How to Crack Passwords

Password Finder Cracked Method:

Password Finder Cracked Method:

A password cracker recovers passwords using various techniques. The process can involve comparing a list of words to guess passwords or the use of an algorithm. Brute-forcing, put simply, is a method for password cracking where the In the simplest model, the password cracker may begin by trying 00000000. In short, the password recovery of encrypted RAR file is still a difficult problem in At present there is no effective password cracking method.

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Password Finder Cracked Method:
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How To: Crack A Password-Protected Website

Most popular password cracking techniques: learn how to protect your privacy

There are many ways to hack into an account. Password cracking is one of them – involves using various computational and other methods to break through the password authentication step. We’ll be discussing various password cracking techniques in this article. Nowadays, you can even find specialized password cracking tools, which don’t have to be used only for ill purposes. But before we go down to details, let’s discuss what password cracking is.

What is password cracking?

Password cracking means recovering passwords from a computer or from data that a computer transmits. This doesn’t have to be a sophisticated method. A brute-force attack where all possible combinations are checked is also password cracking.

If the password is stored as plaintext, hacking the database gives the attacker all account information. However, now most passwords are stored using a key derivation function (KDF). This takes a password and runs it through a one-way encryption cipher, creating what’s known as a “hash.” The server stores the hash-version of the password.

It’s easy to try different hashed passwords at a high rate when using a GPU or botnet. That’s why most password hash functions use key stretching algorithms, which increase the resources (and, therefore, time) needed for a brute-force attack.

Some methods of password cracking become significantly more difficult if your password uses salting or key stretching. Unfortunately, there are still some services that store unencrypted or weakly-encrypted passwords on their servers.

Top-8 password cracking techniques used by hackers

Naturally, Password Finder Cracked Method:, hackers want to use the easiest available method for password cracking. More often than not, that method is phishing, described in detail below. As long as the human is the weakest link of any security system, targeting her or him is the best bet. If that fails, there are plenty of other password cracking techniques to try.

While passwords are a very popular account security tool, they aren’t necessarily the safest option. That’s especially the case if a user creates a weak password, reuses it, and stores its plaintext copy somewhere online. That’s why using a password manager, biometric data (which has its cons too) or adding a second factor will make most of the cracking methods below useless.

A typical password cracking attack looks like this:

  1. Get the password hashes
  2. Prepare the hashes for a selected cracking tool
  3. Choose a cracking methodology
  4. Run the cracking tool
  5. Evaluate the Password Finder Cracked Method:
  6. If needed, tweak the attack
  7. Go to Step 2

Now let’s discuss the most popular password cracking techniques. There are many cases when these are combined together for greater effect.

1. Phishing

How phishing works

Phishing is the most popular technique that involves luring the user into clicking on Password Finder Cracked Method: email attachment or a link that contains malware. The methods for doing so usually involve sending some important and official-looking email that warns to take action before it’s too late. In the end, password-extracting software is installed automatically or the user enters his account details into a look-alike website.

There are different types of phishing tailored for a particular situation, so we’ll look at the few common ones:

  • Spear phishing targets a particular individual and tries to gather as much personal information as possible before the attack.
  • Whaling targets senior executives and uses company-specific content, which can be Password Finder Cracked Method: customer complaint or a letter from a shareholder.
  • Voice phishing involves a fake message from a bank or some other institution, asking a Ummy Video Downloader 1.10.10.9 Crack Download Version [Latest] to call the helpline and enter his account data.

2. Malware

As you’ve seen, malware is often part of the phishing technique too. However, it can work without the “social engineering” factor if the user is naive enough (he usually is). Two of the most common malware types for stealing passwords are keyloggers and screen scrapers. As their names imply, the former sends all your keystrokes to the hacker, and the latter uploads the screenshots.

Other types of malware can also be used for password stealing. A backdoor trojan can grant full access to the user’s computer, and this can happen even when installing so-called grayware. Also known as potentially unwanted applications, these programs usually install themselves after clicking the wrong “Download” button on some website. While most will display ads or sell your web usage data, some might install much more dangerous software.

3. Social engineering

This password cracking technique relies on gullibility and may of may not employ sophisticated software or hardware – phishing is a type of social engineering scheme.

Technology has revolutionized social engineering. In 2019 hackers used AI and voice technology to impersonate a business owner and fooled Password Finder Cracked Method: CEO to transfer $243,000. This attack demonstrated that faking voice is no longer the future, and video imitation will become commonplace sooner than you think.

Usually, the attacker contacts the victim disguised as a representative of some institution, trying to get as much personal info as possible. There’s also a chance that by posing as a bank or Google agent, he or she might get the password or credit card info right away. Contrary to the other techniques, social engineering can happen offline by calling or even personally meeting the victim.

4. Brute force attack

If all else fails, password crackers have the brute force attack as a last resort, Password Finder Cracked Method:. It basically involves trying all possible combinations until you hit the jackpot. However, password cracking tools allow to modify the attack and significantly reduce the time needed to check all variations. The user and his habits are the weak links again here.

If the attacker was able to brute force a password, he will assume the password has been re-used and try the same combination of login credentials on other online services. This is known as credential stuffing and is very popular Password Finder Cracked Method: the age of data breaches.

5. Dictionary attack

How a dictionary attack works

A dictionary attack is a type of brute force attack and it’s often used together with other brute force attack types. It automatically checks if the password is not some often-used phrase like “iloveyou” by looking at the dictionary. The attacker might also add passwords from other leaked accounts. In such a scenario, the chance of a successful dictionary attack increases substantially.

If users were to choose strong passwords that contain not only one word, such attacks would quickly downgrade to a simple brute force attack. In case you use a password manager, then generating a random set of symbols is the best choice. And if you don’t, a long phrase made of at least five words is great too. Just don’t forget to re-use it for every account.

6. Spidering

Spidering is a supplementary password cracking technique that helps with the above-mentioned brute force and dictionary attacks. It involves gathering information about the victim, usually Password Finder Cracked Method: company, presuming that it uses some of that info for password creation. The goal is to create a word list that would help guess the password faster.

After checking the company’s website, social media, and other sources, one can come up with something like this:

  • Founder name – Mark Zuckerberg
  • Founder DOB – 1984 05 14
  • Founder’s sister – Randi
  • Founder’s other sister – Donna
  • Company name – Facebook
  • Headquarters – Menlo Park
  • Company mission Office Tab Enterprise 14.10 Crack & Serial Key For Free Download Give people the power to build community and bring the world closer together

Now all you have to do is upload it to a proper password cracking tool and reap the benefits.

7, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Guessing

While guessing is far from the most popular Password Finder Cracked Method: cracking technique, it relates to business-oriented spidering above. Sometimes the attacker doesn’t even have to gather information about the victim because trying some of the most popular passphrases is enough. If you recall using one or more of the pathetic passwords in the list below, we strongly recommend changing them now.

Some of the most common passwords worldwide:

  • 123456
  • 123456789
  • qwerty
  • password
  • 12345
  • qwerty123
  • 1q2w3e
  • 12345678
  • 111111 Password Finder Cracked Method: 1234567890

Even though the number of people who use simple or default passwords like “password” “qwerty,” or “123456” is diminishing, many still love easy and memorable phrases. Those often include names of pets, lovers, pet-lovers, Password Finder Cracked Method:, ex-pets, or something related to the actual service, like its name (lowercase).

8. Rainbow table attack

As mentioned above, one of the first things to do when password cracking is getting the password in the form of a hash. Then you create a table of common passwords and their hashed versions and check if the one you want to crack matches any entries. Experienced hackers usually have a rainbow table that also involves leaked and previously cracked passwords, making it more effective.

Most often, rainbow tables have all possible passwords that make them extremely huge, taking up hundreds of GBs. On the other hand, they make the actual attack faster because most of the data is already there and you only need to compare it with the targeted hash-password. Luckily, most users can protect themselves from such attacks with large salts and key stretching, especially when using both.

If the salt is large enough, say 128-bit, two users with the same password will have unique hashes. This means that generating tables for all salts will take an astronomical Password Finder Cracked Method: of time. As for the key stretching, it increases the hashing time and limits the number of attempts that the attacker can make in given time.

Password cracking tools

No password cracking starts without proper tools. When you have to guess from billions of combinations, some computational assistance is more than welcome. As always, each tool has its pros and cons.

Here is a list, in no particular order, of the most popular password cracking tools.

1. John the Ripper

Featured in many popular password cracking tools lists, John the Ripper is a free, open-source, command-based application. It’s available for Linux and macOS while Windows and Android users get Hash Suite, developed by a contributor.

John the Ripper supports a massive list of 54hdd v0.6a6 crack serial keygen cipher and hash types. Some of those are:

  • Unix, macOS, and Windows user passwords
  • Web applications
  • Database servers
  • Network traffic captures
  • Encrypted private keys
  • Disks and filesystems
  • Archives
  • Documents

There’s also a Pro version with extra features and native packages for supported OS. Word lists used in password cracking are on sale, but free options are available as well.

2. Cain and Abel

Downloaded almost 2 million times from its official source, Cain & Abel is another popular tool for password cracking. But contrary to John the Ripper, it uses GUI, making it instantly more user-friendly. That and the fact that it’s available on Windows only makes Cain & Abel a go-to tool for amateurs, also known as script kiddies.

Cain & Abel password cracking tool

This is a multi-purpose tool, capable of many different functions. Cain & Abel can act as a packet analyzer, record VoIP, analyze route protocols, or scan for wireless networks and retrieve their MAC addresses. If you already have the hash, this tool will offer a dictionary or brute force attack option. Cain & Abel can also display passwords that are hiding beneath the asterisks.

3. Ophcrack

Ophcrack is a free and open-source password cracking tool that specializes in rainbow table attacks. To be more precise, it cracks LM and NTLM hashes where the former addresses Windows XP and earlier OSs and the latter associates with Windows Vista and 7. NTLM is also available, to a certain degree, on Linux and freeBSD. Both of these hash types are insecure – it’s possible to crack a NTLM hash in less than 3 hours with a fast computer.

ophcrack password cracking tool

As you can see in the screenshot above, it took Ophcrack merely six seconds to crack an 8-symbol password while using a rainbow table Password Finder Cracked Method: includes letters, numbers, and uppercases. That’s even more variables than a mainstream password usually has.

This tool comes with free Windows XP/Vista/7 rainbow tables and a brute force attack feature for simple passwords. Ophcrack is available on Windows, macOS, and Linux.

4. THC Hydra

Arguably the strongest point of THC Hydra is not the possible number of heads it can grow but the sheer number of protocols it supports that seems to be growing too! This is an open-source network login password cracking tool that works with Cisco AAA, FTP, HTTP-Proxy, IMAP, Password Finder Cracked Method:, MySQL, Oracle SID, SMTP, Password Finder Cracked Method:, SOCKS5, SSH, and Telnet, to name but a few.

