 models; their cases are made of aluminum and magnesium alloy, available in silver and gunmetal colors.[126]

ThinkPad Twist (2012)[edit]

The Lenovo ThinkPad Twist (S230u) is a laptop/tablet computer hybrid aimed at high-end users. The Twist gets its name from its screen's ability to twist in a manner that converts the device into a tablet. The Twist has a 12.5" screen and makes use of Intel's Core i7 processor and SSD technology in lieu of a hard drive.[127]

In a review for Engadget Dana Wollman wrote, "Lately, we feel like all of our reviews of Windows 8 convertibles end the same way. The ThinkPad Twist has plenty going for it: a bright IPS display, a good port selection, an affordable price and an unrivaled typing experience. Like ThinkPads past, it also offers some useful software features for businesses lacking dedicated IT departments. All good things, but what's a road warrior to do when the battery barely lasts four hours? Something tells us the Twist will still appeal to Lenovo loyalists, folks who trust ThinkPad's build quality and wouldn't be caught dead using any other keyboard. If you're more brand-agnostic, though, there are other Windows 8 convertibles with comfortable keyboards – not to mention, sharper screens, faster performance and longer battery life."[128]

ThinkPad Helix (2013–2015)[edit]

Main article: ThinkPad Helix

The ThinkPad Helix on display in Hong Kong

The Helix is a convertible laptop satisfying both Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen and conventional notebook users. It uses a "rip and flip" design that allows the user to detach the display and then replace it facing in a different direction. It sports an 11.6" Full HD (1920 × 1080) display, with support for Windows 8 multi-touch. As all essential processing hardware is contained in the display assembly and it has multitouch capability, the detached monitor can be used as a standalone tablet computer. The Helix's high-end hardware and build quality, including Gorilla Glass, stylus-based input, and Intel vPro hardware-based security features, are designed to appeal to business users.[129]

In a review published in Forbes Jason Evangelho wrote, "The first laptop I owned was a ThinkPad T20, and the next one may very likely be the ThinkPad Helix which Lenovo unveiled at CES 2013. In a sea of touch-inspired Windows 8 hardware, it's the first ultrabook convertible with a form factor that gets everything right. The first batch of Windows 8 ultrabooks get high marks for their inspired designs, but aren't quite flexible enough to truly be BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) solutions. Lenovo's own IdeaPad Yoga came close, but the sensation of feeling the keyboard underneath your fingers when transformed into tablet mode was slightly jarring. Dell's XPS 12 solved that problem with its clever rotating hinge design, but I wanted the ability to remove the tablet display entirely from both of those products."[130]

ThinkPad 13 (2016–2017)[edit]

The ThinkPad 13 (Also known as the Thinkpad S2 in Mainland China) is a "budget" model with a 13-inch screen. Versions running Windows 10 and Google's Chrome OS were options. The most powerful configuration had a Skylake Core i7 processor and a 512 GB SSD. Connectivity includes HDMI, USB 3.0, OneLink+, USB Type-C, etc. It weighs 1.0 kg (2.3 lb) and is 9.7 mm (0.38 in) thick.[131] As of 2017, a second generation Ultrabook model has been released with up to a Kaby Lake Core i7 processor and a FHD touchscreen available in certain countries. This lineup was merged into the L-Series in 2018, with the L380 being the successor to the 13 Second Generation.

25th anniversary Retro ThinkPad (2017)[edit]

25th Anniversary Retro ThinkPad on display in Hong Kong

Lenovo released the 25th anniversary Retro Yamato Menu 1.4.1J crack serial keygen Total Commander 10.0 RC 6 Crack With Keygen 2021 Free Download in October 2017. The model is based on the T470, the difference being it having the 7-Row "Classic" keyboard with the layout found on the −20 Series, and the logo received a splash of colour reminiscent of the IBM era. The last ThinkPad models with the 7-row keyboard were introduced in 2011.[132]

A Series (2017–2018)[edit]

In September 2017, Lenovo announced two ThinkPad models featuring AMD's PRO chipset technology – the A275 and A475.[133] This sees the revival of the A Series nameplate not seen since the early 2000s when ThinkPads were under IBM's ownership, however it is likely the "A" moniker emphasised that it uses AMD technology rather than comparative product segment (workstation class) of the previous line.[134]

While this isn't the first time Lenovo had offered an AMD derived ThinkPad, it is the first to be released as an alternative premium offering to the established T Series and X Series ThinkPads, which use Intel chipsets instead.

A275 and A475
The A275 is a 12.5" ultraportable based on the Intel derived X270 model. Weighing in at 2.9 pounds (1.31 kg) this model features AMD Carrizo or Bristol Ridge APU's, AMD Radeon R7 graphics and AMD DASH (Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware) for enterprise computing.
The A475 is a 14" mainstream portable computer based on the Intel derived T470 model. Weighing at 3.48 pounds (1.57 kg), like the A275 it features AMD Carrizo or Bristol Ridge APU's, AMD Radeon R7 graphics and AMD DASH (Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware) for enterprise computing.
A285 and A485
The A285 is a 12.5" laptop which is an upgraded version of the A275. Weighing in at 2.78 lb (1.26 kg), this model utilizes an AMD Raven Ridge APU with integrated Vega graphics, specifically the Ryzen 5 Pro 2500U. The laptop also contains a Discrete Trusted Platform Module (dTPM) for data encryption and password protection, supporting TPM 2.0. Optional security features include a fingerprint scanner and smart card reader. The display's native resolution can be either 1366 × 768 or 1920 × 1080 depending on the configuration.
The A485 is a 14" laptop which is an upgraded version of the A475. Weighing 3.63 lb (1.65 kg), this model utilizes AMD's Raven Ridge APU's with integrated Vega graphics. This model can use multiple models of Raven Ridge APU's, unlike the A285. The laptop also contains a Discrete Trusted Platform Module (dTPM) for data encryption and password protection, supporting TPM 2.0. Optional security features include a fingerprint scanner and smart card reader. The display's native resolution can be either 1366 × 768 or 1920 × 1080 depending on the configuration.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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