The methods available with THC Hydra include brute force and dictionary attacks while also using wordlists generated by other tools. This password cracker is known for its speed thanks to the multi-threaded combination testing, Password Finder Cracked Method:. It can even run checks on different protocols simultaneously. THC Hydra is available on Windows, macOS, and Charles Proxy 4.6.2.7 Full Crack With License Key 2021. Hashcat

Positioning itself as the world’s fastest password cracker, Hashcat is a free open-source tool that’s available on Windows, macOS, and Linux. It offers a number of techniques, from simple brute force attack Navicat Premium 15.0.25 Crack Key 2021 Download [Latest] hybrid mask with wordlist.

hashcat password cracker

Hashcat can utilize both your CPU and GPU, even at the same time. This makes cracking multiple hashes simultaneously much faster. But what makes this tool truly universal is the number of supported hash types. Hashcat can decipher MD5, SHA3-512, ChaCha20, PBKDF2, Kerberos 5, 1Password, LastPass, KeePass, Password Finder Cracked Method:, and many more. In fact, it supports over 300 hash types.

But before you can start cracking, you need to have the password hash first. Here are some Password Finder Cracked Method: the most popular tools for getting hash:

  • Mimikatz. Known as a Password Finder Cracked Method: audit and recovery app, Mimikatz can also be used for malign hash retrieval. In fact, it might as well extract plaintext passwords or PIN codes, Password Finder Cracked Method:.
Mimikatz
  • Wireshark. Wireshark enables you to do packet sniffing, which is number ten on our password cracking techniques list above. Wireshark is an award-winning packet analyzer used not only by hackers but also by business and governmental institutions.
Wireshark
  • Metasploit. This is a popular penetration testing framework. Designed for security professionals, Metasploit can also be used by hackers to retrieve password hashes.
Metasploit

How to create a strong password?

No matter how good your memory or your password manager is, failing to create a good password will lead to undesired consequences. As we discussed in this article, password cracking tools can decipher weak passwords in days, Password Finder Cracked Method:, if not hours. That’s why we feel obliged to remind some of the key tips for coming up with a strong passphrase:

  • Length. As it often is, Password Finder Cracked Method:, length is the most important factor.
  • Combine letters, numbers, and special characters. This greatly increases the number of possible combinations.
  • Do not re-use. Even if your password is strong in theory, re-using it will leave you vulnerable.
  • Avoid easy-to-guess phrases. A word that’s in the dictionary, windows 10 pro & office 2010 pro crack serial keygen your pet’s collar or on your license plate is a big NO.

If you would like to learn more about creating good passwords, Password Finder Cracked Method: checking out our How to create a strong password article. You can also try our password generator that will help Password Finder Cracked Method: to come up with safe passwords.

Is password cracking illegal?

There’s no clear cut answer to this. For starters, all password cracking tools described above are perfectly legal. That’s because they play a key role in checking for vulnerabilities and can also help recover a lost password. What’s more, such tools help law enforcement fight crime. So as it often is, password cracking can help the good and the bad cause.

As to the password cracking as an activity, it depends on two factors. One, the hacker doesn’t have the authority to access that particular data. Two, the goal is to steal, damage, or otherwise misuse the data. Even if only one of these factors is present, a hacker will most likely receive a punishment, ranging from a fine to multi-year imprisonment.

To sum up, if there’s no bug bounty, no agreement to do a penetration testing, and no request to help recover a lost password, cracking is illegal.

Bottom line

Password cracking is easier than most users think. There are plenty of free tools and some of them are easy enough even for novice crackers. There’s also more than one password cracking technique to try. Starting with a simple brute force attack and moving on to sophisticated methods that combine different techniques, password cracking is evolving every day.

The best defense against password cracking is using a strong password. Using enough symbols and different characters ensures that even the fastest computer won’t crack your account in this lifetime. And since remembering multiple strong passwords is unlikely, the best bet is to use a reliable password manager. Two-factor authentication is still a pain in the rear for any hacker, so adding a finger or face ID will keep your data safe, at least for the foreseeable future.fcomm

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10 most popular password cracking tools [updated 2020]

Passwords Password Finder Cracked Method: the most commonly used method for user authentication. Passwords are so popular because the logic behind them makes sense to people and they’re relatively easy for developers to implement.

However, passwords can also introduce security vulnerabilities. Password crackers are designed to take credential data stolen in a data breach or other hack and extract passwords from it.

What is password cracking?

A well-designed password-based authentication system doesn’t store a user’s actual password. This would make it far too easy for a hacker or a malicious insider to gain access to all of the user accounts on the system.

Instead, authentication systems store a password hash, which is the result of sending the password — and a random value called a salt — through a hash function. Hash functions are designed to be one-way, meaning that it is very difficult to determine the input that produces a given output, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Since hash functions are also deterministic (meaning that the same input produces the same output), comparing two password hashes (the stored Password Finder Cracked Method: and the hash of the password provided by a user) is almost as good as comparing the real passwords.

Password cracking refers to the process of extracting passwords from the associated password hash. This can be accomplished in a few different ways:

  • Dictionary attack: Most people use weak and common passwords, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Taking a list of words and adding a few permutations — like substituting $ for s — enables a password cracker to learn a lot of passwords very quickly.
  • Brute-force guessing attack: There are only so many potential passwords of a given length. While slow, a brute-force attack (trying all possible password combinations) guarantees that an attacker will crack the password eventually.
  • Hybrid attack: A hybrid attack mixes these two techniques. It starts by checking to see if a password can be cracked using a dictionary attack, then moves on to a brute-force attack if it is unsuccessful.

Most password-cracking or password finder tools enable a hacker to perform any of these types of attacks. This post describes some of the most commonly used password-cracking tools.

1. Hashcat

Hashcat is one of the most popular and widely used password crackers in existence, Password Finder Cracked Method:. It is available on every operating system and supports over 300 different types of hashes.

Hashcat enables highly-parallelized password cracking with the ability to crack multiple different passwords on multiple different devices at the same time and the ability to support a distributed Password Finder Cracked Method: system via overlays. Cracking is optimized with integrated performance tuning and temperature monitoring.

Download Hashcat here.

2. John the Ripper

John the Ripper is a well-known free open-source password cracking tool for Linux, Unix and Mac OS X. A Windows version is also available. 

John the Ripper offers password cracking for a variety of Password Finder Cracked Method: password types. It goes beyond OS passwords to include common web apps (like WordPress), compressed archives, document files (Microsoft Office files, PDFs and so on), and more.

A pro version of the tool is also available, which offers better features and native packages for target operating systems. You can also download Openwall GNU/*/Linux that comes with John the Ripper.

Download John the Ripper here.

3. Brutus

Brutus is one of the most popular remote online password-cracking tools. It claims to be the fastest and most flexible password cracking tool. This tool is free and is only available for Windows systems, Password Finder Cracked Method:. It was released back in October 2000.

Brutus supports a number of different authentication types, including:

  • HTTP (basic authentication)
  • HTTP (HTML Form/CGI)
  • POP3
  • FTP
  • SMB
  • Telnet
  • IMAP
  • NNTP
  • NetBus
  • Custom protocols

It is also capable of supporting multi-stage authentication protocols and can attack up to sixty different targets in parallel. It also offers the ability to pause, resume and import an attack.

Brutus has not been updated for several years. However, its support for a wide variety of authentication protocols and ability to add custom modules make it a popular tool for online password cracking attacks.

Get the Brutus password finder online here.

4. Wfuzz

Wfuzz is a web application password-cracking tool like Brutus that tries to crack passwords via a brute-force guessing attack. It can also be used to find hidden resources like directories, servlets and scripts. Wfuzz can also identify injection vulnerabilities within an application such as SQL injection, XSS injection and LDAP injection.

Key features of the Wfuzz password-cracking tool include:

  • Injection at multiple points in multiple directories
  • Output in colored HTML
  • Post, headers and authentication data brute-forcing
  • Proxy and SOCK support, multiple proxy support
  • Multi-threading
  • HTTP password brute-force via GET or POST requests
  • Time delay between requests
  • Cookie fuzzing

5, Password Finder Cracked Method:. THC Hydra

THC Hydra is an online password-cracking tool that attempts to determine user credentials via brute-force password guessing attack. It is available for Windows, Linux, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Free BSD, Solaris and OS X.

THC Hydra is extensible with the ability to easily install new modules. It also supports a number of network protocols, including Asterisk, AFP, Cisco AAA, Cisco auth, Cisco enable, CVS, Firebird, FTP, HTTP-FORM-GET, HTTP-FORM-POST, HTTP-GET, HTTP-HEAD, HTTP-PROXY, HTTPS-FORM-GET, HTTPS-FORM-POST, HTTPS-GET, HTTPS-HEAD, HTTP-Proxy, ICQ, IMAP, IRC, Password Finder Cracked Method:, LDAP, MS-SQL, MYSQL, NCP, NNTP, Oracle Listener, Oracle SID, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Oracle, PC-Anywhere, PCNFS, POP3, POSTGRES, RDP, Rexec, Rlogin, Rsh, SAP/R3, SIP, SMB, SMTP, SMTP Enum, SNMP, SOCKS5, SSH (v1 and v2), Subversion, Teamspeak (TS2), Telnet, VMware-Auth, VNC and XMPP.

Download THC Hydra here. 

If you are a developer, you can also contribute to the tool’s development.

6. Medusa

Medusa is an online password-cracking tool similar to THC Hydra. It claims to be a speedy parallel, modular and login brute-forcing tool. It supports HTTP, FTP, CVS, AFP, IMAP, MS SQL, MYSQL, NCP, NNTP, POP3, PostgreSQL, pcAnywhere, rlogin, SMB, rsh, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, SVN, VNC, VmAuthd and Telnet.

Medusa is a command-line tool, so some level of command-line knowledge is necessary to use it. Password-cracking speed depends on network connectivity. On a local system, it can test 2,000 passwords per VSO ConvertXtoDVD 4.1.19.365c crack serial keygen also supports parallelized attacks. In Waves 12 Complete v20.04.21 | Download VST Torrent [Win & Mac] to a wordlist of passwords to try, it is also possible to define a list of usernames or email Speedify Crack Full Version Download For PC & Windows Archives to test during an attack.

Read more about this here.

Download Medusa here.

7. RainbowCrack

All password-cracking is subject to a time-memory tradeoff, Password Finder Cracked Method:. If an attacker has precomputed a table of password/hash pairs and stored them as a “rainbow table,” then the password-cracking process is simplified to a table lookup. This threat is why passwords are now salted: adding a unique, random value to every password before hashing it means that the number of rainbow tables required is much larger.

RainbowCrack is a password cracking tool designed to work using rainbow tables. It is possible to generate custom rainbow tables or take advantage of preexisting ones downloaded from the internet, Password Finder Cracked Method:. RainbowCrack offers free downloads of rainbow tables for the LANMAN, Password Finder Cracked Method:, NTLM, MD5 and SHA1 password systems.

Download rainbow tables here.

A few paid rainbow tables are also available, which you can buy from here.

This tool is available for both Windows and Linux systems.

Download RainbowCrack here.

8. OphCrack

OphCrack is a free rainbow table-based password cracking tool for Windows. It is the most popular Windows password cracking tool but can also be used on Linux and Mac systems, Password Finder Cracked Method:. It cracks LM and NTLM hashes. For cracking Windows XP, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Vista and Windows 7, free rainbow tables Password Finder Cracked Method: also available.

A live CD of OphCrack is also available to simplify the cracking. One can use the Live CD of OphCrack to crack Windows-based passwords. This tool is available for free.

Download OphCrack here.

Download free and premium rainbow tables for OphCrack here.

9. L0phtCrack

L0phtCrack is an alternative to OphCrack. It attempts to crack Windows passwords from hashes, Password Finder Cracked Method:. For cracking passwords, it uses Windows workstations, network servers, primary domain controllers and Active Directory. It also uses dictionary and brute-force attacks for generating and guessing passwords. It was acquired by Symantec and discontinued in 2006. Later, L0pht developers again reacquired it and launched L0phtCrack in 2009.

L0phtCrack also comes with the ability to scan routine password security scans, Password Finder Cracked Method:. One can set daily, weekly or monthly audits, and it will start scanning at the Password Finder Cracked Method: time.

Learn about L0phtCrack here.

10. Aircrack-ng

Aircrack-ng is a Wi-Fi password-cracking tool that can crack WEP or WPA/WPA2 PSK passwords. It analyzes wireless encrypted packets and then tries to crack passwords via the dictionary attacks and the PTW, FMS and other cracking algorithms. It is available for Linux and Windows systems. A live CD of Aircrack is also available.

Aircrack-ng tutorials are available here.

Download Aircrack-ng here.

How to create a password that’s hard to crack

In this post, we have listed 10 password-cracking tools. These tools try to crack passwords with different password-cracking algorithms. Most of the password cracking tools are available for free. So, you should always try to have a strong password that is hard to crack. Password Finder Cracked Method: are a few tips you can try while creating a password.

  • The longer the password, the harder it is to crack: Password length is the most important factor. The complexity of a brute force password guessing attack grows exponentially with the length of the password. A random seven-character password can be cracked in minutes, while a ten-character one takes hundreds of years.
  • Always use a combination of characters, numbers and special characters: Using a variety of characters also makes brute-force password-guessing more difficult, since it means that crackers need to try a wider variety of options for each character of the password, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Incorporate numbers and special characters and not just at the end of the password or as a letter substitution (like @ for a).
  • Variety in passwords: Credential stuffing attacks use bots to test if passwords stolen from one online account are also used for other accounts. A data breach at a tiny company could compromise a bank account if the same credentials are used. Use a long, random, and unique password for all online accounts.

What to avoid while selecting your password

Cybercriminals and password cracker developers know all of the “clever” tricks that people use to create their passwords. A few common password mistakes that should be avoided include:

  1. Using a dictionary word: Dictionary attacks are designed to test every word in the dictionary (and common permutations) in seconds.
  2. Using personal information: A pet’s name, Password Finder Cracked Method:, relative’s name, birthplace, Password Finder Cracked Method:, favorite sport and so on are all dictionary words. Even if they weren’t, tools exist to grab this information from social media and build a wordlist from it for an attack.
  3. Using patterns: Passwords like 1111111, 12345678, qwerty and asdfgh are some of the most commonly used ones in existence. They’re also included in every password cracker’s wordlist.
  4. Using character substitutions: Character substitutions like 4 for A and $ for S are well-known. Dictionary attacks test for these substitutions automatically.
  5. Using numbers and special characters only at the end: Most people put their required numbers and special characters at the end of the password. These patterns are built into password crackers.
  6. Using common passwords: Every year, companies Password Finder Cracked Method: Splashdata publish lists of the most commonly used passwords. They create these lists by cracking breached passwords, just like an attacker would. Never use the passwords on these lists or anything like them.
  7. Using anything but a random password: Passwords should be long, random, and unique. Use a password manager to securely generate and store passwords for online accounts.

Conclusion

Password-cracking tools are designed to take the password hashes leaked during a data breach or stolen using an attack and extract the original passwords from them, Password Finder Cracked Method:. They accomplish this by taking advantage of the use of weak passwords or by trying every potential password of a given length.

Password finders can be used for a variety of different purposes, not all of them bad. While they’re commonly used by cybercriminals, security teams can also use them to audit the strength of their users’ passwords and assess the risk of weak passwords to the organization.

Posted: September 25, 2020

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Howard Poston is a cybersecurity researcher with a background in blockchain, cryptography and malware analysis. He has a master's degree in Cyber Operations from the Air Force Institute of Technology and two years of experience in cybersecurity research and development at Sandia National Labs. He currently works as a freelance consultant providing training and content creation for cyber and blockchain security.

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Password cracking

Recovering passwords stored or transmitted by computer systems

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords[1] from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system in scrambled form, Password Finder Cracked Method:. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to repeatedly try guesses for the password and to check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password.[2] Another type of approach is password spraying, which is often automated and occurs slowly over time in order to remain undetected, using a list of common passwords.[3]

The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (due to the fact that installing an entirely new password would involve System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or to act as a preventive measure whereby system administrators check for easily crackable passwords. On a file-by-file basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence to which a judge has allowed access, when a particular file's permissions are restricted.

Time needed for password searches[edit]

The time to crack a password is related to bit strength (seepassword strength), which is a measure of the password's entropy, and the details of how the password is stored, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds. With multiple processors, this time can be optimized through searching from the last possible group of symbols and the beginning at the same time, with other processors being placed to search through a designated selection of possible passwords.[4] More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be Password Finder Cracked Method: before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood that the password will be found in any cracking dictionary.[5]

The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions per second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, either by time delays, Password Finder Cracked Method:,or forced lockouts after some number of failed attempts. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password Password Finder Cracked Method: decodes encrypted data.

For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools[1][6][7] (See: John the Ripper benchmarks).[8] The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated 30-bit strength, Password Finder Cracked Method:, according to NIST. 230 is only one billion permutations[9] and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing HideMyAss VPN crack serial keygen is naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended. In 2002, distributed.net successfully found a 64-bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included over 300,000 different computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second.[10]

Graphics processors can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to 100 over general purpose computers for specific hashing algorithms. As of 2011, available commercial products claim the ability to test up to 2,800,000,000 passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor.[11] Such a device can crack a 10 letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs.[citation needed]. However some algorithms are or even are specifically designed to run slow on GPUs. Examples include (triple) DES, bcryptscrypt and Argon2.

The emergence of hardware acceleration over the past decade GPU has enabled resources to be used to increase the efficiency and speed of a brute force attack for most hashing algorithms. In 2012, Stricture Consulting Group unveiled a 25-GPU cluster that achieved a brute force attack speed of 350 billion guesses per second, allowing them to check {\textstyle 95^{8}}password combinations in 5.5 hours. Using ocl-Hashcat Plus on a Virtual OpenCL cluster platform,[12] the Linux-based GPU cluster was used to "crack 90 percent of the 6.5 million password hashes belonging to users of LinkedIn."[13]

For some specific hashing algorithms, CPUs and GPUs are not a good match. Purpose made hardware is required to run at high speeds. Custom hardware can be made using FPGA or ASIC technology. Development for both technologies is complex and (very) expensive. In general, FPGAs are favorable in small quantities, ASICs are favorable in (very) large quantities, Password Finder Cracked Method:, more energy efficient and faster. In 1998, Password Finder Cracked Method:, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) built a dedicated password cracker using ASICs. Their machine, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Deep Crack, broke a DES 56-bit key in 56 hours, testing over 90 billion keys per second.[14] In 2017, leaked documents show that ASICs are used for a military project to code-break the entire internet.[15] Designing and building ASIC-basic password crackers is assumed to be out of reach for non-governments. Since 2019, John the Ripper supports password cracking for a limited number of hashing algorithms using FPGAs.[16] FPGA-based setups are now in use by commercial companies for password cracking.[17]

Easy to remember, hard to guess[edit]

Passwords that are difficult to remember will reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password using an insecure method, Password Finder Cracked Method:, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password. Similarly, the more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[18]

In "The Password Finder Cracked Method: and Security of Passwords",[19] Jeff Yan et al. examines the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two unrelated words is another good method, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Having a personally designed "algorithm" for generating obscure passwords is another good method.

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalizes one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such Password Finder Cracked Method: 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions which are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.

Research detailed in an April 2015 paper by several professors at Carnegie Mellon University shows that people's choices of password structure often follow several known patterns. As a result, passwords may be much more easily cracked than their mathematical probabilities would otherwise indicate. Passwords containing one digit, for example, disproportionately include it at the end of the password.[20]

Incidents[edit]

On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. By the time they were discovered, they had already Password Finder Cracked Method: 47,642 passwords.[21]

In December 2009, a major password breach of the Rockyou.com website occurred Password Finder Cracked Method: led to the release of 32 million passwords. The attacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were Password Finder Cracked Method: through a SQL Injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[22]

In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data were leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, Password Finder Cracked Method:, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals.[23]

On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, Password Finder Cracked Method:, a large American Consulting firm that does a substantial amount of work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine Corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[24] These leaked passwords were found to be hashed with unsaltedSHA-1, Password Finder Cracked Method:, and were later analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, Password Finder Cracked Method:, revealing that even some military personnel used passwords as weak as "1234".[25]

On July 18, 2011, Microsoft Hotmail banned the password: "123456".[26]

In July 2015, a group calling itself "The Impact Team" stole the user data of Ashley Madison.[27] Many passwords were hashed using both the relatively strong bcrypt algorithm and the weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 Password Finder Cracked Method: plaintext passwords to be recovered by password cracking group CynoSure Prime.[28]

Prevention[edit]

One method of preventing a password from being cracked is to ensure that attackers cannot get access even to the hashed password. For example, on the Unixoperating system, hashed passwords were originally stored in a publicly accessible file. On modern Unix (and similar) systems, on the other hand, they are stored in the shadow password filewhich is accessible only to programs running with enhanced privileges (i.e., "system" privileges). This makes it harder for a malicious user to obtain the hashed passwords in the first instance, however many collections of password hashes have been stolen despite such protection. And some common network protocols transmit passwords in cleartext or use weak challenge/response schemes.[29][30]

Another approach is to combine a site-specific secret key with the Password Finder Cracked Method: hash, which prevents plaintext password recovery even if the hashed values are purloined. However privilege escalation attacks that can steal protected hash files may also expose the site secret. A third approach is to use key derivation functions that reduce the rate at which passwords can be guessed.[31]: 5.1.1.2 

Another protection measure is the use of Password Finder Cracked Method:, a random value unique to each password that is incorporated in the hashing. Salt prevents multiple hashes from being attacked simultaneously and also prevents the creation of precomputed dictionaries such as rainbow tables.

Modern Unix Systems have replaced the traditional DES-based password hashing function crypt() with stronger methods such as crypt-SHA, bcrypt and scrypt.[32] Other systems have also begun to adopt these methods. For instance, the Cisco IOS originally used a reversible Vigenère cipher to encrypt passwords, but now uses md5-crypt with a 24-bit salt when the "enable secret" command is used.[33] These newer methods use large salt values which prevent attackers from efficiently mounting offline attacks against multiple user accounts simultaneously. The algorithms are also much slower to execute which drastically increases the time required to mount a successful offline attack.[34]

Many hashes used for storing passwords, such as MD5 and the SHA family, are designed for fast computation with low memory requirements and efficient implementation in hardware. Multiple instances of these algorithms can be run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs), speeding Password Finder Cracked Method:. As a result, fast hashes are ineffective in preventing password cracking, even with salt. Some key stretching algorithms, Password Finder Cracked Method:, such as PBKDF2 and crypt-SHA iteratively calculate password hashes and can significantly reduce the rate at which passwords can be tested, if the iteration count is high enough. Other algorithms, such as scrypt are memory-hard, meaning they require relatively large amounts of memory in addition to time-consuming computation and are thus more difficult to crack using GPUs and custom integrated circuits.

In 2013 a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing,[35] with Argon2 chosen as the winner in 2015. Another algorithm, Balloon, is recommended by NIST.[36] Both algorithms are memory-hard.

Solutions like a security token give a formal proof answer by constantly shifting password. Those solutions abruptly reduce the timeframe available for brute forcing (attacker needs to break and use the password within a single shift) and they reduce the value of the stolen passwords because of its short time validity.

Software[edit]

Main category: Password cracking software

There are many password cracking software tools, Password Finder Cracked Method:, but the most popular[37] are Aircrack, Cain and Abel, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Hydra, DaveGrohl and ElcomSoft. Many litigation support software packages also include password cracking functionality. Most of these packages employ a mixture of cracking strategies, Password Finder Cracked Method:, algorithm with brute force and dictionary attacks proving to be the most productive.[38]

The increased availability of computing power and beginner friendly automated password cracking software for a number of protection schemes has allowed the activity to be taken up by script kiddies.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ aboclHashcat-lite – advanced password recovery. Hashcat.net. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  2. ^Montoro, Massimiliano (2009). PDFelement Pro 7.3.5 crack Archives Password Cracker". Oxid.it. Archived from the original on August 20, 2013, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Retrieved August 13, 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^"What Is Password Spraying? How to Stop Password Spraying Attacks".
  4. ^Bahadursingh, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Roman (January 19, 2020). "A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors". doi:10.5281/zenodo.3612276.
  5. ^Lundin, Leigh (August 11, 2013). "PINs and Password Finder Cracked Method:, Part 2", Password Finder Cracked Method:. Passwords. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
  6. ^Alexander, Steven. (June 20, 2012) The Bug Charmer: How long should passwords be?. Bugcharmer.blogspot.com. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  7. ^Cryptohaze Blog: 154 Billion NTLM/sec on 10 hashes, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Blog.cryptohaze.com (July 15, 2012). Retrieved on January 31, Password Finder Cracked Method:, 2013.
  8. ^John the Ripper benchmarks. openwall.info (March 30, 2010). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  9. ^Burr, W. E.; Dodson, D. F.; Polk, W. T, Password Finder Cracked Method:. (2006). "Electronic Authentication Guideline"(PDF). NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63v1.0.2. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  10. ^"64-bit key project status". Distributed.net. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  11. ^Password Recovery Speed table, from ElcomSoft. NTLM passwords, Nvidia Tesla S1070 GPU, accessed February 1, 2011
  12. ^"VCL Cluster Platform". mosix.cs.huji.ac.il.
  13. ^"25-GPU cluster cracks every standard Windows Password Finder Cracked Method: in <6 hours". 2012.
  14. ^"EFF DES Cracker machine brings honesty to crypto debate". EFF. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  15. ^BiddleMay 11 2017, Sam BiddleSam; P.m, 2:57. "NYU Accidentally Exposed Military Code-breaking Computer Project to Entire Internet". The Intercept.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^"announce - [openwall-announce] John the Ripper 1.9.0-jumbo-1". www.openwall.com.
  17. ^"Bcrypt password cracking extremely slow? Not if you are using hundreds of FPGAs!". Medium. September 8, 2020.
  18. ^Managing Network Security. Fred Cohen & Associates. All.net. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  19. ^Yan, J.; Blackwell, A.; Anderson, R.; Grant, A. (2004). "Password Memorability and Security: Empirical Results"(PDF). IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine. 2 (5): 25. doi:10.1109/MSP.2004.81. S2CID 206485325.
  20. ^Steinberg, Joseph (April 21, 2015). "New Technology Cracks 'Strong' Passwords – What You Need To Know". Forbes.
  21. ^"CERT IN-98.03". Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  22. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices"(PDF).
  23. ^"NATO Hack Attack". Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  24. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90,000 Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". July 11, 2011.
  25. ^"Military Password Analysis". July 12, 2011.
  26. ^"Microsoft's Hotmail Bans 123456". Imperva, Password Finder Cracked Method:. July 18, 2011. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012.
  27. ^"Ashley Madison: Hackers Dump Stolen Dating Site Data". www.bankinfosecurity.com. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  28. ^"Researchers Crack 11 Million Ashley Madison Passwords". www.bankinfosecurity.com. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  29. ^Singer, Password Finder Cracked Method:, Abe (November 2001). "No Plaintext Password Finder Cracked Method:. Login. 26 (7): 83–91. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 24, 2006.
  30. ^Cryptanalysis of Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. Schneier.com (July 7, 2011). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  31. ^Grassi, Paul A (June 2017). "SP 800-63B-3 – Digital Identity Guidelines, Authentication and Lifecycle Management". NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63b.
  32. ^A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme. Usenix.org (March 13, 2002). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  33. ^MDCrack FAQ 1.8. None. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  34. ^Password Protection for Modern Operating Systems. Usenix.org. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  35. ^"Password Hashing Competition". Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  36. ^"NIST SP800-63B Section 5.1.1.2"(PDF). nvlpubs.nist.gov.
  37. ^"Top 10 Password Crackers". Sectools. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
  38. ^"Stay Secure: See How Password Crackers Work - Keeper Blog". Keeper Security Blog - Cybersecurity News & Product Updates. September 28, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  39. ^Anderson, Nate (March 24, 2013). "How Password Finder Cracked Method: became a password cracker: Cracking passwords is officially a "script kiddie" activity now". Password Finder Cracked Method: Technica. Retrieved March 24, 2013.

External links[edit]

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Understanding the password-cracking techniques hackers use to blow your online accounts wide open is a great way to ensure it never happens to you.

The Top Ten Password-Cracking Techniques Used by Hackers

You certainly will always need to change your password, and sometimes more urgently than you think, but mitigating against theft is a great way to stay on top of your account security. You can always head to www.haveibeenpwned.com to check if you’re at risk, but simply thinking your password is secure enough Password Finder Cracked Method: not be hacked into is a bad mindset to have.

So, to help you understand just how hackers get your passwords – secure or otherwise – we’ve put together a list of the top ten password-cracking techniques used by hackers. Some of the below methods are certainly outdated, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t still being used. Read carefully and learn what to mitigate against.

The Top Ten Password-cracking Techniques Used by Hackers

1. Phishing

password_cracking_-_phishing

There’s an easy way to hack, ask the user for his or her password. A phishing email leads the unsuspecting reader to a spoofed log in page associated with whatever service it is the hacker wants to access, usually by requesting the user to put right some terrible problem with their security. That page then skims their password and the hacker can go use it for their own purpose.

Why bother going to the trouble of cracking the password when the user will happily give it to you anyway?

2. Social Engineering

Social engineering takes the whole “ask the user” concept outside of the inbox that phishing tends to stick with and into the real world.

A favorite of the social engineer is to call an office posing as an IT security tech guy and simply ask for the network access password. You’d be amazed at how often this works. Some even have the necessary gonads to don a suit and name badge before walking into a business to ask the receptionist the same question face to face.

Time and again, it’s been shown that many businesses either don’t have good security in place or people are too friendly and trusting when they shouldn’t be, such as giving people access to sensitive locations because of a uniform or sob story.

3. Malware

Malware comes in many forms, such as a keylogger, also known as a screen scraper, Password Finder Cracked Method: records everything you type or takes screenshots during a login process, and then forwards a copy of this file to hacker central.

Some malware Password Finder Cracked Method: look for the existence of a web browser client password file and copy it, which, unless properly encrypted, Password Finder Cracked Method:, will contain easily accessible saved passwords from the user’s browsing history.

4. Dictionary Attack

password_cracking_-_dictionary

The dictionary attack uses a simple file containing words that can be found in a dictionary, hence its rather straightforward name. In other words, this attack uses exactly the kind of words that many people use as their password.

Cleverly grouping words together such as “letmein” or “superadministratorguy” will not prevent your password from being cracked this way – well, not for more than a few extra seconds.

5. Rainbow Table Attack

Rainbow tables aren’t as colorful as their name Password Finder Cracked Method: imply but, for a hacker, Password Finder Cracked Method:, your password could well be at the end of it. In the most straightforward way possible, you can boil a rainbow table down into a list of pre-computed hashes – the numerical value used when encrypting a password. This table contains hashes of all possible password combinations for any given hashing algorithm. Rainbow tables are attractive as it reduces the time needed to crack a password hash to simply just looking something up in a list.

However, rainbow tables are huge, unwieldy things. They require serious computing power to run and a table becomes useless if the hash it’s trying to find has been “salted” by the addition of random characters to its password ahead of hashing the algorithm.

There is talk of salted rainbow tables existing, but these would be so large as to be difficult to use in practice. They would likely only work with a predefined “random character” set and password strings below 12 characters as the size of the table would be prohibitive to even state-level hackers otherwise.

6. Spidering

Savvy hackers have realized that many corporate passwords are made up of words that are connected to the business itself. Studying corporate literature, website sales material, and even the websites of competitors and listed customers can provide the ammunition to build a custom word list to use in a brute force attack.

Really savvy hackers Password Finder Cracked Method: automated the process and let a spidering application, similar to the web crawlers employed by leading search engines What is Windows 10 Activator? identify keywords, and then collect and collate the lists for them.

7. Offline Cracking

It’s easy to imagine Password Finder Cracked Method: passwords are safe when the systems they protect lock out users after three or four wrong guesses, blocking automated guessing applications. Well, that would be true if it were not for the fact that most password hacking takes place offline, using a set of hashes in a password file that has been ‘obtained’ from a compromised system.

Often the target in question has been compromised via a hack on a third party, which then provides access to the system servers and Password Finder Cracked Method: all-important Password Finder Cracked Method: password hash files, Password Finder Cracked Method:. The password cracker can then Password Finder Cracked Method: as long as they need to try and crack the code without alerting the target system or individual user.

8. Brute Force Attack

Similar to the dictionary attack, the brute force attack comes with an added bonus for the hacker. Instead of simply using words, a brute force attack lets them detect non-dictionary words by working through all possible alpha-numeric combinations from aaa1 to zzz10.

It’s not quick, provided your password is over a handful of characters long, but it will uncover your password eventually. Brute force attacks can be shortened by throwing additional computing horsepower, in terms of both processing power – including harnessing the power of your video card GPU – and machine numbers, such Beyond Compare 4.4.0 Build 25886 Crack + License Key Latest Download using distributed computing models like online bitcoin miners.

9. Shoulder Password Finder Cracked Method: src="https://i1.wp.com/www.alphr.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/password_cracking_-_shoulder_surfing.jpg?resize=690%2C388&ssl=1" alt="password_cracking_-_shoulder_surfing" width="690" height="388">

Another form of Password Finder Cracked Method: engineering, shoulder surfing, just as it implies, entails peeking over a person’s shoulders while they’re entering credentials, passwords, etc. Although the concept is very low tech, you’d be surprised how many passwords and sensitive information is stolen this way, so remain aware of your surroundings when accessing bank accounts, etc. on the go.

The most confident of hackers will Password Finder Cracked Method: the guise of a parcel courier, aircon service technician, or anything else that gets them access to an office building. Once they are in, the service personnel “uniform” provides a kind of free Password Finder Cracked Method: to wander around unhindered, and make note of passwords being entered by genuine members of staff. It also provides an excellent opportunity to eyeball all those post-it notes stuck to the front of LCD screens with logins scribbled upon them.

10. Guess

The password crackers’ best friend, of course, is the predictability of the user. Unless a truly random password has been created using software dedicated to the task, a user-generated ‘random’ password is unlikely to be anything of the sort.

Instead, thanks to our brains’ emotional attachment to things we like, the chances are those random passwords are based upon our interests, hobbies, pets, family, and so on, Password Finder Cracked Method:. In fact, passwords tend to be based on all the things we like to chat about on social networks and even include in our profiles. Password crackers are very likely to look at this information and make a few – often correct – educated guesses when attempting to crack a consumer-level password without resorting to dictionary or brute force attacks.

Other Attacks to Beware Of

If hackers are lacking anything, it isn’t creativity. Using a variety of techniques and adapting to ever-changing security protocols, these interlopers continue to succeed.

For example, anyone on Social Media has likely seen the fun quizzes and templates asking you to talk about your first car, your favorite food, the number one song on your 14th birthday. While these games seem harmless and they’re certainly fun to post, they’re actually an open template for security questions and account access verification answers.

When setting up an account, perhaps try using answers that don’t actually pertain to you but, that you can easily remember. “What was your first car?” Instead of answering truthfully, put your dream car instead. Otherwise, simply don’t post any security answers online.

Another way Videopad Video Editor 7.51 torrent Archives gain access is simply resetting your password. The best line of defense against an interloper resetting your password is using an email address that you check frequently and keeping your contact information updated. If available, always enable 2-factor authentication. Even if the hacker learns your password, Password Finder Cracked Method:, they can’t access the account without a unique verification code.

Best Practices to Protect Yourself from Hackers

  • Maintain strong and unique passwords for all of your accounts, there are password managers available.
  • Don’t click on links or download files in emails arbitrarily, it’s best to not do it at all but activation emails prevent this.
  • Check for and apply security updates periodically. Most work computers might not allow this, the system administrator will take care of these things.
  • When using a new computer or drive, consider using encryption. You can encrypt a HDD/SSD with data on it, but it can take hours or days because of the extra information.
  • Use the notion of least privilege, which means only give access to what’s needed. Basically, create user accounts that aren’t admins for casual computer use by you or friends and family.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why do I need a different password for every site?

You probably know that you shouldn’t give out your passwords and you shouldn’t Password Finder Cracked Method: any content you’re not familiar with, but Password Finder Cracked Method: about the accounts you sign into every day? Suppose you use the same password for your bank account that you use for an arbitrary account like Grammarly. If Grammarly is hacked, the user then has your banking password too (and possibly your email making it even easier to gain access to all of your financial resources).

What can I do to protect my accounts?

Using 2FA on any accounts that offer the feature, using unique passwords for each account, and using a mixture of letters and symbols is the best line of defense against hackers. As stated previously, there are a lot of different ways that hackers gain access to your accounts, so other things you need to make sure that you’re doing regularly is keeping your software and apps up-to-date (for security patches) and avoiding any downloads you aren’t familiar with.

What is the safest way to keep passwords?

Keeping up with several uniquely strange passwords can be incredibly difficult, Password Finder Cracked Method:. Although it’s far better to go through Password Finder Cracked Method: password reset process than it is to have your accounts compromised, it is time-consuming. To keep your passwords safe you can use a service like Last Pass or KeePass to save all of your account passwords.

You can also use a unique algorithm to keep your passwords while making them easier to remember. For example, PayPal could be something like hwpp+c832. Essentially, this password is the first letter of each break in the URL (https://www.paypal.com) with the last number in the birth year of everyone in your home (just as an example). When you go to log into your account, view the URL which will give you the first few letters of this password.

Add symbols to make your password even more difficult to hack but organize them so that they’re easier to remember. Password Finder Cracked Method: example, the “+” symbol can be for any accounts related to entertainment while the “!” can be used for financial accounts.

Practicing Online Safety

In a global era when communications can take place across the world seemingly in an instant, it’s important to remember that not everyone has good intentions. Protect yourself online by actively managing and updating your passwords and social media information leak awareness. Password Finder Cracked Method: is caring, Password Finder Cracked Method:, but not personal information for the sake of becoming an easy target for cyber criminals.

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What is Password Cracking?

Password cracking is the process of attempting to gain Unauthorized access to restricted systems using common passwords or algorithms that guess passwords. In other words, it’s an art of obtaining Password Finder Cracked Method: correct password that gives access to a system protected by an authentication method.

Password cracking employs a number of techniques to achieve its goals. The cracking process can involve either comparing stored passwords against word list or use algorithms to generate passwords that match

How to crack password of an Application

In this Tutorial, we will introduce you to the common password cracking techniques and the countermeasures you can implement to protect systems against such attacks.

Password Finder Cracked Method: covered in this tutorial

What is password strength?

Password strength is the measure of a password’s efficiency to resist password cracking attacks. The strength of a password is determined by;

  • Length: the number of characters the password contains.
  • Complexity: does it use a combination of letters, numbers, and symbol?
  • Unpredictability: is it something that can be guessed easily by an attacker?

Let’s now look at a practical example. We will use three passwords namely

1. password

2. password1

3. #password1$

For this example, we will use the password strength indicator of Cpanel when creating passwords. The images below show the password strengths of each of the above-listed passwords.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: the password used is password the strength is 1, and it’s very weak.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: the password used is password1 the strength is 28, and it’s still weak.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: The password used is #password1$ the strength is 60 and it’s strong.

The higher the strength number, better the password.

Let’s suppose that we have to store our above passwords using md5 encryption. We will use an online md5 1 DVD Ripper 1.2.05 crack serial keygen generator to convert our passwords into md5 hashes.

The table below shows the password hashes

PasswordMD5 HashCpanel Strength Indicator

password

5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99

1

password1

7c6a180b36896a0a8c02787eeafb0e4c

28

#password1$

29e08fb7103c327d68327f23d8d9256c

60

We will now use to crack the above hashes. The images Password Finder Cracked Method: show the password cracking results for the above passwords.

How to crack password of an Application

How to crack password of an Application

How to crack password of an Application

As you can see from the above results, we managed to crack the first and second passwords that had lower strength numbers. We didn’t manage to crack the third password which was longer, complex and unpredictable. It had a higher strength number.

Password cracking techniques

There are a number of techniques that can be used to crack passwords. We will describe the most commonly used ones below;

  • Dictionary attack– This method involves the use of a wordlist to compare against user passwords.
  • Brute force attack– This method is similar to the dictionary attack. Brute force attacks use algorithms that combine alpha-numeric characters and symbols to come up with passwords for the attack. For example, a password of the value “password” can also be tried as p@$$word using the brute force attack.
  • Rainbow table attack– This method uses pre-computed hashes. Let’s assume that we have a database which stores passwords as md5 hashes. We can create Password Finder Cracked Method: database that has md5 hashes of commonly used passwords. We can then compare the password hash we have against the stored hashes in the database. If a match is found, then we have the password.
  • Guess– As the name suggests, this method involves guessing. Passwords such as qwerty, password, admin, etc. are commonly used or set as default passwords. If they have not been changed or if the user is careless when selecting passwords, then they can be easily compromised.
  • Spidering– Most organizations use passwords Password Finder Cracked Method: contain company information. This information can be found on company websites, social media such as facebook, twitter, etc. Spidering gathers information from these sources to come up with word lists. The word list is then used to perform dictionary and brute force attacks.

Spidering sample dictionary attack wordlist

1976 <founder birth year> smith jones <founder name> acme <company name/initials> built Password Finder Cracked Method:

Password Finder Cracked Method: - have

What is Password Cracking?

Password cracking is the process of attempting to gain Unauthorized access to restricted systems using common passwords or algorithms that guess passwords. In other words, it’s an art of obtaining the correct password that gives access to a system protected by an authentication method.

Password cracking employs a number of techniques to achieve its goals. The cracking process can involve either comparing stored passwords against word list or use algorithms to generate passwords that match

How to crack password of an Application

In this Tutorial, we will introduce you to the common password cracking techniques and the countermeasures you can implement to protect systems against such attacks.

Topics covered in this tutorial

What is password strength?

Password strength is the measure of a password’s efficiency to resist password cracking attacks. The strength of a password is determined by;

  • Length: the number of characters the password contains.
  • Complexity: does it use a combination of letters, numbers, and symbol?
  • Unpredictability: is it something that can be guessed easily by an attacker?

Let’s now look at a practical example. We will use three passwords namely

1. password

2. password1

3. #password1$

For this example, we will use the password strength indicator of Cpanel when creating passwords. The images below show the password strengths of each of the above-listed passwords.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: the password used is password the strength is 1, and it’s very weak.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: the password used is password1 the strength is 28, and it’s still weak.

How to crack password of an Application

Note: The password used is #password1$ the strength is 60 and it’s strong.

The higher the strength number, better the password.

Let’s suppose that we have to store our above passwords using md5 encryption. We will use an online md5 hash generator to convert our passwords into md5 hashes.

The table below shows the password hashes

PasswordMD5 HashCpanel Strength Indicator

password

5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99

1

password1

7c6a180b36896a0a8c02787eeafb0e4c

28

#password1$

29e08fb7103c327d68327f23d8d9256c

60

We will now use to crack the above hashes. The images below show the password cracking results for the above passwords.

How to crack password of an Application

How to crack password of an Application

How to crack password of an Application

As you can see from the above results, we managed to crack the first and second passwords that had lower strength numbers. We didn’t manage to crack the third password which was longer, complex and unpredictable. It had a higher strength number.

Password cracking techniques

There are a number of techniques that can be used to crack passwords. We will describe the most commonly used ones below;

  • Dictionary attack– This method involves the use of a wordlist to compare against user passwords.
  • Brute force attack– This method is similar to the dictionary attack. Brute force attacks use algorithms that combine alpha-numeric characters and symbols to come up with passwords for the attack. For example, a password of the value “password” can also be tried as p@$$word using the brute force attack.
  • Rainbow table attack– This method uses pre-computed hashes. Let’s assume that we have a database which stores passwords as md5 hashes. We can create another database that has md5 hashes of commonly used passwords. We can then compare the password hash we have against the stored hashes in the database. If a match is found, then we have the password.
  • Guess– As the name suggests, this method involves guessing. Passwords such as qwerty, password, admin, etc. are commonly used or set as default passwords. If they have not been changed or if the user is careless when selecting passwords, then they can be easily compromised.
  • Spidering– Most organizations use passwords that contain company information. This information can be found on company websites, social media such as facebook, twitter, etc. Spidering gathers information from these sources to come up with word lists. The word list is then used to perform dictionary and brute force attacks.

Spidering sample dictionary attack wordlist

1976 <founder birth year> smith jones <founder name> acme <company name/initials> built Lifetime

UpdateStar Password Finder Keygen incl Full Version

Password Finder crackPassword Finder 8 Crack is the freeware utility that helps you to find your lost passwords, and when installed, it will show all the passwords that are saved by the web browsers, email clients, instant messengers, FTP clients, and other programs. It is the simplest tool that turns out to be most helpful. You don’t need to be a computer expert in finding lost password information on your computers and doesn’t need to reconfigure software products. It can analyze your computer and searches for the stored passwords and automatically detects which password information is stored or hidden into your computer and collects that information. You can export and backup your valuable information using the crack.

Password Finder 8.0.0.31 helps you to search your lost passwords, usernames and other related information stored or hidden in your local computers or remote network computers. Losing your password is very much annoying experience, and this handy tool let you find your lost password by scanning your devices and it allows you to scan multiple computers at the same time. You can export or print the information to store it in a safe place for backup with the serial. It can be efficiently used by home users as well as corporate admins. Now you don’t need to waste your time in trying to find the password and username information manually. You won’t be frustrated any more with the lost password information as it can efficiently find the info of your lost or hidden passwords from your local or network-based computers.

Password Finder with serial keys scans collects and displays all the password-related information with the easy-to-use and intuitive interface. The license key can accurately search all the password information from your computers and supports hundreds of software vendors and products including web browsers, instant messengers, email clients, and other programs. It can scan multiple remote computers at the same time. The database is frequently updated, and the additional password definitions are being added on the frequent basis.

Password Finder v8.0.0.31 license key is the tool for getting the lost passwords and usernames and finding the lost information. The full version is available for free download. You can also download the torrent file with a key. It features a nicely designed interface which is very much easy to use and simple. It can thoroughly control all the hidden and lost information and displays the lost password by scanning your local computers and network-based computers. You can conveniently get your lost and hidden passwords with the GUI interface while following the few simple steps.

Features:

  • Recover your lost and hidden passwords
  • No more time-saving in finding password manually
  • No more frustrations caused by lost password information
  • No need to become computer expert in finding lost password
  • No need to reconfigure software products
  • Easy to use and powerful interface
  • Scan multiple remote computers at the same time
  • Export or print password information for backup reasons
  • The database gets frequently updated
  • Accurately searches for lost passwords

System Requirements:

  • Operating system: Windows 2003/XP/Vista/7/8/10
  • 1GB RAM is required
  • 200 MB free hard disk space
  • 1024 X 768 screen resolution
  • Intel Pentium 4 or higher

How to Install?

  1. Download the software from the given link.
  2. Run the setup and click “Next” to accept the terms.

password finder license key Pic 1

  1. Select the destination folder and click “Next”.

password finder key Pic 2

  1. Select the additional tasks and click “Next”.

password finder serial Pic 3

  1. Click “Install” to start the installation.

password finder free download full version Pic 4

  1. Click “Finish” to close the setup wizard.

password finder Serial Key Pic 5

Password Finder Cracked Method:

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  2. Run the patch and click “Patch” to start activating the software.

password finder Pic 6

All done! Enjoy full activated Password Finder.

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Understanding the password-cracking techniques hackers use to blow your online accounts wide open is a great way to ensure it never happens to you.

The Top Ten Password-Cracking Techniques Used by Hackers

You certainly will always need to change your password, and sometimes more urgently than you think, but mitigating against theft is a great way to stay on top of your account security. You can always head to www.haveibeenpwned.com to check if you’re at risk, but simply thinking your password is secure enough to not be hacked into is a bad mindset to have.

So, to help you understand just how hackers get your passwords – secure or otherwise – we’ve put together a list of the top ten password-cracking techniques used by hackers. Some of the below methods are certainly outdated, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t still being used. Read carefully and learn what to mitigate against.

The Top Ten Password-cracking Techniques Used by Hackers

1. Phishing

password_cracking_-_phishing

There’s an easy way to hack, ask the user for his or her password. A phishing email leads the unsuspecting reader to a spoofed log in page associated with whatever service it is the hacker wants to access, usually by requesting the user to put right some terrible problem with their security. That page then skims their password and the hacker can go use it for their own purpose.

Why bother going to the trouble of cracking the password when the user will happily give it to you anyway?

2. Social Engineering

Social engineering takes the whole “ask the user” concept outside of the inbox that phishing tends to stick with and into the real world.

A favorite of the social engineer is to call an office posing as an IT security tech guy and simply ask for the network access password. You’d be amazed at how often this works. Some even have the necessary gonads to don a suit and name badge before walking into a business to ask the receptionist the same question face to face.

Time and again, it’s been shown that many businesses either don’t have good security in place or people are too friendly and trusting when they shouldn’t be, such as giving people access to sensitive locations because of a uniform or sob story.

3. Malware

Malware comes in many forms, such as a keylogger, also known as a screen scraper, which records everything you type or takes screenshots during a login process, and then forwards a copy of this file to hacker central.

Some malware will look for the existence of a web browser client password file and copy it, which, unless properly encrypted, will contain easily accessible saved passwords from the user’s browsing history.

4. Dictionary Attack

password_cracking_-_dictionary

The dictionary attack uses a simple file containing words that can be found in a dictionary, hence its rather straightforward name. In other words, this attack uses exactly the kind of words that many people use as their password.

Cleverly grouping words together such as “letmein” or “superadministratorguy” will not prevent your password from being cracked this way – well, not for more than a few extra seconds.

5. Rainbow Table Attack

Rainbow tables aren’t as colorful as their name may imply but, for a hacker, your password could well be at the end of it. In the most straightforward way possible, you can boil a rainbow table down into a list of pre-computed hashes – the numerical value used when encrypting a password. This table contains hashes of all possible password combinations for any given hashing algorithm. Rainbow tables are attractive as it reduces the time needed to crack a password hash to simply just looking something up in a list.

However, rainbow tables are huge, unwieldy things. They require serious computing power to run and a table becomes useless if the hash it’s trying to find has been “salted” by the addition of random characters to its password ahead of hashing the algorithm.

There is talk of salted rainbow tables existing, but these would be so large as to be difficult to use in practice. They would likely only work with a predefined “random character” set and password strings below 12 characters as the size of the table would be prohibitive to even state-level hackers otherwise.

6. Spidering

Savvy hackers have realized that many corporate passwords are made up of words that are connected to the business itself. Studying corporate literature, website sales material, and even the websites of competitors and listed customers can provide the ammunition to build a custom word list to use in a brute force attack.

Really savvy hackers have automated the process and let a spidering application, similar to the web crawlers employed by leading search engines to identify keywords, and then collect and collate the lists for them.

7. Offline Cracking

It’s easy to imagine that passwords are safe when the systems they protect lock out users after three or four wrong guesses, blocking automated guessing applications. Well, that would be true if it were not for the fact that most password hacking takes place offline, using a set of hashes in a password file that has been ‘obtained’ from a compromised system.

Often the target in question has been compromised via a hack on a third party, which then provides access to the system servers and those all-important user password hash files. The password cracker can then take as long as they need to try and crack the code without alerting the target system or individual user.

8. Brute Force Attack

Similar to the dictionary attack, the brute force attack comes with an added bonus for the hacker. Instead of simply using words, a brute force attack lets them detect non-dictionary words by working through all possible alpha-numeric combinations from aaa1 to zzz10.

It’s not quick, provided your password is over a handful of characters long, but it will uncover your password eventually. Brute force attacks can be shortened by throwing additional computing horsepower, in terms of both processing power – including harnessing the power of your video card GPU – and machine numbers, such as using distributed computing models like online bitcoin miners.

9. Shoulder Surfing

password_cracking_-_shoulder_surfing

Another form of social engineering, shoulder surfing, just as it implies, entails peeking over a person’s shoulders while they’re entering credentials, passwords, etc. Although the concept is very low tech, you’d be surprised how many passwords and sensitive information is stolen this way, so remain aware of your surroundings when accessing bank accounts, etc. on the go.

The most confident of hackers will take the guise of a parcel courier, aircon service technician, or anything else that gets them access to an office building. Once they are in, the service personnel “uniform” provides a kind of free pass to wander around unhindered, and make note of passwords being entered by genuine members of staff. It also provides an excellent opportunity to eyeball all those post-it notes stuck to the front of LCD screens with logins scribbled upon them.

10. Guess

The password crackers’ best friend, of course, is the predictability of the user. Unless a truly random password has been created using software dedicated to the task, a user-generated ‘random’ password is unlikely to be anything of the sort.

Instead, thanks to our brains’ emotional attachment to things we like, the chances are those random passwords are based upon our interests, hobbies, pets, family, and so on. In fact, passwords tend to be based on all the things we like to chat about on social networks and even include in our profiles. Password crackers are very likely to look at this information and make a few – often correct – educated guesses when attempting to crack a consumer-level password without resorting to dictionary or brute force attacks.

Other Attacks to Beware Of

If hackers are lacking anything, it isn’t creativity. Using a variety of techniques and adapting to ever-changing security protocols, these interlopers continue to succeed.

For example, anyone on Social Media has likely seen the fun quizzes and templates asking you to talk about your first car, your favorite food, the number one song on your 14th birthday. While these games seem harmless and they’re certainly fun to post, they’re actually an open template for security questions and account access verification answers.

When setting up an account, perhaps try using answers that don’t actually pertain to you but, that you can easily remember. “What was your first car?” Instead of answering truthfully, put your dream car instead. Otherwise, simply don’t post any security answers online.

Another way to gain access is simply resetting your password. The best line of defense against an interloper resetting your password is using an email address that you check frequently and keeping your contact information updated. If available, always enable 2-factor authentication. Even if the hacker learns your password, they can’t access the account without a unique verification code.

Best Practices to Protect Yourself from Hackers

  • Maintain strong and unique passwords for all of your accounts, there are password managers available.
  • Don’t click on links or download files in emails arbitrarily, it’s best to not do it at all but activation emails prevent this.
  • Check for and apply security updates periodically. Most work computers might not allow this, the system administrator will take care of these things.
  • When using a new computer or drive, consider using encryption. You can encrypt a HDD/SSD with data on it, but it can take hours or days because of the extra information.
  • Use the notion of least privilege, which means only give access to what’s needed. Basically, create user accounts that aren’t admins for casual computer use by you or friends and family.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why do I need a different password for every site?

You probably know that you shouldn’t give out your passwords and you shouldn’t download any content you’re not familiar with, but what about the accounts you sign into every day? Suppose you use the same password for your bank account that you use for an arbitrary account like Grammarly. If Grammarly is hacked, the user then has your banking password too (and possibly your email making it even easier to gain access to all of your financial resources).

What can I do to protect my accounts?

Using 2FA on any accounts that offer the feature, using unique passwords for each account, and using a mixture of letters and symbols is the best line of defense against hackers. As stated previously, there are a lot of different ways that hackers gain access to your accounts, so other things you need to make sure that you’re doing regularly is keeping your software and apps up-to-date (for security patches) and avoiding any downloads you aren’t familiar with.

What is the safest way to keep passwords?

Keeping up with several uniquely strange passwords can be incredibly difficult. Although it’s far better to go through the password reset process than it is to have your accounts compromised, it is time-consuming. To keep your passwords safe you can use a service like Last Pass or KeePass to save all of your account passwords.

You can also use a unique algorithm to keep your passwords while making them easier to remember. For example, PayPal could be something like hwpp+c832. Essentially, this password is the first letter of each break in the URL (https://www.paypal.com) with the last number in the birth year of everyone in your home (just as an example). When you go to log into your account, view the URL which will give you the first few letters of this password.

Add symbols to make your password even more difficult to hack but organize them so that they’re easier to remember. For example, the “+” symbol can be for any accounts related to entertainment while the “!” can be used for financial accounts.

Practicing Online Safety

In a global era when communications can take place across the world seemingly in an instant, it’s important to remember that not everyone has good intentions. Protect yourself online by actively managing and updating your passwords and social media information leak awareness. Sharing is caring, but not personal information for the sake of becoming an easy target for cyber criminals.

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Password cracking

Recovering passwords stored or transmitted by computer systems

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords[1] from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system in scrambled form. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to repeatedly try guesses for the password and to check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password.[2] Another type of approach is password spraying, which is often automated and occurs slowly over time in order to remain undetected, using a list of common passwords.[3]

The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (due to the fact that installing an entirely new password would involve System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or to act as a preventive measure whereby system administrators check for easily crackable passwords. On a file-by-file basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence to which a judge has allowed access, when a particular file's permissions are restricted.

Time needed for password searches[edit]

The time to crack a password is related to bit strength (seepassword strength), which is a measure of the password's entropy, and the details of how the password is stored. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds. With multiple processors, this time can be optimized through searching from the last possible group of symbols and the beginning at the same time, with other processors being placed to search through a designated selection of possible passwords.[4] More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be attempted before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood that the password will be found in any cracking dictionary.[5]

The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions per second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, either by time delays, , or forced lockouts after some number of failed attempts. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password successfully decodes encrypted data.

For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools[1][6][7] (See: John the Ripper benchmarks).[8] The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated 30-bit strength, according to NIST. 230 is only one billion permutations[9] and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing function is naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended. In 2002, distributed.net successfully found a 64-bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included over 300,000 different computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second.[10]

Graphics processors can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to 100 over general purpose computers for specific hashing algorithms. As of 2011, available commercial products claim the ability to test up to 2,800,000,000 passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor.[11] Such a device can crack a 10 letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs.[citation needed]. However some algorithms are or even are specifically designed to run slow on GPUs. Examples include (triple) DES, bcrypt , scrypt and Argon2.

The emergence of hardware acceleration over the past decade GPU has enabled resources to be used to increase the efficiency and speed of a brute force attack for most hashing algorithms. In 2012, Stricture Consulting Group unveiled a 25-GPU cluster that achieved a brute force attack speed of 350 billion guesses per second, allowing them to check {\textstyle 95^{8}}password combinations in 5.5 hours. Using ocl-Hashcat Plus on a Virtual OpenCL cluster platform,[12] the Linux-based GPU cluster was used to "crack 90 percent of the 6.5 million password hashes belonging to users of LinkedIn."[13]

For some specific hashing algorithms, CPUs and GPUs are not a good match. Purpose made hardware is required to run at high speeds. Custom hardware can be made using FPGA or ASIC technology. Development for both technologies is complex and (very) expensive. In general, FPGAs are favorable in small quantities, ASICs are favorable in (very) large quantities, more energy efficient and faster. In 1998, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) built a dedicated password cracker using ASICs. Their machine, Deep Crack, broke a DES 56-bit key in 56 hours, testing over 90 billion keys per second.[14] In 2017, leaked documents show that ASICs are used for a military project to code-break the entire internet.[15] Designing and building ASIC-basic password crackers is assumed to be out of reach for non-governments. Since 2019, John the Ripper supports password cracking for a limited number of hashing algorithms using FPGAs.[16] FPGA-based setups are now in use by commercial companies for password cracking.[17]

Easy to remember, hard to guess[edit]

Passwords that are difficult to remember will reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password using an insecure method, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password. Similarly, the more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[18]

In "The Memorability and Security of Passwords",[19] Jeff Yan et al. examines the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two unrelated words is another good method. Having a personally designed "algorithm" for generating obscure passwords is another good method.

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalizes one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions which are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.

Research detailed in an April 2015 paper by several professors at Carnegie Mellon University shows that people's choices of password structure often follow several known patterns. As a result, passwords may be much more easily cracked than their mathematical probabilities would otherwise indicate. Passwords containing one digit, for example, disproportionately include it at the end of the password.[20]

Incidents[edit]

On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. By the time they were discovered, they had already cracked 47,642 passwords.[21]

In December 2009, a major password breach of the Rockyou.com website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The attacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL Injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[22]

In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data were leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals.[23]

On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, a large American Consulting firm that does a substantial amount of work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine Corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[24] These leaked passwords were found to be hashed with unsaltedSHA-1, and were later analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even some military personnel used passwords as weak as "1234".[25]

On July 18, 2011, Microsoft Hotmail banned the password: "123456".[26]

In July 2015, a group calling itself "The Impact Team" stole the user data of Ashley Madison.[27] Many passwords were hashed using both the relatively strong bcrypt algorithm and the weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 million plaintext passwords to be recovered by password cracking group CynoSure Prime.[28]

Prevention[edit]

One method of preventing a password from being cracked is to ensure that attackers cannot get access even to the hashed password. For example, on the Unixoperating system, hashed passwords were originally stored in a publicly accessible file . On modern Unix (and similar) systems, on the other hand, they are stored in the shadow password file , which is accessible only to programs running with enhanced privileges (i.e., "system" privileges). This makes it harder for a malicious user to obtain the hashed passwords in the first instance, however many collections of password hashes have been stolen despite such protection. And some common network protocols transmit passwords in cleartext or use weak challenge/response schemes.[29][30]

Another approach is to combine a site-specific secret key with the password hash, which prevents plaintext password recovery even if the hashed values are purloined. However privilege escalation attacks that can steal protected hash files may also expose the site secret. A third approach is to use key derivation functions that reduce the rate at which passwords can be guessed.[31]: 5.1.1.2 

Another protection measure is the use of salt, a random value unique to each password that is incorporated in the hashing. Salt prevents multiple hashes from being attacked simultaneously and also prevents the creation of precomputed dictionaries such as rainbow tables.

Modern Unix Systems have replaced the traditional DES-based password hashing function crypt() with stronger methods such as crypt-SHA, bcrypt and scrypt.[32] Other systems have also begun to adopt these methods. For instance, the Cisco IOS originally used a reversible Vigenère cipher to encrypt passwords, but now uses md5-crypt with a 24-bit salt when the "enable secret" command is used.[33] These newer methods use large salt values which prevent attackers from efficiently mounting offline attacks against multiple user accounts simultaneously. The algorithms are also much slower to execute which drastically increases the time required to mount a successful offline attack.[34]

Many hashes used for storing passwords, such as MD5 and the SHA family, are designed for fast computation with low memory requirements and efficient implementation in hardware. Multiple instances of these algorithms can be run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs), speeding cracking. As a result, fast hashes are ineffective in preventing password cracking, even with salt. Some key stretching algorithms, such as PBKDF2 and crypt-SHA iteratively calculate password hashes and can significantly reduce the rate at which passwords can be tested, if the iteration count is high enough. Other algorithms, such as scrypt are memory-hard, meaning they require relatively large amounts of memory in addition to time-consuming computation and are thus more difficult to crack using GPUs and custom integrated circuits.

In 2013 a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing,[35] with Argon2 chosen as the winner in 2015. Another algorithm, Balloon, is recommended by NIST.[36] Both algorithms are memory-hard.

Solutions like a security token give a formal proof answer by constantly shifting password. Those solutions abruptly reduce the timeframe available for brute forcing (attacker needs to break and use the password within a single shift) and they reduce the value of the stolen passwords because of its short time validity.

Software[edit]

Main category: Password cracking software

There are many password cracking software tools, but the most popular[37] are Aircrack, Cain and Abel, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Hydra, DaveGrohl and ElcomSoft. Many litigation support software packages also include password cracking functionality. Most of these packages employ a mixture of cracking strategies, algorithm with brute force and dictionary attacks proving to be the most productive.[38]

The increased availability of computing power and beginner friendly automated password cracking software for a number of protection schemes has allowed the activity to be taken up by script kiddies.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ aboclHashcat-lite – advanced password recovery. Hashcat.net. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  2. ^Montoro, Massimiliano (2009). "Brute-Force Password Cracker". Oxid.it. Archived from the original on August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^"What Is Password Spraying? How to Stop Password Spraying Attacks".
  4. ^Bahadursingh, Roman (January 19, 2020). "A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors". doi:10.5281/zenodo.3612276.
  5. ^Lundin, Leigh (August 11, 2013). "PINs and Passwords, Part 2". Passwords. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
  6. ^Alexander, Steven. (June 20, 2012) The Bug Charmer: How long should passwords be?. Bugcharmer.blogspot.com. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  7. ^Cryptohaze Blog: 154 Billion NTLM/sec on 10 hashes. Blog.cryptohaze.com (July 15, 2012). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  8. ^John the Ripper benchmarks. openwall.info (March 30, 2010). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  9. ^Burr, W. E.; Dodson, D. F.; Polk, W. T. (2006). "Electronic Authentication Guideline"(PDF). NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63v1.0.2. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  10. ^"64-bit key project status". Distributed.net. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  11. ^Password Recovery Speed table, from ElcomSoft. NTLM passwords, Nvidia Tesla S1070 GPU, accessed February 1, 2011
  12. ^"VCL Cluster Platform". mosix.cs.huji.ac.il.
  13. ^"25-GPU cluster cracks every standard Windows password in <6 hours". 2012.
  14. ^"EFF DES Cracker machine brings honesty to crypto debate". EFF. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  15. ^BiddleMay 11 2017, Sam BiddleSam; P.m, 2:57. "NYU Accidentally Exposed Military Code-breaking Computer Project to Entire Internet". The Intercept.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^"announce - [openwall-announce] John the Ripper 1.9.0-jumbo-1". www.openwall.com.
  17. ^"Bcrypt password cracking extremely slow? Not if you are using hundreds of FPGAs!". Medium. September 8, 2020.
  18. ^Managing Network Security. Fred Cohen & Associates. All.net. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  19. ^Yan, J.; Blackwell, A.; Anderson, R.; Grant, A. (2004). "Password Memorability and Security: Empirical Results"(PDF). IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine. 2 (5): 25. doi:10.1109/MSP.2004.81. S2CID 206485325.
  20. ^Steinberg, Joseph (April 21, 2015). "New Technology Cracks 'Strong' Passwords – What You Need To Know". Forbes.
  21. ^"CERT IN-98.03". Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  22. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices"(PDF).
  23. ^"NATO Hack Attack". Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  24. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90,000 Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". July 11, 2011.
  25. ^"Military Password Analysis". July 12, 2011.
  26. ^"Microsoft's Hotmail Bans 123456". Imperva. July 18, 2011. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012.
  27. ^"Ashley Madison: Hackers Dump Stolen Dating Site Data". www.bankinfosecurity.com. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  28. ^"Researchers Crack 11 Million Ashley Madison Passwords". www.bankinfosecurity.com. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  29. ^Singer, Abe (November 2001). "No Plaintext Passwords"(PDF). Login. 26 (7): 83–91. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 24, 2006.
  30. ^Cryptanalysis of Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. Schneier.com (July 7, 2011). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  31. ^Grassi, Paul A (June 2017). "SP 800-63B-3 – Digital Identity Guidelines, Authentication and Lifecycle Management". NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63b.
  32. ^A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme. Usenix.org (March 13, 2002). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  33. ^MDCrack FAQ 1.8. None. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  34. ^Password Protection for Modern Operating Systems. Usenix.org. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  35. ^"Password Hashing Competition". Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  36. ^"NIST SP800-63B Section 5.1.1.2"(PDF). nvlpubs.nist.gov.
  37. ^"Top 10 Password Crackers". Sectools. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
  38. ^"Stay Secure: See How Password Crackers Work - Keeper Blog". Keeper Security Blog - Cybersecurity News & Product Updates. September 28, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  39. ^Anderson, Nate (March 24, 2013). "How I became a password cracker: Cracking passwords is officially a "script kiddie" activity now". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 24, 2013.

External links[edit]

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Brilliant Ways Hackers Crack Passwords & How to Avoid Weak Passwords

Image via: Wikimedia Commons

You would think that a large software corporation like Citrix would have a more complex network password than CompanyName123—especially one that offers secure, mobile workspaces. But even Citrix is vulnerable to weak passwords, as they experienced recently during a content management system breach when a hacker used the login credentials: [email protected] and Citrix123. Time and time again, companies that should know better will still use weak passwords, making it easy for hackers to access valuable corporate information. We’ll help you understand how hackers crack passwords and what you can do to avoid weak passwords.

So how do hackers crack passwords? Citrix123 uses length (9 characters) and some complexity (uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and numbers), but it was still a weak enough password that hackers were able to crack it.

In a conversation with Dan Featherman, a Senior Security Consultant and member of LMG’s Penetration Testing Team, we discussed how hackers crack passwords and what makes a weak versus a strong password. We also discussed the three most common methods of cracking passwords: dictionary attacks, brute force attacks, and masked attacks.

How Do They Crack Passwords?

There are many open source, pre-built password crackers that are freely available for use. John the Ripper is one of the most popular password testing and cracking programs. It combines a number of password crackers into one package, auto-detects password hash types, and includes a customizable cracker.

Hashing, as defined by Dan:

Password hashing is the process of applying a one-way algorithm to a dataset. This process results in the creation of a unique identifier, which cannot be reversed to expose the original dataset. Hashes are of a fixed length, which is dependent on the type of hashing performed. For example, MD5 hashes are 128 bits. An MD5 hash of a 3GB movie would be 128 bits, just as an MD5 hash of a simple text file would be 128 bits.”

One of the most common modes that John the Ripper uses is a dictionary attack, which takes a list of dictionary words (wordlists) to try to crack passwords. There are multitudes of wordlists available, each containing millions of words, and many are free to use. These wordlists can be also altered by rule sets, which, for example, replace a with or e with 3. Some of these mangled wordlists are already built into John the Ripper. Using real words from the dictionary in your passwords, therefore, is low hanging fruit for hackers.

Brute force attacks use the most well-known method of cracking passwords. These attacks cycle through the alphabet, numbers, and special characters one character at a time, trying all combinations and increasing the length until the password is found. This attack is extremely fast at cracking short passwords, but exponentially slower as the length increases.

Masked attacks use the same method as brute force attacks, but are more specific. A hacker can obtain password policies, such as the password requirements and limitations, or your common password habits and use that information to their advantage. If a policy requires a password between 2 – 8 characters and at least one uppercase, then a hacker could mask (set a customized rule for) the first character as an uppercase, which is the most common place that people will place the required uppercase letter, and mask the length between 2 – 8 characters. This greatly reduces the time and energy it takes to crack a password.

The password crackers used in dictionary attacks, brute force attacks, and masked attacks require computers that can process as much data as possible, as fast as possible. The results are machines that are heavily laden with video cards and superior CPUs, which come at a high electricity cost and, if not properly set up, can overheat easily. To avoid building costly password cracking computers, password hackers have taken to the cloud to outsource the required infrastructure, using what is aptly called cloud crackers. Password cracking using cloud computing is increasingly becoming more popular among hacker groups.

Hackers can use several other methods to steal passwords, including, but not limited to the following:

  • Resetting your password by using your password reset questions; a hacker can easily find your birth city, mother’s maiden name, name of your first pet, etc.
  • Checking if you reused passwords over multiple accounts
  • Keylogger software
  • Remote administration tool, to see the screen and what is going on, usually contains keylogger software as well
  • Wi-Fi traffic monitoring
  • Phishing attacks
  • Social engineering
  • Offline hacking

What Makes a Password Weak?

A short, non-complex password with personal meaning is extremely easy to crack. Hackers will take any/all of your personal information to try to crack your password. Weak passwords contain personal information that is easily found through open source intelligence, such as social media, court filings, real estate, education information, or any information that is publicly accessible. Hackers will weed through this seemingly non-threatening data to gain access to more important information.

Other common password weaknesses include:

  • Default passwords
  • Under 8 characters
  • No complexity: lack of numbers, special characters, or uppercase letters
  • Common passwords: Password, Passw0rd, 123456, 11111, abc123, letmein, welcome, money, God, love, Jesus
  • Reusing passwords for different logins
  • Common names, phrases, and pop-culture references
  • Reusing the username as the password
  • Keyboard pattern and swipes (123456, qwerty)
  • Dictionary words, even with h4x0r/1337 language (numbers and symbols) mixed in or common misspellings
  • 2 or 4 digit numbers at the beginning or end, especially co-relating to the current year, your birth day/month/year, or age
  • Using ! or ? as the special character and placing it at the end
  • Bad distribution (abcd1234, qwerty123456)
  • Poor/obvious security question and answer
  • Starting with an uppercase letter followed by a lowercase letter

How to avoid weak passwords – be strong!

There is a balance between creativity, complexity, length, memory, and protocol that has to be upheld in order to form a strong password. If password protocol limits the length or characters available, then the password must be creative, random, and complex to be as strong as possible. Merely replacing every vowel with its h4x0r language cousin is no harder to crack than replacing just one vowel, but using one special character or number helps to avoid weak passwords more than not using one at all.

Strong passwords contain:

  • Length: 8 characters is the standard recommendation, but 14+ characters is becoming the new standard
  • Complexity: use uppercase, lowercase, numbers, and special characters
  • Non-English characters, i.e. ü, ñ, ç, when possible
  • Spaces, when possible
  • No personal information
  • No dictionary words or common misspellings
  • No predictable habits, such as if all passwords use identical formats: WebsiteName+currentyear or [email protected][email protected]
  • Randomness
  • Shortening words and phrases to acronyms and adding complexity: ilovesecurity can become ilrasausp (I love reading about security and using strong passwords) and then [email protected]&us1n6Spw, which now has length, complexity, and no personal information or dictionary words

A strong password isn’t just about the technical approach, but also where you store it, where you type it in, or who is passing it around. Many companies adopt a Clean Desk Policy that removes sticky notes from monitors or pieces of paper in desk drawers, which is where employees most commonly write down and store passwords. Passwords can be passed around in email threads too. Also, be cautious of emails that ask to reset your password with a provided URL link, as they may be well-duplicated fake emails sent from hackers with fake websites.

After reviewing strong versus weak passwords and how hackers crack passwords, it’s clear that Citrix123 is a weak password for a combination of reasons. No password is absolutely invulnerable against hackers, but personally adopting a strong password policy can deter them and their computers from accessing that one account, which can easily snowball into accessing your bank or health insurance account. If you have any questions or comments about what you can do to strengthen your password, contact us at [email protected]

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